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Imperialism For Web Posting

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The age of imperialism
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Imperialism For Web Posting

  1. 3. Why did these countries want colonies? (there are 6 reasons)
  2. 4. 1) National Security In order to remain a strong country, Imperialists believed: 1) needed to have a strong industrial economy 2) needed to have a steady supply of raw materials for the industrial economy 3) Needed to have a strong military to protect the economic interests
  3. 6. 2) Strategic Advantage Imperialist countries did not want other countries to get ahead of them
  4. 7. Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun, and they have not. Hilaire Belloc Hilaire Belloc Hilaire Belloc Hilaire Belloc
  5. 8. 3) Nationalism People felt proud when their country ruled a larger empire
  6. 9. Thomas Jones Barker, The Secret of England’s Greatness (1863)
  7. 10. 4) Social Darwinism Based on racism: - Europeans believed they were better than the people they colonized/ruled - They believed this made if OK for them to rule other people
  8. 11. Sir Robert Clive’s Family with Their Indian Maid with Their Indian Maid Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1765
  9. 12. “survival of the fittest” <ul><li>writing 2 years before Darwin’s Origin of Species, Spencer began the ethical argument later called Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>not only was it often the case that might triumphed, it was “according to nature,” thus right </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans were “fitter,” their military successes proved it </li></ul><ul><li>therefore it was right and just for them to rule over “backward” colonial subjects </li></ul>Herbert Spencer
  10. 13. 5) Missionary Impulse - People from European countries wanted to spread their religion to people in other parts of the world - They also wanted to bring modern inventions and technology to these people to make their lives better
  11. 14. jingoism and overseas adventures <ul><li>popular interest in faraway places was stoked by the press </li></ul><ul><li>another source was missionary activity in an age when Sunday attendance was much higher than today </li></ul><ul><li>when “exotic savages” killed “civilized emissaries” there was tremendous popular pressure on government to avenge them </li></ul>Gordon’s death, 1885
  12. 15. 6) Industrial Economies - Europeans wanted to get the raw materials from colonies - They also wanted to take advantage of cheap labor from the natives in the colonies -sell your finished manufactured products to those colonial people
  13. 16. To summarize
  14. 17. To Summarize
  15. 19. What happened to the people dominated by the European powers? 1) traditional economies were replaced with European manufactured goods 2) slavery was ended (slaves sold to other countries) but economic/social still existed
  16. 20. So what did it end up looking like? - As imperial powers spread to other lands, they brought many of their scientific and liberal ideas with them. Some people embraced these ideas and used them to their advantage
  17. 21. So what did it end up looking like? In Africa elite men and women educated in Western-styled schools became leaders in African anti-colonial and nationalist mov’ts of the twentieth century (educate them, they start thinking for themselves, backfires on the mother country)
  18. 22. So what did it end up looking like? Others embraced liberal ideas in some areas like military and industry while rejecting democracy
  19. 23. So what did it end up looking like? Sometimes, disagreements over how to react to this Western hegemony (good word, heh?) led to rifts within their communities. Some Muslim leaders were torn apart on how to deal with Western intrusion, causing debates within Islam that can still be felt today
  20. 24. More Visuals
  21. 27. The Scramble for Africa
  22. 28. <ul><li>The essential point in dealing with Africans is to establish a respect for the European. Upon this---the prestige of the white man---depends his influence, often his very existence, in Africa. If he shows by his surroundings, by his assumption of superiority, that he is far above the native, he will be respected, and his influence will be proportionate to the superiority he assumes and bears out by his higher accomplishments and mode of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire, 1893. vol. II, p.74 </li></ul>
  23. 29. Africa, the Dark Continent DR. LIVINGSTONE I presume! STANLEY Livingstone and Stanley discover the head of the Nile River- great adventurers of the day
  24. 30. Still!
  25. 37. The Scramble for Africa 1870-1914 1870-1914 Rhodes Colossus Punch Cecil Rhodes was British businessman who made a fortune in African mining operations.
  26. 38. Cecil Rhodes He was an ardent believer in imperialism and colonialism. He is a great example of the way people thought about taking over other countries.
  27. 39. Cecil Rhodes He founded the country of Rhodesia (today Zambia and Zimbawa) This is where the Rhodes scholarship originates
  28. 40. Zulu! Between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire . F rom complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region . The war e nded the Zulu nation's independence. 1879
  29. 41. Africa was partitioned in 1884 by German Chancellor Otto von Bismark Different types of rule by the European countries: indirect (British style)- they ruled through existing local officials and rulers. Kept local traditions but British made all the decisions direct (French style) French governor for each colony. Top officials were French
  30. 42. Rebellions and Independence Ethopia- ruler Menelik II 1884-1913- he modernized the country
  31. 43. Rebellions and Independence rebellions in Sudan led by Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi- eventually British took over the country The tribe Asante fought British in W. Africa and lost superior weapons of Europeans
  32. 44. Zulu Land and Its Neighbors
  33. 45. Anglo-Zulu War (January-August,1879) <ul><li>complex relations between two subject peoples, the Zulus and the Boers (white Africans) led Britain to invade Zululand </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Chelmsford unwisely divided his force (5,000 Europeans and 8,200 Africans) and the Zulu chief Cetshwayo (40,000) annihilated his central column at Isandlwana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22 January, 1,600 Europeans and 2,500 Africans were overrun and massacred by 20,000 Zulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 50 European enlisted men and five officers escaped, in addition to several hundred Africans who fled the battlefield before the camp was surrounded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>honor was restored to British arms by the incredible defense of Roarke’s Drift that afternoon, night, and the next day </li></ul><ul><li>shaken, Chelmsford withdrew from Zululand, reinvaded with reinforcements, and conquered Cetshwayo </li></ul>
  34. 46. Boer wars The Boer Wars were two wars fought between Britain and the two independent Boer re publ ics, the Orange Free State and the So uth African Republic (Tran svaal Republic). The B oer War lasted three years and was very bloody. The British fought directly against the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The bloodshed that was seen during the war was alarming. Two of the factors that contributed to this were: First, many of the British soldiers were physically unprepared for the environment and poorly trained for the tactical conditions they faced. As a result, British losses were high as a result of both disease and combat. Second, the policies of &quot; scorched earth &quot; and civilian internment (concentra tion camps) ra vaged the civilian populations in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
  35. 47. During the late nineteenth century, Africa was colonized and controlled by : 1) England and Russia 2) many European countries 3) France 4) Muslim traders
  36. 48. Which of the following was not a reason that European countries sought control of African land? 1) desire for natural resources and markets 2) desire to convert natives to Christianity 3)to gain power over other European countries 4) to learn about new cultures
  37. 49. Which of the following was not a reason for European expansion during the Age of Imperialism <ul><li>1) zeal to spread Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>2) desire for slaves </li></ul><ul><li>3) need for markets and raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>4) drive to increase national prestige </li></ul>
  38. 50. The Scramble/Race for Africa <ul><li>The competition between European powers to carve up and control Africa changed the international landscape considerably. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about : how is that reflected today? What happens in our current news that can be a result of those original imperialist actions? </li></ul>
  39. 51. The Scramble/Race for Africa <ul><li>Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 : revolutionized international cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>The powers of Europe negotiated boundaries through the continent of Africa with complete disregard for any cultural, linguistic, or political boundaries that already existed. </li></ul><ul><li>the result : sometimes you got countries made up of political or cultural enemies </li></ul>
  40. 52. The Scramble/Race for Africa <ul><li>Some areas benefits from this imperialistic take over </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas did not benefit from this imperialistic take over </li></ul><ul><li>* no more slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>* Western style education </li></ul><ul><li>*new communication/transportation/sanitation systems </li></ul><ul><li>*spread of Christianity </li></ul>
  41. 53. The Scramble/Race for Africa <ul><li>Some areas did not benefit from this imperialistic take over </li></ul><ul><li>Not everything was pretty </li></ul><ul><li>* disrupt traditional industries </li></ul><ul><li>* disrupt traditional cultures </li></ul><ul><li>* disrupt or cause war between traditional enemies now often forced to live in the same area </li></ul>This destructiveness was especially brutal in Belgian controlled Congo
  42. 54. The Horror of the Belgian Congo
  43. 55. The Belgian Congo
  44. 56. The Belgian Congo
  45. 57. The Belgian Congo
  46. 58. The Belgian Congo A wealthy colony for Belgium Lots of rubber, copper, and palm oil for export
  47. 59. The Belgian Congo The Belgian congo became an independent nation in 1960. After a series of political protests and rebellion a dictator/leader emerged Mobutu Sese Seko He renames the Democratic Republic of Congo to Zaire ruled 1965-1997
  48. 60. When We Were Kings The world famous boxing match between Muhammed Ali and George Foreman held in Zaire in 1974
  49. 61. When We Were Kings The world famous boxing match between Muhammed Ali and George Foreman held in Zaire in 1974
  50. 62. INDIA
  51. 63. The Terms To Know <ul><ul><ul><li>Colony - territory ruled directly by an imperialist power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protectorate - a country whose foreign policy is controlled by an outside gov’t. It is a territory that has its own gov’t but it is guided by a foreign power. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere of Influence - region where an imperialist power possesses exclusive trading rights but does not govern it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 64. India You will need a separate piece of paper - for an India anagram
  53. 65. <ul><li>East India Trading Company ruled 1600 esp 1757--1857 </li></ul><ul><li>British founded universities in major Indian cities (1857) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Rebellion (1857-1859) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Victoria of Great Britain takes the title of Empress of India (1876) </li></ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress formed (1885) </li></ul><ul><li>Partition of Bengal (1905) </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi begins his campaign of satyagraha (1907) </li></ul><ul><li>Bal Gangdhar Tilak addresses the Indian National Congress and calls for Home Rule (1908) </li></ul><ul><li>1947 Partitioning of India- End of British rule </li></ul>India
  54. 67. the Honourable East India Company (HEIC)1600-1858 largest, wealthiest company in the world had the largest private army in the world
  55. 68. <ul><li>c hartered as a joint-stock company by Queen Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>fought and schemed against France, Portugal and the Dutch East Indies Company during the next 250 years </li></ul><ul><li>General Robert Clive & the Battle of Plassey, 1757 (secured HEIC control over central India) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sepoy system - using Indians as local militia commanders. Often educated in English schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dual government, indirect rule, and famines </li></ul><ul><li>respect for Hinduism </li></ul>the Honourable East India Company (HEIC)1600-1858
  56. 69. Growth of the British East India Company (1765-1857)
  57. 73. <ul><li>February, 1857, the 19th Bengal Native Infantry gets a new weapon </li></ul><ul><li>“ the demon of communalism” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu vs Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beef tallow or hog grease? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the sepoy system </li></ul><ul><li>Enfield Rifle, Model 1853 </li></ul><ul><li>Pandey’s defiance </li></ul><ul><li>8 April, Pandey hanged </li></ul>India’s First War for Independence Sepoy Rebellion 1857
  58. 74. India’s First War for Independence Sepoy Rebellion 1857
  59. 75. Sepoy Mutiny or India’s First War for Independence? <ul><ul><li>80% of the British forces which put down the rebellion were Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many of the local rulers fought amongst themselves rather than uniting against the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many rebel sepoy regiments disbanded and went home rather than fight against the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the revolt was largely limited to north and central India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the revolt was fractured along religious, ethnic and regional lines </li></ul></ul>
  61. 78. An Act for the Better Government of India (1858) <ul><li>decided to liquidate the British East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Company’s territories in India shall vest in Her Majesty….India will be governed in the name of the Queen.” </li></ul><ul><li>the Crown was empowered to appoint the Governor General for India </li></ul><ul><li>the act also provided for the creation of the Indian Civil Service </li></ul>The Raj “brightest jewel in the imperial crown” “ brightest jewel in the imperial crown”
  63. 80. Queen Victoria of England takes over rule of India 1876 Proclaimed the Empress of India
  64. 81. Queen Victoria in India
  65. 83. British Colonial Life In India
  66. 88. The Rise of Indian Nationalism
  67. 89. The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 Founded because of food shortages the goal of the mov’t was “swaraj” which means independence
  68. 90. The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 the founder: Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
  69. 91. The Indian National Congress split when the Muslim League wanted more of their own ideas to be honored. 1905 Bengal was partitioned off to honor Muslim religion and culture
  70. 97. The End of the “Raj” 1947
  71. 100. The Indian National Congress another important leader: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
  72. 101. Responses to Imperialism First - a phone survey to check your knowledge...
  73. 103. Ottoman Empire in Age of Imperialism
  74. 104. End Of The Ottoman Empire
  75. 105. End Of The Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Challenges to the Ottoman Empire: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>European imperialism began to play a strong role in the break up of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman rulers began acting more Western than Middle Eastern </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman-ruled regions began nationalist movements </li></ul>
  76. 106. Challenges to The Ottoman Empire First, Turkey
  77. 107. End Of The Ottoman Empire The Young Turks (ca 1909) Arab nationalist group that wanted to end western influence in the empire Took over the empire and ruled harshly The Ottoman empire was officially dissolved after WWI (1919), when its ally, Germany, was defeated. Country of Turkey is born. the beginnings of the nation Turkey
  78. 108. End Of The Ottoman Empire Later it become the nation of ..... Turkey
  79. 109. The Republic of Turkey <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kemal Ataturk threw out the Greeks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“father of the turks” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ataturk determined to make Turkey a modern state </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  80. 110. The Republic of Turkey <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ataturk’s Reforms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Western style clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Secular public schools </li></ul>supported by Nationalists...Opposed by many Muslims
  81. 111. The Republic of Turkey 5:41 Secular v Sacred Turkish Identity
  82. 112. Egypt
  83. 113. End Of The Ottoman Empire- Egypt <ul><li>The empire began breaking into numerous -independent states around the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Those states were then put under the control of European countries </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Egypt- Great Britain </li></ul>
  84. 114. End Of The Ottoman Empire- Egypt Britain and France fought to gain control of Egypt They wanted control of the Suez Canal Links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
  85. 115. End Of The Ottoman Empire- Egypt Ottoman governor of Egypt (1805-49) Goal: Modernize Egypt, minimize foreign influence Reforms: Improved tax collection Reorganized landholding Introduced cotton as cash crop Improved irrigation Western-style army Results: Increased participation in world trade Conquered Arabia, Syria, Sudan Muhammed Ali
  86. 116. End Of The Ottoman Empire- Egypt Ruled 1863-1879 Less competent than his grandfather, Muhammad Ali. Continued many of his grandfather’s reforms, trying to make Egypt a modern state. Rebuilt Cairo on the model of Paris. Built railroads to provide transportation. Patronized opera and theater. Encouraged newspaper and modern communication. Tried to conquer Ethiopia Results: Europeans invest money in Egypt. But lavish lifestyle lands him in debt. ISMAIL PASHA
  87. 117. End Of The Ottoman Empire- Egypt French engineers Ferdinand de Lesseps built Suez Canal . Canal begun in 1859 and opened in 1869. 100 miles long. It connects the Med. Sea to the Red Sea. Egypt and France each owned shares . Egypt’s ruler Ismail hoped money from the canal would get him out of debt. Instead he sank deeper into debt; Britain bought his shares in 1875. Who does it benefit most? Suez Canal
  88. 118. Nationalism Increases <ul><li>Growing nationalist feeling against foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>France and Britain controlled economy </li></ul><ul><li>In 1879, Britain forces Ismail’s removal </li></ul><ul><li>1882: Nationalist revolt attacks Europeans in Cairo </li></ul><ul><li>Britain responds by sending an army </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt made a protectorate of Great Britain </li></ul>
  89. 119. White Man’s Burden An Examination of Ruyard Kipling’s poetry
  90. 120. White Man’s Burden An Examination of Ruyard Kipling’s poetry Written to the other white men- the Americans - asks them to take up the White Man’s Burden and carry on the ways of imperialism when they took over the Philippines
  91. 121. Ruyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) was a British author and poet best known for his short stories, children's books, and a number of poems and essays that reflected the values of empire. Kipling won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1906; among his most famous works are The Jungle Book , Kim , and Just-So Stories . In 1899, Rudyard Kipling penned a poem that urged the United States to join Great Britain in its imperial pursuits, and to take up the &quot;white man's burden&quot; by helping to civilize supposedly primitive societies through imperial conquest.
  92. 122. Ruyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden Take up the White Man’s burden send forth the best ye breed Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ needs This poem captures the late British Victorian era’s sense of noblisse oblige , Social Darwinism, and racism as seen in British imperialism He rewrote this poem to convince America to join other imperialist powers in la Mission Civilisatrice He wrote the Jungle Book
  93. 123. White Man’s Burden An Examination of Ruyard Kipling’s poetry www.sascurriculum pathways .com student user: Rock7seem launch 598 with a partner try to translate as many lines as possible- what did Ruyard Kipling mean?
  94. 124. U.S. enters the imperialism game...they did enter a little late
  95. 125. U.S. Imperialism
  96. 126. U.S. Imperialism - 1890s the US has emerged from the civil war - late to industrial revolution but exploding with factories, industrial growth, cheap labor (massive immigration to the US in the late 1880s) - like other European powers, looking for markets to sell their goods to - like other European powers, looking for prestige and to secure place in the global trade
  97. 127. U.S. Imperialism We enter into the Spanish American War of 1898
  98. 128. U.S. Imperialism Spain owns Cuba and the Philippines No European country owns Hawaii (except for those pesky Hawaiians) and American pineapple producers (like Mr. Dole- Dole as in bananas....) have lots of money invested there. We take over Hawaii. (it makes a nice refueling point across the Pacific)
  99. 129. U.S. Imperialism - Cuba is a Spanish colony - the locals, under poet Jose Marti, cry for independence and freedom - that sounds good to the US - after all we fought a revolution for the same thing - also, 90% of the sugar output from Cuba comes from Americans who own plantations there - the US calls for Cuba’s freedom
  100. 130. U.S. Imperialism Remember the Maine! - USS Maine- an American ship in harbor of Cuba - mysteriously sinks (later it is determined it was a coal explosion in the ship’s hold) - US blames Spanish terrorists in Cuba and uses as excuse to declare war on Spanish colonies (Cuba, Philippines)
  101. 131. U.S. Imperialism - We declare war on Spain but the first battle occurs in Spanish colony of the Philippines (we happened to be in the neighborhood at the time) - We take the main city of Manilla within hours, no injuries. We’ve freed the Filipinos -except not: it is a good refueling place for trade with the east (China, Japan) - We end up fighting the Filipinos ourselves and occupying the islands until 1946. - They aren’t completely independent until 1946 (after they served their use for us in WWII)
  102. 132. U.S. Imperialism Philippine Insurrection
  103. 133. U.S. Imperialism By 1900 the “splendid little war” of the Spanish-American War of 1898 is over. Americans own: * Cuba (it is a protectorate) * Puerto Rico (protectorate) * Guam (colony?) * Philippines (it is a colony) * Hawaii (it is a protectorate) * Panama Canal land (makes a handy shortcut from the US east coast to the Pacific - no need to go around South America anymore) * Samoa (colony)
  104. 136. Japan
  105. 137. Japan Tokugawa Shogunate 1600-1858 <ul><li>Power in the hands of the Shogun (military ruler) </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Closed country policy </li></ul><ul><li>Era of peace and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Strains showing by 1853 </li></ul>
  106. 138. Japan Challenge: The Black Ships <ul><li>Matthew Perry’s fleet arrives 1853 </li></ul><ul><li>US threatens violence if Japan does not open to trade </li></ul><ul><li>They had seen what happened to China </li></ul>
  107. 139. Japan Treaty of Kanagawa 1854 <ul><li>First in series of unequal treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Japan opened to trade, Western influence </li></ul><ul><li>Extraterritoriality- foreigners are exempt from local laws </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa shogunate “lost face”- discontent grows </li></ul>
  108. 140. Japan Meji Reforms 1868-1912
  109. 141. Japan Meji Restoration <ul><li>Japan’s civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution overthrew Tokugawa family </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Meiji (enlightened ruler) takes direct power </li></ul><ul><li>Moves capitol to Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Series of reforms </li></ul>
  110. 142. Japan
  111. 143. Japan
  112. 144. China
  113. 145. China
  114. 146. China Goal : Britain wants to negotiate favorable balance of trade with China Chinese Exports: porcelain, silk, tea. Chinese imports ; Silver All trade had to be conducted through city of Canton Britain wants China to allow importation of British manufactured goods Qianlong Emperor refuses “we already posses all things”
  115. 147. China Grown by British East India Co. in India, smuggled illegally into China Highly addictive drug made from poppy sap; related to morphine Chinese imports 1730: 15 tons 1773: 75 tons 1820: 900 tons Chinese paid for opium in silver which British then used to buy tea Result: Increasing addiction More silver flowing out of China than in Opium
  116. 148. China England’s advanced technology allowed the British fleet to make relatively quick work of the Chinese warships Opium Wars 1839-1842
  117. 149. China <ul><li>First in a series of unequal treaties between China and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ended the Opium War with British victory </li></ul><ul><li>China pays Britain lots of silver (indemnity) </li></ul><ul><li>Five ports open to European trade </li></ul><ul><li>Britain gets island of Hong Kong (until 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraterritoriality is a blow to Chinese sovereignty </li></ul>Treaty of Nanjing 1842
  118. 150. China Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864
  119. 151. China Spheres of Influence
  120. 152. China Reforms Efforts <ul><li>Confucian scholars saw Western ideas as threat to Chinese social stability, authority </li></ul><ul><li>Official gov’t policy swings back and forth between reform and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased foreign presence provokes nationalist uprising: Boxer Rebellion </li></ul>
  121. 153. China Boxer Rebellion <ul><li>Anti-foreign uprising </li></ul><ul><li>Failed - Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan, US, Italy, Austria unite to crush uprising, protect their spheres of influence, invade Beijing in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Qing forced to send Chinese abroad to study Western ways </li></ul>
  122. 154. Open Door Notes US demands that China open its trade to America (since the other countries were already there) US Secretary of State John Hay created this policy
  123. 155. China What Happens Next?
  124. 156. China <ul><li>educated in the US (lived in Hawaii for a while) </li></ul><ul><li>lived in London </li></ul><ul><li>creates Chinese Revolutionaries Alliance based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism: throw out foreigners, unite Chinese ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy: representative government </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood: economic self sufficiency </li></ul>Sun Yixian 1911 Nationalists overthrow Qing dynasty, establish Chinepublic w/ Sun Yixian as president

Editor's Notes

  • • No better image of the queen&apos;s place in the domestic and imperial imagination of England and the English is to be found than that in Thomas Jones Barker&apos;s painting The Secret of England&apos;s Greatness ( 1863 ). Here the woman in white—commanding the painting&apos;s light—presents the gift of Christianity to a bowing, exotically clothed African who is half in shadow. A domestic angel brings the foundation of English national power, the Bible, to a world elsewhere. The work of national and international home building and of cultural construction is consolidated in the image of the queen in white “saving” her black subject. In this painting we see why the period deserves its name, the Victorian age.