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Gender and culture


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Gender and culture

  1. 1. Social Influences To Start: Recap from last lesson… 5 minutes
  2. 2. PSYA3:Gender
  3. 3. 1: AO1 Parents Social Influences Children observe parent’s behaviour Parent’s model Gender-Appropriate behaviour Reinforcement / Punishment of gender-(non)stereotyped behaviour Some parents may offer ‘direct tuition’ of gender-stereotyped behaviour, i.e. encouraging a girl to do housework or a boy to play sport
  4. 4. 1: AO2 Parents Social Influences Lytton & Romney (1991) Meta Analysis of studies into parental treatment girls more likely to be encouraged to do housework boys more likely to be encouraged with outdoor tasks boys more likely to be physically punished fathers show more differentiation than mothers Fagot et al (1992) Effects of parenting style. Egalitarian vs. traditional. Kids in traditional families use gender labels earlier Showed more gender role stereotyping at age 4yrs
  5. 5. 1: AO3 Parents Social Influences Gender Reductionist Ethics Nature Nurture Animal Determinism Ethnocentric Meta analysis research from mainly North America, doesn’t consider parenting in other cultures Doesn’t consider single-parent families or homosexual parents where a same-gender role model may not be present Only considers upbringing (not impact of genes)
  6. 6. 2: AO1 Peers Social Influences Other same-aged children show Punishment of non- gender- appropriate behaviour Observing other children receive punishment can also cause children to learn vicariously about gender-appropriate behaviour
  7. 7. 2: AO2 Peers Social Influences Archer & Lloyd (1982) Children as young as 3yrs criticised by peers who engaged in cross-sex play Children who don’t usually engage in sex-stereotyped play at home, are likely to in school/nursery
  8. 8. 2: AO3 Peers Social Influences Gender Reductionist Ethics Nature Nurture Animal Determinism Ethnocentric Temporal Validity Doesn’t consider changes in gender stereotyped behaviour in schools and playgroups which are now much more flexible. Research may be archaic and lack temporal validity
  9. 9. 3: AO1 Media Social Influences Bandura demonstrated the power of role models in film on behaviour Children observe sex-stereotyped behaviours in media role models Magazines aimed at young people are also often aimed at particular genders and reinforce gender-stereotype behaviour males – sport/computer games females – fashion/celebrities
  10. 10. 3: AO2 Media Social Influences Morgan (1982) The more TV a child watches, the stronger the sex-role stereotypes they hold. Hust (2006) Asked teenage boys for their views on what it was like to be ‘masculine’ ‘Sporting, sexually proficient, stoic & risk taking’
  11. 11. : AO3 Media Social Influences Gender Reductionist Ethics Nature Nurture Animal Determinism Ethnocentric Temporal Validity Difficult to measure influence of media Ignores biological factors of Gender Most research conducted in Westernized culture Media is becoming more gender-neutral
  12. 12. PSYA3 Gender: Cultural Influences
  13. 13. PSYA3:Gender
  14. 14. Today we will consider… • How is gender similar or different across cultures? • What studies have been conducted to investigate this? • How can cross cultural research be evaluated? Cultural Influences
  15. 15. AO1 Vocabulary • Egalitarian vs. Traditional Cultures Cultural Influences Culture with some choice/flexibility over gender roles Differences between men and women are less defined Clearly defined gender differences Specific gender roles for males and females Arabic Cultures / Some African cultures Individualist cultures (UK/USA etc.)
  16. 16. AO1 Vocabulary • Masculine vs. Feminine Cultures Cultural Influences • Masculine Culture: • Masculine traits seen as important • Competition / Achievement • Feminine Culture: • Feminine traits seen as important • Harmony / Cooperation
  17. 17. AO1 Masculine vs. Feminine Cultures Cultural Influences
  18. 18. Task: Gender Similarities or Differences? Cultural Influences 5 Minutes Complete the table of the similarities and variations that have been found in gender across cultures. (Remember Buss)! Similarities Variations
  19. 19. Cross Cultural Similarities & Cultural Influences Similarities Variations Every society has some division of labour. Food preparation and childcare = female role in all societies. In no society is this a major responsibility for males. Males seek youth / fertility Females seek resources Girls are more compliant, Boys are more assertive. Westernised cultures have fewer distinctions between gender Arabic cultures have high gender differences in laws / clothing / gender roles etc. Males may have more masculine roles in communities that require hunting
  20. 20. Margaret Mead (1935) Cultural Influences “..both father and mother are held responsible for child care by the entire community. If one comments upon a middle-aged man as good-looking, the people answer: 'Good-looking? Yes? But you should have seen him before he bore all those children'
  21. 21. Task: Key Cross Cultural Research Cultural Influences 10 Minutes Read and highlight the studies on the worksheet. Summarise the studies in the first table Try and answer the questions underneath…
  22. 22.  Mead (1935) Cultural Influences My view is that traits which are considered masculine or feminine have no link to our biological sex Went to Papau New Guinea to look at 3 different tribes and observed their gender behaviour Interestingly, Mead found differences in Gender roles between each tribe, supporting the idea that culture influences gender
  23. 23.  Mead (1935) Cultural Influences 3 Tribes: 1. Arapesh 2. Mundugumor 3. Tchambuli
  24. 24. We are the Arapesh tribe We are gentle, loving & co-operative We make sure our boys & girls are raised with these qualities You might think that makes them feminine Both of us as parents ‘bear a child’ & even I take to my bed whilst my child is born
  25. 25. I am from the Mundugumor tribe & here I am with Margaret We are ex-cannibals Males & females in our tribe are arrogant, fierce & quarrelsome We hate pregnancy & rearing our children So we are all masculine? We hang our babies in rough baskets against the wall. If they cry then one of us gives the basket a scratch
  26. 26. I am a member of the Tchambuli tribe & we do things a bit different here Females are interested in economic affairs & they look after trading & food gathering Males are sentimental, emotional & unable to make decisions They sit around in groups, rearing the children, gossiping & preening themselves
  27. 27.  Mead (1935) Cultural Influences 3 Tribes: 1. Arapesh 2. Mundugumor 3. Tchambuli ‘Feminine Culture’ Gender differences less pronounced ‘Masculine Culture’ Gender differences less pronounced Gender roles switched. Females are masculine, males feminine
  28. 28.  Whiting et al (1975) Cultural Influences Studied Child-rearing practices in 6 different cultures: USA; Mexico; India; Japan; Kenya & the Philippines Researchers integrated themselves within the communities and carried out observations of children’s daily lives.
  29. 29.  Whiting et al (1975) Cultural Influences Results: Extent of gender role differences correlated with how much work children were expected to do USA: 2% of child’s time spent working - gender roles negligible Kenya: 41% of child’s time spent working - distinct differences in gender roles
  30. 30.  Malinowski (1929) Cultural Influences Trobriand Islanders Females demonstrate masculine traits and gender roles Cultural differences exist
  31. 31. Cultural Influences Buss (1989) Buss found evidence that women seek powerful men with resources and men seek young attractive women across 37 cultures. This was used as support for evolutionary theory. Gender differences occur cross-culturally so must be biological. However, Eagly & Wood … …found that in cultures where women had a higher status and male-female division of labour was less pronounced, sex differences in mating preferences became less pronounced Culture can influence gender differences
  32. 32.  Williams & Best Cultural Influences Are Gender stereotypes cross cultural? Asked pps from 30 different countries to state whether certain characteristics were ‘male, female or neutral’ Found cross culturally; Understanding; Emotional; Warm; Agreeable, were all seen as ‘female’ characteristics Assertive; Aggressive, seen as male
  33. 33. Williams And Best (1994) • UK • Hong Kong • Taiwan • Croatia • USA • The Netherlands • Belgium • South Africa • Estonia • The Phillipines • France • Germany • Indonesia • Italy • Japan • South Korea • Malaysia • Nigeria • India • Japan • Norway • Portugal • Zimbabwe • Peru • Iceland • Pakistan • Brazil • Morocco • Australia • Chile
  34. 34. Studies A03 Cultural Influences Mead (1935)  Natural Experiment  Social Desirability - natives simply provided Mead with the information she wanted to hear. Williams and Best (1990a)  Sample Bias - they were all students who share common attributes – cannot be generalised. Buss (1989)  Wide ranging sample – easier to generalise Malinowski (1929)  Gender Bias – Focused on Women
  35. 35. Task: Cross Cultural Research Cultural Influences 10 Minutes In your groups consider the following questions and fill in your worksheet with your ideas: 1) What do the cross cultural findings suggest in terms of the nature/nurture debate? 2) How else can cross cultural research be evaluated? 3) Can variations in gender between cultures, just be a product of cultural differences? 4) How can we evaluate the cultural approach?
  36. 36. Question 1) Nature/Nurture? Cultural Influences There are universals across cultures ! This suggests that gender is innate and therefore biologically determined! However… There are still variations within these universals suggests that social factors may still play a role. Therefore, maybe culture/social factors do influence gender…. But not on their own!
  37. 37. Q2) How can cross cultural research be evaluated using Ethnocentricism? Cultural Influences The evidence from these studies has largely been collected by WESTERN RESEARCHERS working in a mixture of Western and non Western cultures. Even if indigenous (local) researchers are carrying out the research they are still likely to be using tests developed by Western psychology. Such measures are described as Imposed Etics tests that produce results which may be meaningless in a culture other than the one in which the tests were developed. Therefore cross cultural research is a victim of Culture Bias! (A03)
  38. 38. Q3) Can variations in gender between cultures, just be a product of cultural differences? Cultural Influences Historical/Economical Changes? Eagly & Wood – Wealth = greater role equality. In societies where increased socioeconomic development had occurred, women had a higher status. The division of labour between men & women was less pronounced and so gender differences were also less pronounced Work load on children is also correlated with greater gender differences (Whiting et al.)
  39. 39. Q4) How can we evaluate the Cultural Approach? Cultural Influences Determinism? Mead later changed her view to one of cultural relativism. When she re analysed her data she realised that although both sexes of the Arapesh were non aggressive and both sexes of the Mundugamor were aggressive, in all societies the men were more aggressive than women. This suggests that some behaviours are innate and universal but the degree to which these behaviours are expressed is relative to the particular culture.
  40. 40. Extension: Social Influences 10 Minutes Outline and evaluate cross-cultural studies of gender role. (4 + 8 marks) Outline and evaluate social influences on gender roles. (4 + 8 marks)
  41. 41. Revision Notes Social Influences 10 Minutes Revision Notes for all 3 topics in PSYA3 should be completed and organised by NEXT MONDAY AGGRESSION RELATIONSHIPS GENDER