G325 theorist revision


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Revision for G325 Media Studies Collective Identity Youth

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  • IntroductionHistorical ContextCurrent IssuesFuture DebatesConclusion
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtRw-QKb034
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://amy-mcdermott-a2-g325.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/research-theory.html
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtRw-QKb034
  • G325 theorist revision

    1. 1. A2 MEDIA STUDIES - G325 Section B: COLLECTIVE IDENTITY 21/05/2014 1
    2. 2. • What are the social implications of media representations? • The media do not just offer us a transparent „window on the world‟ but a mediated version of the world. They don‟t just present reality, they re-present it – David Buckingham • Stereotypes are always about power: those with power stereotype those with less power (Dyer, 1979). Can you find evidence to support or critique these views? • Women were represented as passive objects of the male gaze – Laura Mulvey 1975 – true when applied to these texts – or false? 21/05/2014 2
    3. 3. • Representation: the way reality is „mediated‟ or „re-presented‟ to us. • Collective Identity: the individual‟s sense of belonging to a group (part of personal identity); the idea is that through participating in social activities –in this case, watching films and television - individuals can gain a sense of belonging and in essence an "identity" that transcends the individual. • “A focus on Identity requires us to pay closer attention to the ways in which media and technologies are used in everyday life and their consequences for social groups” - David Buckingham. • Application of Antonio Gramsci‟s theory of Hegemony – much of the media is controlled by the dominant group in society and the viewpoints associated with this group inevitably become embedded in the products themselves (i.e. via representation of race, class, gender, sexuality, for example), even if the promotion of these views isnt conscious – dominant views come to be seen as the norm. 21/05/2014 3
    4. 4. • Can we resist this representation? Are audiences passive or active? • Can audiences be influenced by what they watch? • There are a number of theories about this. • The Hypodermic Syringe theory posits that audiences are passive and absorb what they see in the media and can be influenced by it • Uses and Gratifications suggests audiences are active viewers and use the media in various ways to get some kind of gratification that will depend on the viewer. • Hall and Morley‟s Encoding/Decoding model (1973) claims that audience reaction can be broken uo into four basic groups: • A preferred reading of a text would imply that the spectator may accept the dominant values within the text and read it in a way consistent with the intentions of the producer. • A negotiated reading means the spectator chooses whether or not they accept the preferred reading as their own. • An oppositional reading would mean the spectator completely rejects the preferred reading. • An aberrant reading means the spectator picks up an entirely different reading to that which was intended by the maker.21/05/2014 4
    5. 5. • Giddens: The self is not something we are born with, and it is not fixed • Instead, the self is reflexively made- thoughtfully constructed by the individual We all choose a lifestyle • Latterly, a key figure in identity theory has been David Gauntlett. • Gauntlett (2002): By thinking about their own identity, attitudes, behaviour and lifestyle in relation to those of media figures - some of whom may be potential 'role models', others just the opposite - individuals make decisions and judgements about their own way of living (and that of others). It is for this reason that the 'role model' remains an important concept, although it should not be taken to mean someone that a person wants to copy. Instead, role models serve as navigation points as individuals steer their own personal routes through life. (Their general direction, we should note, however, is more likely to be shaped by parents, friends, teachers, colleagues and other people encountered in everyday life). 21/05/2014 5
    6. 6. • Gauntlett (2002): Media messages are diverse, diffuse and contradictory. Rather than being zapped straight into people's brains, ideas about lifestyle and identity that appear in the media are resources which individuals use to think through their sense of self and modes of expression. • Because 'inherited recipes for living and role stereotypes fail to function', we have to make our own new patterns of being, and it seems clear that the media plays an important role here (David Gauntlett, 2002).21/05/2014 6
    7. 7. • Media products provide numerous kinds of 'guidance' - not necessarily in the obvious form of advice-giving, but in the myriad suggestions of ways of living which they imply. We lap up this material because the social construction of identity today is the knowing social construction of identity. Your life is your project. The media provides some of the tools which can be used in this work. Like many toolkits, however, it contains some good utensils and some useless ones; some that might give beauty to the project, and some that might spoil it. (People find different uses for different materials, too, so one person's 'bad' tool might be a gift to another.) (Gauntlett, 2002) • I don't believe that 'experts' can have the final word about representations, since representations are only meaningful when processed in the minds of individual audience members. – David Gauntlett (2008) (an expert, who is, of course, trying to have the final word…) 21/05/2014 7
    8. 8. Tackling the Question • Before you begin your plan read the question carefully 21/05/2014 8
    9. 9. Explain the role played by the Media in the construction of collective identity Analyse the ways in which the media represent groups of21/05/2014 9
    10. 10. Exam Question 2 January 2012 • How do media representations influence collective identity? You may refer to one group of people or more in your answer. • Discuss the different ways in which groups of people are represented by media. You may refer to one group of people or more in your answer. June 2011 • Discuss how one or more Groups are represented through the Media • Explain the role played by the Media in the construction of collective identity January 2011 • Analyse the ways in which the media represent groups of people • What is collective identity and how is it mediated June 2010 • With reference to any one group of people that you have studied, discuss how their identity has been mediated • “Media representations are complex, not simple and straightforward”. How far do you agree with this statement in relation to the collective group you have studied January 2010 • Analyse the ways in which the media represent groups of people • “The media do not construct collective identity; they merely reflect it”. Discuss 21/05/2014 10
    11. 11. Tackling the Question Remember the basic rules • Always use at least 2 Media examples – 1 historic and 1 current • Always use at least 2 theorists • Try to quote them correctly • All texts should be referenced like this: • Title (Director Surname, year) 21/05/2014 11
    12. 12. Essay Structure • You can think of your Essay as needing 4 parts to get an A 1. Explain – What is the topic? What do we know already 2. What are the arguments? – Must give balance of both sides 3. What are the theories – Use them to support arguments 4. Link it back to the question 21/05/2014 12
    13. 13. Essay Structure • Two most important things to remember • Hi 5 your Essay! • Don’t forget to PEE! 21/05/2014 13
    14. 14. Hi 5 21/05/2014 14
    15. 15. Introduction • What is Collective Identity? • What is Youth Identity? • Explain what you are going to discuss and case studies. 21/05/2014 15
    16. 16. Section 1 • Explain Historical Context • Talk about representation of youth in the past – when were they shown, how did they act, what was impact of youth representation? • Use Case Study to discuss history of Youth Representation – Rebel without a Cause / Quadrophenia / Punks etc • Always back up points with quotes! 21/05/2014 16
    17. 17. Section 2 • Explain Current Context • Talk about representation of youth today – where do we see them, how are they shown, how do they act, what was impact of youth representation now? • Use Case Study to discuss current Youth Representation – Skins / Misfits / News / Kidulthood • Always back up points with quotes! 21/05/2014 17
    18. 18. Section 3 • Explain Future Context • What do you think will happen in the future? • Can you use any media texts to support your ideas? • Always back up points with quotes! 21/05/2014 18
    19. 19. Conclusion • Summarise your answer in a few sentences • Include your feelings on the question • DO NOT finish on a question! 21/05/2014 19
    20. 20. PEE Point Evidence Explain 21/05/2014 20
    21. 21. PEE Point • Young people today are dangerous to society as they do not respect society’s rules Evidence • Films such as Kidulthood (Huda, 2006) show their teenage cast to all be drug taking, violent characters with no respect to each other or adults Explain • Giroux’s theory states that young people are empty vessels and will respond to any input to create their identity. By viewing films such as Kidulthood they are learning behaviours that they consider to be correct., This is supported by Gerbeners cultivation theory. Gramsci’s theory of hegemony tells us that those in power dictate the way that certain ideals are created in society. By showing youth in this way the dominant social power, wealthy adults, ensure that young people lack influence in society. 21/05/2014 21
    22. 22. Key Theories & Theorists • Remember you MUST refer to 2 media examples and 2 theorists in your answer! • You can either write about the theorist or use their quotes to support your point or do both! 21/05/2014 22
    23. 23. Theorist Checklist • Ericson – Stages of Development • Durkheim – Functionalism • Tafjal & Turner – Social Identity • McMillan & Chavis – Sense of Community • Jordaan & Jordann – Sub Cultures • Gramsci – Hegemony • Lewin – Gatekeeping • Galtung & Ruge – Selective Gatekeeping • Hall – Moral Panics • Gerbner - Cultivation • Acland – Protection • Giroux – Youth as Empty Catergory • Vonnegut – Desensitisation • Lazarsfeld – Hypodermic Needle • Bulmer & Katz – Uses and Gratifications • Hall – Encoding and Decoding • Jenkins – Participatory Culture 21/05/2014 23
    24. 24. Erik Ericson • Concept – Stages of Development • Explanation – Humans develop at 8 stages throughout their lives. – Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development is marked by a conflict for which successful resolution will result in a favourable outcome, and by an important event that this conflict resolves itself around.
    25. 25. Stages of Development 1. Purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Preschool / 3–6 years - Does the child have the ability to or do things on their own, such as dress him or herself? If "guilty" about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment. 2. Competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - School-age / 6-11. Child comparing self-worth to others (such as in a classroom environment). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children. Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that children do not feel inferior. 3. Fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Adolescent / 12 years till 20. Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Erikson believes, that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion. 4. Intimacy vs. isolation - This is the first stage of adult development. This development usually happens during young adulthood, which is between the ages of 20 to 24. Dating, marriage, family and friendships are important during the stage in their life. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people, individuals are able to experience love and intimacy. Those who fail to form lasting relationships may feel isolated and alone.
    26. 26. Emile Durkheim Concept • Functionalism Explanation • Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. The different parts are primarily the institutions of society, each of which is organized to fill different needs and each of which has particular consequences for the form and shape of society. The parts all depend on each other. 21/05/2014 26
    27. 27. Emile Durkheim Concept • Functionalism Explanation • For example, the government, or state, provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. The family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families. In the process, the children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens, who in turn support the state. If all goes well, the parts of society produce order, stability, and productivity. If all does not go well, the parts of society then must adapt to recapture a new order, stability, and productivity. 21/05/2014 27
    28. 28. Tafjal & Turner Concept • Social Identity Theory Explanation • In the Social Identity Theory, a person has not one, “personal self”, but rather several selves that correspond to widening circles of group membership. Different social contexts may trigger an individual to think, feel and act on basis of his personal, family or national “level of self” • Apart from the “level of self”, an individual has multiple “social identities”. Social identity is the individual’s self-concept derived from perceived membership of social groups 21/05/2014 28
    29. 29. McMillan & Chavis • Concepts Sense of Community • Explaination McMillan & Chavis (1986) define sense of community as "a feeling that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that members' needs will be met through their commitment to be together." 21/05/2014 29
    30. 30. McMillan & Chavis • Concepts Sense of Community • Explaination McMillan & Chavis's (1986) theory (and instrument) are the most broadly validated and widely utilized in this area in the psychological literature. They prefer the abbreviated label "sense of community", and propose that sense of community is composed of four elements. Four elements of sense of community There are four elements of "sense of community" according to the McMillan & Chavis theory: Membership Membership includes five attributes: boundaries emotional safety a sense of belonging and identification personal investment a common symbol system 21/05/2014 30
    31. 31. McMillan & Chavis • Concepts Sense of Community • Explaination Influence Influence works both ways: members need to feel that they have some influence in the group, and some influence by the group on its members is needed for group cohesion. Integration and fulfillment of needs Members feel rewarded in some way for their participation in the community. Shared emotional connection The "definitive element for true community" (1986, p. 14), it includes shared history and shared participation (or at least identification with the history). 21/05/2014 31
    32. 32. Antonio Gramsci Concepts • Cultural hegemony Explanation • Gramsci developed the idea of "cultural hegemony". As I mentioned before, this is the idea that one social class within a culture dominates society, therefore making their views and values acceptable and "normal" behaviour. • Gramsci believes hegemony is constantly causing problems within societies arguing what is actually a "normal" way of life. For example, this arguing is shown through negative and positive representation of youths from different classes, most commonly underclass 21/05/2014 32
    33. 33. Antonio Gramsci Concepts • Cultural hegemony Quote • So one could say that each one of us changes himself, modifies himself to the extent that he changes the complex relations of which he is the hub... If one's own individuality means to acquire consciousness of them and to modify one's own personality means to modify the ensemble of these relations. (Gramsci) 21/05/2014 33
    34. 34. Jordaan & Jordaan • Concepts Sub Cultures • Explaination “A subculture group is a social-cultural formation that exists as a sort of island or enclave within the larger society”. Sub cultures within society are smaller groups who do or do not conform with societies expectations. These subcultures all share similar trates: • The collection of people share an awareness of membership; • The collection of people are interacting with one another - they intercommunicate on an informative level and on a metacommunicative level; • The collection of people share one or more implicit or explicit objectives or motives which provide the reason for them being in the group (a group must have a goal, even it it's just to have fun, since without a goal interaction cannot be easily maintained for long); • The collection of people develop explicitly or implicitly a set of norms or rules which put pressure on the members in respect of the permissible behaviour within the group, and sometimes also in respect of the attitudes and behaviours of group members towards other groups. Group norms and the consequent pressure can lead to conforming behaviour aimed at achieving the group's goals. • The collection of people can consider consensus within the group so highly that the phenomenon of group thinking manifests; • If the interaction between the members of the group of people is long-lasting, a leader and followers pattern develops within the group’ • If the interaction is long-lasting there develops between the members of the group a network of interpersonal attraction based on the likes and dislikes members have in respect of one another." 21/05/2014 34
    35. 35. Kurt Lewin • Concepts Gatekeeping • Explanation • Gate keeping is nothing but to block unwanted or useless things by using a gate. Be it publication, broadcasting, the Internet, or some other type of communication. • Lewin first observed food habits in families (and seeing housewives as gatekeepers at that time); this was later applied in a major way to the editors in news publications. • “A person who controls access to something, decide whether a given message will be distributed by a mass medium”. 21/05/2014 35
    36. 36. Galtung & Ruge Concept • Information is filtered by those who deem it worthy Explanation • Selective Gatekeeping. • Galtung and Ruge selective gatekeeping theory suggests that news from around the world are evaluated using news values to determine their newsworthiness. 21/05/2014 36
    37. 37. Stanley Cohen Concepts • Moral panic Explanation • He argues that occasionally what he calls "folk devils" emerge within society, reflecting the anxieties and fears of adult culture. "Moral Panic" emerges when exaggerated media coverage appears of these "folk devils" leading to politicians and police to act. When this occurs, the aim is to return the social values of hegemony, clearly stating what is not a socially acceptable way to behave. • Cohen's theory suggest that youths have become a cultural "folk devil" leading media to exaggerate their behaviour. 21/05/2014 37
    38. 38. George Gerbner • Concepts Cultivation Theory • Explanation Gerbner studies the effect of television on the audience's perception of crime. His theory suggests that people who watch a large amount of television have an over exaggerated opinion on crime and how much it occurs as well as how severe the crimes actually are. He called this "mean world syndrome". His theory states that because media forms such as news reports, television programmes and films contain over exaggerated representations of crimes, mostly negative, people's perceptions are dramatically influenced. The term used by Gerbner to describe this is "cultivation theory". 21/05/2014 38
    39. 39. George Gerbner • Concepts Cultivation Theory • Quotes Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line postures... They may accept and even welcome repression if it promises to relieve their insecurities. (Gerbner) Who tells the stories of a culture really governs human behavior. It used to be the parent, the school, the church, the community. Now it’s a handful of global conglomerates that have nothing to tell, but a great deal to sell. (Gerbner) 21/05/2014 39
    40. 40. Charles R Acland Concepts • Ideology of protection; deviant youth and reproduction of social order Explanation • Acland argues in his theory that the representation of deviant youths reinforces hegemony, the idea that a culture is ruled by one social class. Media creates the image of "normal" youth and adults, then contrasting this with behaviour that contrasts against what we deem to be socially acceptable. This is what the audience finds entertaining and interesting, as it is going against these "normal" views of society. Acland also makes the point that by the media representing youths in such a way, it allows the state to have more control over them. 21/05/2014 40
    41. 41. Charles R Acland Concepts • Ideology of protection; deviant youth and reproduction of social order Explanation • For example, the mass of media reports about negative youth behaviour led to the introduction of ASBO's, which then led to even more media coverage. Acland calls this "ideology of protection" which is the idea that youths need this constant surveillance and monitoring in order to "protect" them. Similar to Giroux's theory, youths are impressionable it is a time in their life when they learn about roles and values from adult culture. Media coverage of negative behaviour allows the state to reinforce hegemonic values and tell youths what is wrong and socially unacceptable. 21/05/2014 41
    42. 42. Charles R Acland Concepts • Ideology of protection; deviant youth and reproduction of social order Explanation • For example, the idea in "hoodie horrors" that youths are like monsters often included in horror themes leads some youths to relate these representations to things they fear, such as demons, which moves them in the opposite direction of this sort of behaviour. 21/05/2014 42
    43. 43. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Explanation Giroux's theory addresses the media's influence on youths. He believes that youths act as a sort vessel open to influences of adult culture and how the media chooses to represent them, therefore shaping the youths cultural contexts. 21/05/2014 43
    44. 44. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Explanation The media chooses the way they represent race, class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, occupation, age and so on, therefore leaving an influence on the youths that are not necessarily true. The media acts upon what it's audience wants. When appealing to a adult audience, the media will reflect fears and anxieties that adults may find entertaining, therefore giving an unrealistic view on youths. Giroux suggests that the media influences them in a certain way as youths are so impressionable, for example, if they are represented as loud and abusive in films, they will act on this because they are being told to act in such a way. 21/05/2014 44
    45. 45. Henry Giroux Concepts • Youth as empty category • Quote “Youth as a complex, shifting, and contradictory category is rarely narrated in the dominant public sphere through the diverse voices of the young. Prohibited from speaking as moral and political agents, youth become an empty category inhabited by the desires, fantasies, and interests of the adult world. This is not to suggest that youth don't speak, they are simply restricted from speaking in those spheres where public conversation shapes social policy and refused the power to make knowledge consequential with respect to their own individual and collective needs.” (Giroux, 1998) 21/05/2014 45
    46. 46. Michele Paludi Concepts • Media Desensitization • Explanation • Constant repetitions of violence in the media makes people jaded towards violence. The reaction becomes less prominent because as consumers of media we are used to seeing explosions, blood and guts and mayhem on a regular basis. • One of the reasons desensitization can be dangerous is because it is so closely related to the pleasure of watching television or movies. The act of watching TV is an unlearned pleasurable behavior. When you combine that pleasure with violent images and content then the person beings to associate the pleasure of watching television with the consumption of violent media. Images that might have initiated a negative response before, now give the viewer a sense of calm because of its link to relaxation. 21/05/2014 46
    47. 47. Albert Bandura Concepts • Social Learning Theory • Explanation • There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. – First is the idea that people can learn through observation. – Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. – Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior. 21/05/2014 47
    48. 48. Albert Bandura Concepts • Social Learning Theory • Explanation • Observational Learning • In his famous Bobo Doll experiment, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura’s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. • Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: – A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior. – A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. – A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media. 21/05/2014 48
    49. 49. Paul Lazarsfeld Concepts • Hypodermic Needle Theory • Explanation • The media (magic gun) fired the message directly into audience head without their own knowledge. The message cause the instant reaction from the audience mind without any hesitation is called the “Hypodermic Needle” or “Magic Bullet Theory”. • The media (needle) injects the message into audience mind and it cause changes in audience behavior and psyche towards the message. Audience are passive and they can’t resist the media message is called “Hypodermic Needle Theory”. 21/05/2014 49
    50. 50. Bulmer & Katz Concept • Audience chooses media for different reasons which effects how they respond to text Explanation • This approach focuses on why people use particular media rather than on content. In contrast to the concern of the 'media effects' tradition it focuses on 'what people do with media', allowing for a variety of responses and interpretations. 21/05/2014 50
    51. 51. Bulmer & Katz Concept • Audience chooses media for different reasons which effects how they respond to text Explanation • This approach focuses on why people use particular media rather than on content. In contrast to the concern of the 'media effects' tradition it focuses on 'what people do with media', allowing for a variety of responses and interpretations. 21/05/2014 51
    52. 52. Audience Revision Information • finding out about relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world, seeking advice on practical matters or opinion and decision choices, satisfying curiosity and general interest, learning; self-education, gaining a sense of security through knowledge Personal Identity • finding reinforcement for personal values, finding models of behavior, identifying with valued other (in the media), gaining insight into one's self 21/05/2014 52
    53. 53. Audience Revision Integration and Social Interaction • gaining insight into circumstances of others; social empathy, identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging, finding a basis for conversation and social interaction, having a substitute for real-life companionship, helping to carry out social roles, enabling one to connect with family, friends and society Entertainment • escaping, or being diverted, from problems, relaxing, getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment, filling time, emotional release 21/05/2014 53
    54. 54. Stuart Hall Concept • Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending on their needs Explanation • This theory points out that meaning of any text is created by the audience - not the producer. Meaning is encoded into the text but it is up to the audience what they take from it depending how they decode the signs within the text. Encoding-decoding is an active audience theory which examines the relationships between text and it's audience • Encoding is a process by which a text is constructed by it's producers • Decoding is the process by which the audience reads, understands and interprets text • Hall states that texts are polysemic, meaning they may be read differently by different people, depending on their identity, cultural knowledge and opinions 21/05/2014 54
    55. 55. Stuart Hall Concept • Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending on their needs Explanation • Preffered Reading • When an audience interprets the message as it was meant to be understood, they are operating in dominant code. • The position of professional broadcasters and media producers is that the messages are already signified within the hegmonic manner to which they are accustomed. • The producers and the audience are in harmony 21/05/2014 55
    56. 56. Stuart Hall Concept • Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending on their needs Explanation • Negotiated reading • Not all audience may underatand what media producers take for granted. There may be some acknowlwedgment of differences in understanding. • Decoding within the negotiated version contains a mixture od adaptive and oppositional elements: it acknowledges the legitimacy of the hegemonic definitions to make the grand significations (abstract) while at the more restricted situational (situated) level it makes it own ground rules 21/05/2014 56
    57. 57. Stuart Hall Concept • Active audiences interpret texts in different ways depending on their needs Explanation • Oppositional Reading • When media consumers understand the contextual and literary infections of a text yet decode the message by a completely oppositiional means. 21/05/2014 57
    58. 58. Henry Jenkins • Concepts Participatory Culture • Explanation • As technology continues to enable new avenues for communication, collaboration, and circulation of ideas, it has also given rise to new opportunities for consumers to create their own content. Barriers like time and money are beginning to become less significant to large groups of consumers. • For example, the creation of movies once required large amounts of expensive equipment, but now movie clips can be made with equipment that is affordable to a growing number of people. The ease with which consumers create new material has also grown. Extensive knowledge of computer programming is no longer necessary to create content on the internet. • Media sharing over the Internet acts as a platform to invite users to participate and create communities that share similar interests through duplicated sources, original content, and repurposed material
    59. 59. Henry Jenkins • Affiliations — memberships, formal and informal, in online communities centered around various forms of media, such as Friendster, Facebook, message boards, metagaming, game clans, or MySpace). • Expressions — producing new creative forms, such as digital sampling, skinning and modding, fan videomaking, fan fiction writing, zines, mash- ups). • Collaborative Problem-solving — working together in teams, formal and informal, to complete tasks and develop new knowledge (such as through Wikipedia, alternative reality gaming, spoiling). • Circulations — Shaping the flow of media (such as podcasting, blogging)