1.) Data is any quantitative or qualitative information.
a.) Quantitative data refers to numerical information
obtained from counting or measuring that which be
manipulated by any fundamental operation.
age, I.Q. scores, height, weight, income
b.) Qualitative data refers to descriptive attributes that
cannot be subjected to mathematical operations.
gender, citizenship, educational attainment, religion
2.) Population refers to the totality of all the elements or
persons for which one has an interest at a particular
For example, the members of the faculty of a school, the
graduating class, the Visayan-speaking employees of a
company, the male students, etc. A particular variable of
a population can be associated to the population.
A researcher may associate a population to the ages of
graduating students,, the I.Q. scores of the employees,
the income of single parent, and so on. The usual notation
for population is N.
3.) Sample is a part of population determined by
sampling procedures. It is usually denoted by n.
4.) Parameter is any statistical information or attribute
taken from a population. It is a true value or actual
statistics since its source is the population itself.
5.) Statistic is any estimate of statistical attributes taken
from a sample.
6.) Variable is a specific factor, property, or characteristic
of a population or a sample which differentiates a sample
or group of samples from another group.
For example, the score obtained from a coeducation class
may differ by gender. Hence, gender is considered
variable. In a catholic congregation, religion cannot be
considered a variable since every member the population
a.) Discrete variable is a variable that can be obtained by
counting. Examples: the number of cellphone users in a
company, the number of computers in the laboratory.
b.) Continues variable is a variable that can be obtained
by measuring objects or attributes. Examples: the weight
of students, the temperature in a city over a period of
time, the area of classrooms.
Statistics is a branch of Mathematics that deals with
the scientific collection, organization, presentation,
analysis, and interpretation of numerical data in order
to obtain useful and meaningful information.
Collection of data refers to the process of
Organization of data refers to the ascertaining
manner of presenting the data into tables,
graphs, or charts so that logical and statistical
conclusions can be drawn from the collected
Analysis of data refers to the process of
information from which numerical description
can be formulated.
Interpretation of data refers to the task of
drawing conclusions from the analyzed data.
1.) Descriptive Statistics
The branch of statistics that focuses on
collecting, summarizing, and presenting a set of
a.) The average age of citizens who voted for the
winning candidate in the last presidential
b.) The average length of all books about
2.) Inferential Statistics
The branch of Statistics that analyzes sample
data to draw conclusions about a population.
a.) For instance, suppose a survey group wants to know
the prevailing sentiments among Filipino people on a
certain issue. Asking every Filipino to answer a
questionnaire would be impossible. It is expensive, timeconsuming, and impractical. Instead, a small part of the
entire population is scientifically chosen. The data
gathered from this group is used to draw a general
opinion of the entire population.
b.) A survey that sampled 2001 full or part-time workers
ages 50 to 70, conducted by the American Association of
Retired Persons (AARP), discovered that 70% those
polled planned to work past the traditional mid-60s
retirement age. By using inferential statistics, this
statistics could be used to draw conclusions about the
population of all workers ages 50 to 70.
* In biblical times, the census was undertaken by Moses
in 1491 B.C. and by David in 1017 B.C..
* Indian literature dating back to the reign of the
northern Hindustan King Asoka (270-230 B.C.) also
described methods of taking census.
Close to 7th
King Asoka of
* The Athenians and other ancient Greeks conducted the
census in times of stress, counting the adult male
citizens in war time and the general populace every time
the food supply was endangered.
* The sixth king of Rome, Servinus Tullius (578-534 B.C.)
was given credit for instituting the gathering of
c. 578 – 535 BC
* Two thousand years ago, each male in the Roman
Empire had to return to the city of his birth to be counted
and taxed. Thus, the Bible gives an account of the return
of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem for such purpose, (The
Holy Bible, Luke 2: 4-5).
* In the Middle Ages, registrations of land ownership and
manpower for wars were made.
* In the thirteenth century, tax lists of Paris included the
registration of those who were subjected to tax.
* In England, William the Conqueror
compilation of information on population and resources.
The compilation “The Domesday Book” is the first
landmark in British statistics. Later on, the need to
register births, deaths, baptisms, and marriages was
reinforced as the population grew bigger.
Born: 1028, Château de
Falaise, Falaise, France
Died: September 9,
Spouse: Matilda of
William II of England
* It was Gottfried Achenwall who first introduced the
word statistiks in a preface to a statistical work. He was
a German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist and
statistician. He is counted among the inventors of
Born: October 20,
Died: May 1, 1772
University of Leipzig
physician, and gambler, wrote Liber de Ludo Aleae in
which appeared the first known study of principles of
probability. He wrote more than 200 works on medicine,
mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music.
Born: September 24,
Died: September 21, 1576
The Rules of Algebra
The book of my life
The rules of algebra
University of Padua
University of Pavia
* Another gambler, Chevalier de Mere, made a proposal
to Blaise Pascal in the famous Problem of Points, a work
which marked the beginning of the mathematics of
probability. Marquis de Laplace’s Theorie Analytique des
Probabilities of 1812 stabilized and supported the said
He was a French writer born
Although he was not a nobleman, he
adopted the title Chevalier for the
character in his dialogues who
represented his own views.
Born: 1607, Poitou
Died: December 29, 1684
Chevalier de Méré
He was a French
physicist, inventor, writer and
Christian philosopher. He was a
child prodigy who was educated by
his father, a tax collector in Rouen.
Born: June 19, 1623
Died: August 19, 1662
Full name: Blaise Pascal
Parents: Antoinette Begon
* Modern theories of Statistics were attributed to the
great names like Abraham De Moivre (1667-1754) who
discovered the equation of the normal curve.
He was a French mathematician
famous for de Moivre's formula,
which links complex numbers and
trigonometry, and for his work on
the normal distribution and
Born: May 26, 1667
Died: November 27, 1754
London, United Kingdom
Education: Academy of Saumur
Books: The Doctrine of Chances,
Abraham de Moivre
A Method of Calculating
the Probabilities of Events
* Karl Pearson who made an extensive study on
correlation among several variables.
He was an influential English
mathematician who has been
credited with establishing the
discipline of mathematical
statistics. In 1911 he founded the
world's first university statistics
department at University College
Born: March 27, 1857
Islington, United Kingdom
Died: April 27, 1936
Capel, United Kingdom
Children: Egon Pearson
Education: Ruprecht Karl University of
Heidelberg, University of Cambridge,
King's College, Cambridge
* Just right after the World War II, the need for a basic
understanding of statistics arose. Statistical literacy
became a necessity in today’s modern world.
* Nowadays, the use of Statistics has extended to such
things as theater attendance, sports results, car sales in
a certain period of time, heights, weights, birth rates,
death rates, and other things that can be expressed