The Propaganda of Rolling Stone Magazine

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Presentation on the propaganda of the covers of Rolling Stone magazine and how it advertises gender roles as well as culture.

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The Propaganda of Rolling Stone Magazine

  1. 1. The Propaganda of Magazine: Advertising Culture and Gender Role Ideology <br />Presentation by LaylaSouers<br />May 3, 2010<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>A biweekly publication that covers music, politics and popular culture.
  3. 3. Founded in 1967 by JannWenner (still the magazine's owner, editor and publisher) and Ralph Gleason</li></li></ul><li>INTRODUCTION<br />Advertising executives have used numerous propaganda techniques to spread their message<br />Selling ideology<br />The role of females<br />Sex object<br />The female form and the male gaze<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION<br />After Rolling Stone published a list of the 100 best guitar players of all-time, David Segal wrote an article for the Washington Post (2004) addressing the fact that there are not any renowned female guitar players. <br />He noticed that only two female guitar players made the list. <br />Segal was mostly concerned that this result did not start a debate.<br />
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION<br />Although the music business is dominated mainly by men (Thompson & Thompson, 2000), women are picking up instruments and making their mark in the rock world (Clawson, 1999).<br />This project is about analyzing the gender role ideology depicted on the covers of Rolling Stone magazine.<br />
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION<br />This study attempts to use the theories of propaganda as well as framing theory to help understand the ideology behind gender roles that exist in popular culture. <br />
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />In advertising, women are often depicted as sex objects and only capable of the housewife role (Ford, & LaTour, 1996). <br />Overall, women are not depicted accurately when it comes to real life career choices (Courtney & Lockeretz, 1971). <br />
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />In studying war propaganda, Ray Heibert (2003) revealed that it is important examine how the media frame ideas. <br />“Frames are in the synapses of our brains, in our neural circuitry. We don’t think about facts; the mind switches to the way those facts are framed. Thus, framing the issue becomes all powerful in influencing our thought about it” (Heibert, p. 744, 2003). <br />
  9. 9. QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS<br />This study examines the following research questions:<br />RQ1: Are these women on these covers represented more as sex objects or performers? <br />RQ2: Does `the media' reinforce the dominant ideology?<br />H1: There is an occupational role difference between the ways men and women are portrayed on the magazine covers.<br />
  10. 10. THEORY<br />Modern Propaganda <br />Framing Theory<br />
  11. 11. THEORY<br />Modern Propaganda <br />According to Jowett and O’Donnell (1986) modern propaganda theory, “ideology is a form of consent to a particular kind of social order and conformity to the rules within a specific set of social, economic, and political structures. It assigns roles to gender, racial, religious, and social groups” (p. 155). <br />
  12. 12. THEORY<br />Advertising as Institutional Propaganda<br />Advertising is one of the most widely used types of institutional propaganda (Jowett & O’Donnell, 1986).<br />The Power of Advertising?<br />On average, people are exposed to nearly 3,000 ads everyday (Mastin, Coe, Hamilton, and Tarr, 2004).<br />
  13. 13. The Genius of <br /><ul><li>An advertisement for the magazine
  14. 14. An advertisement for the artist</li></li></ul><li>THEORY<br />Modern Propaganda <br />Framing Theory<br />
  15. 15. Theory<br />Herman’s Model <br />This propaganda “model does suggest that the mainstream media, as elite institutions, commonly frame news and allow debate only within the parameters of elite perspectives; and that when the elite is really concerned and unified and/or when ordinary citizens are not aware of their own stake in an issue or are immobilized by effective propaganda, the media will serve elite interests uncompromisingly” (2000, p. 104).<br />
  16. 16. THEORY<br />Modern Propaganda <br />Framing Theory<br />
  17. 17. THEORY<br />Framing Theory<br />Began with Erving Goffman<br />a sociologist, began to look at how individuals behave in social situations<br />used the term frame to refer to the definitions of social situations that serve to organize experiences <br />the more frames that are learned leads to complex social interactions<br />
  18. 18. THEORY<br />Framing Theory<br />allows for the neat packaging of the problem, cause, assessment, solution and salience for most of society to understand<br />“To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described” (Entman, 1993, p. 52). <br />
  19. 19. THEORY<br />Framing and propaganda are very similar.<br />“Propaganda is, after all, a manipulation of symbolic environment, and although it can be carried out independently of the physical environment, it can also under certain circumstances be shaped by that environment” (Jowett & O’Donnell, p. 119, 1986). <br />
  20. 20. METHOD<br />Rolling Stone magazine was selected for this study.<br />A sample of 24 issues from 2009 were selected <br />A textual analysis was performed on all 24 covers to show how females were depicted.<br />
  21. 21. METHOD<br />To determine how media currently portray female musicians, Rolling Stone magazine was selected.<br />A textual analysis method was chosen because of its efficacy for distinguishing hidden meanings as well as “implicit patterns, assumptions and omissions of a text” (Fursich, p. 241, 2009).<br />Guidelines from past research were used.<br />
  22. 22. QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS<br />This study examines the following research questions:<br />RQ1: Are these women on these covers represented more as sex objects or performers? <br />RQ2: Does `the media' reinforce the dominant ideology?<br />H1: There is an occupational role difference between the ways men and women are portrayed on the magazine covers.<br />
  23. 23. Results<br />RQ1: Men were shown on the most covers<br />RQ2: The covers reflect the dominant ideology <br />H1: There is an occupational role difference between the ways men and women are portrayed on the magazine covers.<br />
  24. 24. FINDINGS<br />Men were shown on the most covers<br />Out of the 24 covers, women musicians were only shown on four of the covers<br />A closer examination of those covers revealed that three covers showed these female musicians as sex objects and one was supernatural <br />
  25. 25. FINDINGS<br />
  26. 26. FINDINGS<br />
  27. 27. FINDINGS<br />
  28. 28. FINDINGS<br />
  29. 29. FINDINGS<br />
  30. 30. FINDINGS<br />
  31. 31. FINDINGS<br />
  32. 32. FINDINGS<br />
  33. 33. FINDINGS<br />
  34. 34. FINDINGS<br />
  35. 35. FINDINGS<br />
  36. 36. FINDINGS<br />
  37. 37. CONCLUSION<br />The covers of Rolling Stone magazine present us with an ideology of gender roles. <br />It is clear that women musicians are underrepresented.<br />The findings help support that when women are present on music magazine covers, it is usually as a sex object.<br />The role of musician is framed as a male occupation only.<br />Men were shown in masculine roles such as cowboy and soldier. In agreement with the hypothesis, this result can be supported by in the occupational roles discovered in advertising research. <br />
  38. 38. DISCUSSION<br />Further Research<br />A historic analysis of the all of the covers overtime may show that females were framed differently during women’s movements<br /> A content analysis of the stories<br />e.g. war time propaganda<br />Internet sites<br />
  39. 39. The Propaganda of Rolling Stone Magazine: Advertising Culture and Gender Role Ideology <br />Presentation by LaylaSouers<br />May 3, 2010<br />

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