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Professor Chee
Lecture on Decolonization &
Neocolonialism – With the Example
of the Congo & South Africa
What is Neocolonialism?
Intrusion of foreign
economic domination, as
well as military and
political intervention, in
state...
Robert F. Kennedy in Capetown - 1966
"Each time a man stands
up for an ideal, or acts to
improve the lot of others,
or str...
What are Nationalist Movements?
Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994
"Neither imperialism nor
colonialism is a simple act of
accumulation and acquisit...
British Empire – late Nineteenth Century

Conquest of
India begins in
the 1700s

First Dutch, later the
English begin sett...
Indians in South Africa?
Gandhi Develops his political
consciousness while in South
Africa, 1893-1915
Mohandas Gandhi. Hin...
The First World War (1914-18)
o colonies became natural
extensions of tensions among
European nations
o 1 million Africans...
1925-61 Fanon

African elite
o Christian
o European educated
o Worked for European colonial
governments/companies
o Econom...
African elite
Paris – 30s -Senghor, Césaire, Damas & Negritude
Negritude – origins w Francophone African (&
Caribbean) students in Paris...
Négritude: “Blackness”
o Influence of “black is beautiful” from
USA
o Revolt against white colonial values,
reaffirmation ...
Pan-Africanism

A set of ideas and ideologies (the social, cultural, political, economic,
material, and spiritual aspects)...
Pan-Africanism
o Black advancement
o Back to Africa/separatism
o African unity in Africa
Back to Africa
Late eighteenth century or the 1700s –
African Americans (like Paul Cuffe and Prince Hall (and
later Olauda...
Sierra Leone
o 1787 – Society of
Friends & Abolition
Society
o Krio – resettled
African/British
Blacks
o 1808 became Brita...
Liberia
o Settled by the
American
Colonization Society
o Freed African
American Slaves
from the early
nineteenth century
(...
Europeanization of
the Economy
Rodney. How Europe
Underdeveloped Africa.
1973
Loss of African male
labor
African Slave Trade to be replaced by
“legitimate commerce”

Cash crops – peanuts (groundnuts), palm oil, cocoa, bananas,
...
WEB DuBois (1868-1963)
o an American Harvard Ph.D.
started the National
Association for the
Advancement of Colored
People ...
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
o a Jamaican
o Africa for the Africans
o called on people of
African heritage from
around the gl...
1937 the Government of India Act
1947 India is divided into India & Pakistan &
Gain Official Independence

The Muslim Leag...
WWII & Consequences for Africa
1. Europe fatigued &
very poor
2. US & SU became
super powers (and
begins the cold war
conf...
The cold war, 1949-1962

Conflict between two superpowers, the U.S. and the S.U. which polarized the
world into spheres of...
American Vision of the World - 1942
Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of
India, 1947-64, on Nationalism
1955 – Bandung Conference
23 Asian and 6 African ...
1957 – Ghana first African country
to gain independence
“Seek ye first the political kingdom”
o1949 - Started the Conventi...
Kwame Nkrumah leading
Independence Celebrations
Decolonization
of Africa
While the French
allowed most of their
west and equatorial
African colonies to
become independent...
Decolonization in Africa
o 19th century “scramble
for Africa” left a legacy
of colonial competition
o Internal divisions
–...
Organization of
African Unity (OAU)
• Formed 1962
• Declared boundaries
permanent
– Despite arbitrary nature,
necessary to...
Genocide in the
Belgian Congo –
King Leopold’s
Association
Internacional de
Congo
1880 - 20 million
1910 – 8.5 million
Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c.
1820
Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany)
c. 1885
King Leopold II of
Belgium
1890 – 100 tons of rubber – 60K
pounds
1896 – 1300 tons
1898 – 2000 tons
1901 – 6000 tons – 720...
King Leopold’s
Association
Africans forced to
collect rubber in
lieu of paying taxes
to the state
Villages given quotas

1...
Hands as evidence of killings, that
soldiers did not waste their bullets
Those who
didn’t pay were
flogged, killed,
and ev...
1960 - Belgian Congo Gains Independence
June 1960
oPatrice Lumumba the first
democratically elected
leader of the Democrat...
July 1960 – the province of Katanga Secedes
o with support from the
Belgian government and
mining companies such as
Union ...
Colonel Joseph Mobutu overthrew
Lumumba; Belgian officers executed
Lumumba & others – Jan 1961
o the President of Republic...
South Africa
o Apartheid (1948)
o 87% of territory for whites
o Division of Africans into
tribes, settlement in
“homelands...
System of Laws creating Apartheid
Land appropriated (taken)
from Africans for European
settlers
Passlaws – Africans, Asian...
Students Shot in Soweto Uprising - 1976
o 20K students marched
through Soweto
protesting the decree
that education was to
...
Nelson Mandela – after 27 years in Prison
1990 – released and legalized the ANC

44
1994 – First Election in South Africa
Nelson Mandela
First President from 1994-99
ANC now in power
Nelson Rolihlahla Mande...
Post-Independence Difficulties
o Civil wars in Rwanda, Burundi, Angola
o Economic hardship
o Instability of democratic reg...
Developments in Latin America
• Mexico: failed attempts to redistribute land
• Argentina: military dominate politics
– Jua...
Grace Chee
2013
Message to students:
Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare
presentations, unless it says, Profe...
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Lecture 10 decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa

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Lecture: Decolonization & Neocolonialism , with the example of the Belgian Congo & South Africa

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Lecture 10 decolonization & neocolonialism - Belgian Congo & South Africa

  1. 1. Professor Chee Lecture on Decolonization & Neocolonialism – With the Example of the Congo & South Africa
  2. 2. What is Neocolonialism? Intrusion of foreign economic domination, as well as military and political intervention, in states that have already achieved independence from colonial rule
  3. 3. Robert F. Kennedy in Capetown - 1966 "Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope... •4 years after Sharpville… •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o57dEuXj-Y
  4. 4. What are Nationalist Movements?
  5. 5. Edward Said. Culture & Imperialism. 1994 "Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of accumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notions about culture were classified, reinforced, criticised or rejected." Edward W. Said.
  6. 6. British Empire – late Nineteenth Century Conquest of India begins in the 1700s First Dutch, later the English begin settling the Cape in the 1650s
  7. 7. Indians in South Africa? Gandhi Develops his political consciousness while in South Africa, 1893-1915 Mohandas Gandhi. Hind Swaraj (Indian Self-Rule), 1909 Satyagraha or Soul Force Civil disobedience as a national policy
  8. 8. The First World War (1914-18) o colonies became natural extensions of tensions among European nations o 1 million Africans conscripted in the British army o 1.5 million Indians conscripted in the British army o preventing aggression & rights to self-determination
  9. 9. 1925-61 Fanon African elite o Christian o European educated o Worked for European colonial governments/companies o Economic, cultural, and social benefits during colonial rule o Some looked to the precolonial past for inspiration, identities based on ethnicity, religion, and languages Frantz Fanon. Black Skin, White Mask. Peau noire, masques blancs. 1953 Psychologist from Martinique, France & later, Algeria
  10. 10. African elite
  11. 11. Paris – 30s -Senghor, Césaire, Damas & Negritude Negritude – origins w Francophone African (& Caribbean) students in Paris in the 1930s “Blackness” – celebrated African culture based on emotion superior to European empiricism and scientifically driven society Léopold Senghor Senegal President (1960-80) their personal friendship also a symbolic encounter between Africa and the African Diaspora Poet Aimé Césaire from Martinique Léon Gontran Damas from Guiana, First African selected to the French Assembly (1948-51)
  12. 12. Négritude: “Blackness” o Influence of “black is beautiful” from USA o Revolt against white colonial values, reaffirmation of African civilization o Connection with socialism, Communism o Geopolitical implications 12
  13. 13. Pan-Africanism A set of ideas and ideologies (the social, cultural, political, economic, material, and spiritual aspects), uniting all Africans throughout the world. Linked by a common experience of oppression and slavery, the movement promotes negritude, or a sense of African pride, and worked towards self-determination
  14. 14. Pan-Africanism o Black advancement o Back to Africa/separatism o African unity in Africa
  15. 15. Back to Africa Late eighteenth century or the 1700s – African Americans (like Paul Cuffe and Prince Hall (and later Olaudah Equiano from the West Indies/England)) advocated for African emigration new settlements in the West African coast, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  16. 16. Sierra Leone o 1787 – Society of Friends & Abolition Society o Krio – resettled African/British Blacks o 1808 became Britain’s first West African colony
  17. 17. Liberia o Settled by the American Colonization Society o Freed African American Slaves from the early nineteenth century (1820s)
  18. 18. Europeanization of the Economy Rodney. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. 1973 Loss of African male labor
  19. 19. African Slave Trade to be replaced by “legitimate commerce” Cash crops – peanuts (groundnuts), palm oil, cocoa, bananas, Gold, firearms, alcohol
  20. 20. WEB DuBois (1868-1963) o an American Harvard Ph.D. started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909 o the organization promotes Black advancement. o He also started pan-African congresses or conferences beginning around WWI. o After the fifth pan-african congress, Nkrumah a leader from Ghana takes over
  21. 21. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) o a Jamaican o Africa for the Africans o called on people of African heritage from around the globe to return and establish a pan-African state o In the U.S., started UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Association (1920s).
  22. 22. 1937 the Government of India Act 1947 India is divided into India & Pakistan & Gain Official Independence The Muslim League started in 1906 – with British assistance – take Pakistan (Jinnah as leader) The Indian National Congress (started in 1885 leads India (Jawaharlal Nehru as leader)
  23. 23. WWII & Consequences for Africa 1. Europe fatigued & very poor 2. US & SU became super powers (and begins the cold war conflict) 3. United Nations Charter - 1945 4. Colonized Asian countries demanded independence. Africans were inspired, finding themselves on a stronger moral ground.
  24. 24. The cold war, 1949-1962 Conflict between two superpowers, the U.S. and the S.U. which polarized the world into spheres of influence for the two superpowers, along political, ideological and economic hostile lines. Both countries refrained from direct armed conflict in Europe, but not in Africa, Asia, Latin America.
  25. 25. American Vision of the World - 1942
  26. 26. Jawaharlal Nehru, First Prime Minister of India, 1947-64, on Nationalism 1955 – Bandung Conference 23 Asian and 6 African nations meet in Indonesia Jawaharlal Nehru calls for ononalignment during the Cold War, oStruggle against colonialism and racism “each country has not only the right to freedom but also to decide its own policy and way of life”
  27. 27. 1957 – Ghana first African country to gain independence “Seek ye first the political kingdom” o1949 - Started the Convention People’s Party (CPP) o1957 - won independence for Ghana (the former Gold Coast) from the British in 1957. oOusted as Ghana President in 1966 oPromoted Negritude—a pride in African traditions oLed the Organization of African Unity from 1961+ (which eventually becomes the African Union. Kwame Nkrumah First President
  28. 28. Kwame Nkrumah leading Independence Celebrations
  29. 29. Decolonization of Africa While the French allowed most of their west and equatorial African colonies to become independent, including thirteen alone in 1960 (“the year of Africa”), they fought tenaciously to maintain control over Algeria
  30. 30. Decolonization in Africa o 19th century “scramble for Africa” left a legacy of colonial competition o Internal divisions – Ethnic – Linguistic – religious 30
  31. 31. Organization of African Unity (OAU) • Formed 1962 • Declared boundaries permanent – Despite arbitrary nature, necessary to forestall conflicts • Promotion of PanAfricanism • Failure to prevent ethnic strife, even Nkrumah deposed 1966 31
  32. 32. Genocide in the Belgian Congo – King Leopold’s Association Internacional de Congo 1880 - 20 million 1910 – 8.5 million
  33. 33. Invention of Bicycles – Baden, (Germany) c. 1820
  34. 34. Invention of cars – Benz model, (Germany) c. 1885
  35. 35. King Leopold II of Belgium 1890 – 100 tons of rubber – 60K pounds 1896 – 1300 tons 1898 – 2000 tons 1901 – 6000 tons – 720K pounds Fondation de la Couronne donated 2.4 million pounds for Belgian public works projects
  36. 36. King Leopold’s Association Africans forced to collect rubber in lieu of paying taxes to the state Villages given quotas 1906 Punch political cartoon
  37. 37. Hands as evidence of killings, that soldiers did not waste their bullets Those who didn’t pay were flogged, killed, and eventually hands cut off
  38. 38. 1960 - Belgian Congo Gains Independence June 1960 oPatrice Lumumba the first democratically elected leader of the Democratic Republic of Congo, becomes Prime Minister omakes a speech on independence that offends the Belgian king
  39. 39. July 1960 – the province of Katanga Secedes o with support from the Belgian government and mining companies such as Union Minière, and 6000 troops o copper, gold and uranium, the richest and most developed areas of the Congo
  40. 40. Colonel Joseph Mobutu overthrew Lumumba; Belgian officers executed Lumumba & others – Jan 1961 o the President of Republic of the Congo, from 1965 – 1997 o Supported by Belgium & the US o Mobutu renamed DRC, Zaire in 1971 o Why is this problematic?
  41. 41. South Africa o Apartheid (1948) o 87% of territory for whites o Division of Africans into tribes, settlement in “homelands” o African National Congress publishes Freedom Charter (1955) o Repression of ANC causes worldwide ostracism of SA 41
  42. 42. System of Laws creating Apartheid Land appropriated (taken) from Africans for European settlers Passlaws – Africans, Asians, “Coloreds” Creation of townships African nationalists jailed
  43. 43. Students Shot in Soweto Uprising - 1976 o 20K students marched through Soweto protesting the decree that education was to be in Afrikaans o Nearly 200 kids killed 43
  44. 44. Nelson Mandela – after 27 years in Prison 1990 – released and legalized the ANC 44
  45. 45. 1994 – First Election in South Africa Nelson Mandela First President from 1994-99 ANC now in power Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, “Inauguration Speech, 1994” Begins slow dismantling of Apartheid
  46. 46. Post-Independence Difficulties o Civil wars in Rwanda, Burundi, Angola o Economic hardship o Instability of democratic regimes 46
  47. 47. Developments in Latin America • Mexico: failed attempts to redistribute land • Argentina: military dominate politics – Juan Perón (1895-1974) elected president, 1946 – Wife Eva (Evita) especially popular (1919-1952) • Guatemala and Nicaragua: US intervention as local governments attempt to control US economic interests • Under Reagan, US supports anti-communist Contra forces 47
  48. 48. Grace Chee 2013 Message to students: Professor Chee does not endorse other slideshare presentations, unless it says, Professor Chee (because I have not had a chance to review them). You may want to read your primary sources, textbook, and other readings/videos on Etudes modules

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