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Cracking Russian Cultural Code for Successful Product Development Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven, 2009 Caravan Cultura Agenc...
<ul><li>(1) Verticals or Horizontals </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Image or Word </li></ul><ul><li>  (3) Lit from without or from ...
Metaphor for Russian visual identity… ©2009  Lumiknows
Adoration of the Magi , 1422,  Don Lorenzo Monaco , Galleria degli Uffizi  The Resurrection of Christ, icon of the 16 c., ...
Adoration of the Magi , 1422,  Don Lorenzo Monaco , Galleria degli Uffizi  The Resurrection of Christ, icon of the 16 c., ...
At the base of Western mentality is  duality  of the imperfect “earth” - perfect “heaven” and  Man  whose great mission is...
“ Because you’re worth it!” Man  deserves  a Better World and   can  create it.  ©2009  Lumiknows
JMG Galleries.com Western visual culture is characterized by vertical dominant –that which  connects  “earth” with “sky”, ...
Russian mentality is not so much about the Man, but about  the Being   where both “mundane” reality, earth and “another wo...
The main book of Christianity,  the Bible, has  different meanings   in the English  (“Genesis”)   and Russian  (“Bytie”) ...
Russian  «Бытие»  Bytie  translates into English as  “Existence”, “Being”, “(Objective) Reality”  whereas for Russians thi...
<ul><li>I n English, we call them fairy tales …  literally translated as “tales of the fairies” .   In Russian, the design...
The “Sky” and the “Earth” as metaphors for “Another” and “This” worlds in fairy tales in the West are  absolutely differen...
The caption that accompanies the  famous medieval   anonymous  engraving in   Flammarion's book : &quot;A missionary of th...
“ Another” and “This” worlds in fairy and folk tales in Russia are “localized” in  the same place .  This is not so much a...
An oak tree greening by the ocean; A golden chain about it wound: Whereon a learned cat, in motion Both day and night, wil...
“ Earth” and “Sky” are not so inherently distant from each other –  verticals are subdued to horizontals  in Russian visua...
City Landmark for Khanty-Mansiysk in Siberia, Foster&Partners  Russia Tower, Mooscow Foster&Partners  Okhta Tower for Gazp...
St Augustine is shown on the left kneeling before Pope St Gregory who sent    him to convert the Angles c.596.  C hapel of...
Different attitude to the image  in Russia and the West was formed in 6 – 8 cent. A.D. Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, 16 ...
Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, 16 c. Typical interior in Russian Orthodox church “ Icon” in   Russia “ Image”  in Europe ...
Theotokos of Vladimir   is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons and a typical example of Byzantine iconography. The Th...
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow <ul><li>The question of legitimacy of images arose for Christians because the two most important...
Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow The Orthodox describe the process of painting an icon as  &quot;writing&quot;   because icons ar...
<ul><li>In  Clotaire Rapaille ’s words, the French are thinkers and Americans – doers. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Russians are...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/foje64/3010654089/sizes/o/ “ T he  (church)  space is not   illumined by the sun from without...
<ul><li>… Another way of reinforcing this sense of interior light is through the use of   reflective materials such as gol...
Ensemble on Kizhi island, early 18 c.,  Russian North Boyars (landlords) estate, 16 c.,  Nizhni Novgorod, central Russia L...
Lots of light lit through large windows  is positively associated in Russian mentality with Western lifestyle. The Holy Ch...
Compensating “lack of light” through adding light elements into spaces. Project of restaurant by Totan Kuzembayev, Moscow ...
Compensating “lack of light” through applying large windows and active use of glass. Yacht-club by Totan Kuzembayev, Mosco...
Factory rebuilt, Moscow Office centre, Rostov-na-Dony, South of Russia Residential complex, Nizhni Novgorod, central Russi...
in product design in interior in art in consumer electronics Light as an active element  is getting popular in Russia ©200...
Byzantine  heritage T he Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ , St.-Petersburg, exterior “ Rich in decoration”  “ festi...
“ Rich in decoration”  “ nariadno” “ festive mood” Byzantine  heritage Entrance to the metro station in Moscow ©2009  Lumi...
© copyrighted by L. Toshio Kishiyama, 2006  Gold is the color which  resembles the Heavenly Kingdom T he Cathedral of the ...
Why is this building a winner according to the Internet voting for the best building in St. Petersburg -2009? ©2009  Lumik...
Fairytale Big size Festive mood Link to Russian history Why is this building a winner according to the Internet voting for...
The co-existence of “incompatibles”  – of “Earth”  and “Sky” archetypes in the  single “metaphysical universe”, - immanent...
Thank you. Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven, NL, 2009 Dr Ekaterina Khramkova, Lumiknows, Russia http://www.designresearch.ru
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Cracking Russian Cultural Code for Successful Product Development

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Talk of Ekaterina Khramkova of innovation design concultancy Lumiknows on Russian trends and visual culture issues for Dutch Design Week 2009 in Design Huis in Eindhoven: "Cracking Russian Cultural Code for Successful Product Development”.

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  • Hi there, I find it fascinating how you use the earth, the sky and heaven. Due to your research, is that the reason person keep building something tall, or they are driven by other code, like power or hunger(bigger building = store more stuff)?
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Cracking Russian Cultural Code for Successful Product Development

  1. 1. Cracking Russian Cultural Code for Successful Product Development Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven, 2009 Caravan Cultura Agency, Design Huis Dr Ekaterina Khramkova, Lumiknows, Moscow, Russia
  2. 2. <ul><li>(1) Verticals or Horizontals </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Image or Word </li></ul><ul><li> (3) Lit from without or from within </li></ul><ul><li>(4) The Byzantine heritage in decoration </li></ul>Russian visual culture “reference system”: ©2009 Lumiknows
  3. 3. Metaphor for Russian visual identity… ©2009 Lumiknows
  4. 4. Adoration of the Magi , 1422, Don Lorenzo Monaco , Galleria degli Uffizi The Resurrection of Christ, icon of the 16 c., Moscow Kremlin Russian archetype is rooted in the holiday of Easter to the same extent as Western - in Christmas The Miracle of the Resurrection The Fact of the Incarnation
  5. 5. Adoration of the Magi , 1422, Don Lorenzo Monaco , Galleria degli Uffizi The Resurrection of Christ, icon of the 16 c., Moscow Kremlin Russian archetype is rooted in the holiday of Easter to the same extent as Western - in Christmas &quot;And the Word was made flesh “ , “ The human nature of Jesus Christ ”, “ Son of Man”… “ God became man so that man might become god ”, St Athanasius the Great “… So it is with the resurrection of the dead. What is sown is perishable, what is raised is imperishable. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body .” (1Corinthians15:42-45) The Miracle of the Resurrection The Fact of the Incarnation ©2009 Lumiknows
  6. 6. At the base of Western mentality is duality of the imperfect “earth” - perfect “heaven” and Man whose great mission is to “improve” the situation – create a paradise on earth. View of the St. Patrick’s cathedral from across Fifth Avenue with Lee Lawrie's bronze statue of Atlas
  7. 7. “ Because you’re worth it!” Man deserves a Better World and can create it. ©2009 Lumiknows
  8. 8. JMG Galleries.com Western visual culture is characterized by vertical dominant –that which connects “earth” with “sky”, “heaven”. ©2009 Lumiknows
  9. 9. Russian mentality is not so much about the Man, but about the Being where both “mundane” reality, earth and “another world”, heaven are not separated but co-exist as parallel realities.
  10. 10. The main book of Christianity, the Bible, has different meanings in the English (“Genesis”) and Russian (“Bytie”) languages. The Book of Being The Book of Genesis ©2009 Lumiknows
  11. 11. Russian «Бытие» Bytie translates into English as “Existence”, “Being”, “(Objective) Reality” whereas for Russians this is one of the most important philosophical category of a metaphysical nature . In Russian vocabulary, “Bytie” means “our, humans’” and “another world” all together. They are intermingled and inseparably linked with each other.   St.Ioann Kronshtadsky , 19 c. Co-existence of “Earth” and “Heaven” as parallel realities is essential for understanding Russian archetype. “… To see in everyday life – “Bytie”, in the mundane – the sacred.” Fiodor Dostoevski, 19 c. “ What can be more fantastic and unexpected than reality?… ” ©2009 Lumiknows
  12. 12. <ul><li>I n English, we call them fairy tales … literally translated as “tales of the fairies” .  In Russian, the designation for stories concerning the marvelous is skazka, meaning simply “story.”  In Russian, there is no onus of falsehood attached to the term , as there is to the English “fairy tale”. </li></ul><ul><li>In Western culture, the stereotype of fairy tales as the province of children is deeply entrenched, but in Russian culture, this idea has absolutely no place in a discussion of fairy tales. Russian fairy tales were traditionally told only after dark, when younger children were asleep. This makes for quite a contrast to the customs of other countries , Germany in particular, where terrifying tales were used for the specific purpose of frightening children into obedient submission. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian folktales end in a manner similar to the common end of English folktales (“and then they lived happily ever after”)—but these endings are more intricate than their Western equivalents, frequently consisting of assertions that the storyteller was physical presence at the event . The “real” nature of these events … is one of the most crucial elements of the story . Russian Fairy Tales , The Fantastic Traditions of the East and West by Helen Pilinovsky </li></ul>Russian archetype is more archaic than Western one in the sense that for the Russians the very reality have always been already sacred. In such reality, miracle becomes an ordinary thing… ©2009 Lumiknows
  13. 13. The “Sky” and the “Earth” as metaphors for “Another” and “This” worlds in fairy tales in the West are absolutely different places. Map depicting distant lands from the journey of Frodo Baggins as he travels away from the safety and familiarity of his home in the Shire to fulfill the almost impossible mission . “ In premodern philosophy all relations to another world were conceived in terms of transcendence. The world that is another than the one we are in is transcendent to it. The way we get from this world to that one is through transcending this one. …T he philosophical tradition's basic error was to presuppose that absolute transcendence, the act of transcending, and transcendence-in-immanence, are all the same thing, or indeed that they belong together. ” Motzkin, Gabriel Gideon Hillel. Iser's Anthropological Reception of the Philosophical Tradition New Literary History - Volume 31, Number 1, Winter 2000, pp. 163-174
  14. 14. The caption that accompanies the famous medieval anonymous engraving in Flammarion's book : &quot;A missionary of the Middle Ages tells that he had found the point where the sky and the Earth touched ” ©2009 Lumiknows
  15. 15. “ Another” and “This” worlds in fairy and folk tales in Russia are “localized” in the same place . This is not so much an issue of departing for a long journey to some distant lands as demonstrating that the marvelous, supernatural is embedded in the very essence of customary day-to-day life and visa versa. ©2009 Lumiknows
  16. 16. An oak tree greening by the ocean; A golden chain about it wound: Whereon a learned cat, in motion Both day and night, will walk around; On walking right, he sings a ditty; On walking left, he tells a lay. A magic place: there winds his way The wood sprite, there’s a mermaid sitting In branches, there on trails past knowing Are tracks of beasts you never met; On chicken feet a hut is set With neither door nor window showing. There wood and dale with wonders teem; At dawn of day the breakers stream Upon the bare and barren lea, And thirty handsome armored heroes File from the waters’ shining mirrors, With them the Usher from the Sea. There glimpse a prince, and in his passing He makes the dreaded tsar his slave; Aloft, before the people massing, Across the wood, across the wave, A warlock bears a warrior brave; [A grieving princess in a cell, And faithful wolf that serves her well]; See Baba Yaga’s mortar glide All of itself, with her astride. There droops Kashchey, on treasure bent; There’s Russian spirit… Russia’s scent! And there I stayed, and drank of mead; That oak tree greening by the shore I sat beneath, and of his lore The learned cat would chant and read. One tale of these I kept in mind, And tell it now to all my kind… Translated by Walter Arndt У лукоморья дуб зелёный; Златая цепь на дубе том: И днём и ночью кот учёный Всё ходит по цепи кругом; Идёт направо -- песнь заводит, Налево -- сказку говорит. Там чудеса: там леший бродит, Русалка на ветвях сидит; Там на неведомых дорожках Следы невиданных зверей; Избушка там на курьих ножках Стоит без окон, без дверей; Там лес и дол  видений полны; Там о заре прихлынут волны На брег песчаный и пустой, И тридцать витязей прекрасных Чредой из вод выходят ясных, И с ними дядька их морской; Там королевич мимоходом Пленяет грозного царя; Там в облаках перед народом Через леса, через моря Колдун несёт богатыря; В темнице там царевна тужит, А бурый волк ей верно служит; Там ступа с Бабою Ягой Идёт, бредёт сама собой; Там царь Кащей над златом чахнет; Там русский дух... там Русью пахнет! И я там  был, и мёд я пил; У моря видел дуб зелёный; Под ним сидел, а кот учёный Свои мне сказки говорил. Одну я помню: сказку эту Поведаю теперь я свету... Russia as a fantasy land “Lukomorie” in famous Alexander Pushkin’s introduction to “Ruslan and Ludmila” poem.
  17. 17. “ Earth” and “Sky” are not so inherently distant from each other – verticals are subdued to horizontals in Russian visual preferences. Negative image Based on research conducted by Lumiknows in 2007-09 Stability Conservatism ( European ) traditions Certainty Timelessness Sophistication Chaotic Uneasy Messy Uncertainty American lifestyle Too radical Positive image ©2009 Lumiknows
  18. 18. City Landmark for Khanty-Mansiysk in Siberia, Foster&Partners Russia Tower, Mooscow Foster&Partners Okhta Tower for Gazprom, St. Petersburg, RMJM Continuing themes first explored in the Tokyo Millennium Tower, this project extends the practice’s investigation into the nature of the tall building, taking structural, functional, environmental and urban logic to a new level. …I t will be the tallest naturally ventilated tower in the world.  From Foster + Partners website on Russia Tower in Moscow. Will projects of these buildings be well perceived in Russia? ©2009 Lumiknows
  19. 19. St Augustine is shown on the left kneeling before Pope St Gregory who sent him to convert the Angles c.596. C hapel of St Gregory and St Augustine in Westminster Cathedral Why image is less influential in Russian cultural archetype than word comparing with the West. By the year 600, Christianity was firmly established in some parts of Europe (Italy, Southern France) but virtually unknown elsewhere (England, much of Germany). One of the Gregory the Great’s goals was to spread Christianity to those who were not Christian… Gregory is crucial because images are one of the means he used to achieve these goals. “ For a picture is displayed in churches on this account, in order that those who do not know letters may at least read by seeing on the walls what they are unable to read in books”. Gregory to the bishop of Marseilles who was iconoclast, or breaker of images. By the end of the sixth century images had become central to (Western) Christianity. Word And Image: The Art Of The Early Middle Ages, 600-1050 , William J. Diebold
  20. 20. Different attitude to the image in Russia and the West was formed in 6 – 8 cent. A.D. Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, 16 c. Typical interior in Russian Orthodox church And the Word was made It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body flesh
  21. 21. Sistine Chapel in Vatican City, 16 c. Typical interior in Russian Orthodox church “ Icon” in Russia “ Image” in Europe “ An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, &quot;image&quot; ) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ” supernatural, abstract, schematic, two-dimensional realistic, three-dimensional natural, figurative,
  22. 22. Theotokos of Vladimir is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons and a typical example of Byzantine iconography. The Theotokos is regarded as the holy protectress of Russia. About 1131 the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople sent the icon as a gift to Grand Duke Yury Dolgoruky of Kiev. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow Church tradition asserted that the icon was painted by St Luke .
  23. 23. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow <ul><li>The question of legitimacy of images arose for Christians because the two most important sources of Christian culture, classical antiquity and Old Testament, both had their doubts about them . Plato’s condemnation of images as nothing more than deceptive imitations of truth was influential in the early church. Word And Image: The Art Of The Early Middle Ages, W . J. Diebold </li></ul><ul><li>L ight is an important characteristic of icons. The eyes of people portrayed in icons are never depicted as reflecting light. Rather, an icon and the person depicted radiate light from within . </li></ul><ul><li>Icons have been described as &quot;windows to heaven“ .   When praying in front of an icon, it is said that a person looks through the icon to the heavenly reality behind it. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow The Orthodox describe the process of painting an icon as &quot;writing&quot; because icons are an expression of the Gospel, a medium by which the Word made flesh is proclaimed to the world…  If over centuries image has become more important than word in the West, Russian tradition preserved the Byzantine approach to image as to only a tool to emphasize a spiritual truth rather than visible reality .
  25. 25. <ul><li>In Clotaire Rapaille ’s words, the French are thinkers and Americans – doers. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Russians are storytellers… </li></ul>©2009 Lumiknows
  26. 26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/foje64/3010654089/sizes/o/ “ T he (church) space is not illumined by the sun from without, but rather the illumination originates from within” Byzantine poet Lit not by the sun from without, but by spiritual light from within … While western models, from the Gothic period onwards, generally let light in directly through large, and often huge, windows in the walls, Byzantine churches have tended to emphasise the lighting from windows higher up, and particularly in the drum. Side windows are by comparison smaller . Some principles of orthodox church , Aidan Hart
  27. 27. <ul><li>… Another way of reinforcing this sense of interior light is through the use of reflective materials such as gold mosaic, gilded icons, polished brass and silver, and coloured stone floors and walls. Also, the oil lamps and candles dotted around, with their light reflecting off the surrounding surfaces, illuminate the space from many different angles. This helps approximate the sense of all pervading light - Divine light , coming from the omnipresent One, having no one point source. </li></ul><ul><li>Some principles of orthodox church , Aidan Hart </li></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mr_t_in_dc/3989035422/sizes/l/ ©2009 Lumiknows
  28. 28. Ensemble on Kizhi island, early 18 c., Russian North Boyars (landlords) estate, 16 c., Nizhni Novgorod, central Russia Lack of light is an essential element of Russian visual culture due to at least three reasons: (a) spiritual; (b) climatic when because of long winters to prevent heat loss window openings were mostly few and of small size; (c) safety issues. Summer house near Moscow, 2009
  29. 29. Lots of light lit through large windows is positively associated in Russian mentality with Western lifestyle. The Holy Chapel, Paris ©2009 Lumiknows http://www.flickr.com/photos/feijeriemersma/2159638156/ New Conservatorium, Amsterdam
  30. 30. Compensating “lack of light” through adding light elements into spaces. Project of restaurant by Totan Kuzembayev, Moscow centre, 2009 “ Fire-Bird” by Nikolay Polesski, 2007 ©2009 Lumiknows
  31. 31. Compensating “lack of light” through applying large windows and active use of glass. Yacht-club by Totan Kuzembayev, Moscow countryside, 2009 Private “Dutch house” in Samara, central Russia, 2009 ©2009 Lumiknows
  32. 32. Factory rebuilt, Moscow Office centre, Rostov-na-Dony, South of Russia Residential complex, Nizhni Novgorod, central Russia Office centre, Moscow ©2009 Lumiknows Overall glazing is a new element in the architecture of Russian cities having much to do with reference to Western standards of lighting.
  33. 33. in product design in interior in art in consumer electronics Light as an active element is getting popular in Russia ©2009 Lumiknows
  34. 34. Byzantine heritage T he Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ , St.-Petersburg, exterior “ Rich in decoration” “ festive mood” http://www.flickr.com/photos/guaida/1833127818/
  35. 35. “ Rich in decoration” “ nariadno” “ festive mood” Byzantine heritage Entrance to the metro station in Moscow ©2009 Lumiknows
  36. 36. © copyrighted by L. Toshio Kishiyama, 2006 Gold is the color which resembles the Heavenly Kingdom T he Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ , St.-Petersburg, interior
  37. 37. Why is this building a winner according to the Internet voting for the best building in St. Petersburg -2009? ©2009 Lumiknows Office complex “Benois Building” facades of which are covered with prints applied to glazed walls and featuring stage designs of famous Russian artists Alexander Benois (early 20 th c.). By Russian architect living in Germany Sergey Choban.
  38. 38. Fairytale Big size Festive mood Link to Russian history Why is this building a winner according to the Internet voting for the best building in St. Petersburg -2009: Russian identical motifs combined with the newest Western technologies (serigraphy, glass printing). ©2009 Lumiknows Office complex “Benois Building” facades of which are covered with prints applied to glazed walls and featuring stage designs of famous Russian artists Alexander Benois (early 20 th c.). By Russian architect living in Germany Sergey Choban. Bright image New technologies Glass
  39. 39. The co-existence of “incompatibles” – of “Earth” and “Sky” archetypes in the single “metaphysical universe”, - immanent driver of Russian national Weltanschauung responsible for all its contradiction and contrasts… Atlas – Man as a Titan giant, one of the symbols of Western civilization. The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ – one of the most prominent signs of Russian cultural identity. ©2009 Lumiknows
  40. 40. Thank you. Dutch Design Week, Eindhoven, NL, 2009 Dr Ekaterina Khramkova, Lumiknows, Russia http://www.designresearch.ru

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