Blumler and katz


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Blumler and katz

  1. 1. Blumler and Katz<br />Uses and Gratifications Theory is a popular approach to understanding mass communication. The theory places more focus on the consumer, or audience, instead of the actual message itself by asking “what people do with media” rather than “what media does to people” (Katz, 1959) . It assumes that members of the audience are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. The theory also holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their needs. The approach suggests that people use the media to fulfill specific gratifications. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers' gratification.<br />The Uses and Gratifications Theory follows a basic model. It is an audience-centered approach. When an audience actively seeks out media, they are typically seeking it in order to gratify a need. For example, in social situations, people may feel more confident and knowledgeable when they have specific facts and stories from media to add to conversation. By seeking out media, a person fulfills a need to be informed.<br />Social situations and psychological characteristics motivate the need for media, which motivates certain expectations of that media. This expectation leads one to be exposed to media that would seemingly fit expectations, leading to an ultimate gratification.<br />(<br />
  2. 2. Blumler and Katz<br />The media dependency theory, has also been explored as an extension to the uses and gratifications approach to media, though there is a subtle difference between the two theories. People's dependency on media proves audience goals to be the origin of the dependency while the uses and gratifications approach focuses more on audience needs (Grant et al., 1998). Still, both theories agree that media use can lead to media dependency(Rubin, 1982).<br />The media dependency theory states that the more dependent an individual is on the media for to fulfill needs, the more significant the media becomes to that person. DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1976) illustrate dependency as the relationship between media content, the nature of society, and the behavior of audiences. Littlejohn (2002) also explained that people will become more dependent on media that meet a number of their needs than on media that touch only a few ones. Dependency on a certain medium is influenced by the number sources open to an individual. Individuals are usually more dependent on available media if their access to media alternatives is limited. The more alternatives there are for an individual, the lesser is the dependency on and influence of a specific medium.<br />The hypodermic needle model claims that consumers are strongly affected by media and have no say in how the media influences them. The main idea of the Uses and Gratifications model is that people are not helpless victims of all-powerful media, but use media to fulfill their various needs. These needs serve as motivations for using media.<br />
  3. 3. DIVERSION<br />The Source magazine is a great way to escape from the humdrum of every day life because you can read up on the exciting lifestyles of your favourite hip-hop artist.<br />
  4. 4. PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS<br />Magazines such as theses use devices such as rhetorical questions to address the readership directly. This aids in forming a personal relationship, with the reader, as if they are friends discussing the contents of the articles amongst one another.<br />This particular magazines is appealing to the specific social group of people who are interested in gossip, relating to the music genre.<br />
  5. 5. PERSONAL IDENTITY<br />Music Magazines can function in enabling us to find out something about ourselves. For example, we may find a particular genre or artist in a magazine that we may not have heard of before, then go online a listen to their music and find out that we like it.<br />
  6. 6. SURVEILLANCE<br />Music magazines can also have a purpose of keeping us informed as to the events in the world of music, especially regarding the genre it is focused on. It could be new songs or alum hat are up and coming, or general news regarding some of the main artist or indeed the main cover artist. This may be presented in the form of coverlines, on the magazine.<br />