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Hangzhou, February 2011
Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Daisy Zheng, Zhejiang University
Gender,	
  Emotion	
  
and	
  Personality:	
  
A Culture and Psychology PerspectiveMatsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007).
Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.).
Wadsworth.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
2
Definition of Sex and Gender
Sex
Biological	
  and	
  physiological	
  
differences	
  between	
  males	
  
and	
  females.
Sex Roles
Behaviors	
  expected	
  of	
  males	
  
and	
  females	
  in	
  rela:on	
  to	
  
their	
  biological	
  differences	
  
and	
  reproduc:on.
Sexual Identity
Degree	
  of	
  awareness	
  and	
  
recogni:on	
  of	
  sex	
  and	
  sex	
  
roles	
  an	
  individual	
  may	
  have.	
  	
  
	
  
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
2
Definition of Sex and Gender
Sex
Biological	
  and	
  physiological	
  
differences	
  between	
  males	
  
and	
  females.
Sex Roles
Behaviors	
  expected	
  of	
  males	
  
and	
  females	
  in	
  rela:on	
  to	
  
their	
  biological	
  differences	
  
and	
  reproduc:on.
Sexual Identity
Degree	
  of	
  awareness	
  and	
  
recogni:on	
  of	
  sex	
  and	
  sex	
  
roles	
  an	
  individual	
  may	
  have.	
  	
  
	
  
CULTURE
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
2
Definition of Sex and Gender
Sex
Biological	
  and	
  physiological	
  
differences	
  between	
  males	
  
and	
  females.
Sex Roles
Behaviors	
  expected	
  of	
  males	
  
and	
  females	
  in	
  rela:on	
  to	
  
their	
  biological	
  differences	
  
and	
  reproduc:on.
Sexual Identity
Degree	
  of	
  awareness	
  and	
  
recogni:on	
  of	
  sex	
  and	
  sex	
  
roles	
  an	
  individual	
  may	
  have.	
  	
  
	
  
Gender	
  	
  Behaviors	
  or	
  pa,erns	
  of	
  ac0vi0es	
  that	
  a	
  society	
  or	
  culture	
  
deems	
  appropriate	
  for	
  men	
  and	
  women.
Gender Role	
  	
  Degree	
  to	
  which	
  a	
  person	
  adopts	
  the	
  gender-­‐specific	
  
behaviors	
  ascribed	
  by	
  his	
  or	
  her	
  culture.
Gender Identity Degree	
  to	
  which	
  a	
  person	
  has	
  awareness	
  or	
  
recogni0on	
  that	
  he	
  or	
  she	
  adopts	
  a	
  par0cular	
  gender	
  role.
Gender Role Ideology	
  	
  Judgments	
  about	
  what	
  gender	
  roles	
  in	
  a	
  
par0cular	
  culture	
  ought	
  to	
  be.
Gender Stereotype	
  	
  Psychological	
  or	
  behavioral	
  characteris0cs	
  
typically	
  associated	
  with	
  men	
  and	
  women.
CULTURE
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
2
As	
  different	
  socie0es	
  live	
  in	
  different	
  environments,	
  survival	
  requires	
  that	
  they	
  
balance	
  a	
  number	
  of	
  factors.	
  Thus,	
  as	
  different	
  cultures	
  must	
  deal	
  with	
  different	
  
external	
  factors,	
  it	
  is	
  only	
  natural	
  that	
  gender	
  differences	
  vary	
  by	
  culture.
Definition of Sex and Gender
Sex
Biological	
  and	
  physiological	
  
differences	
  between	
  males	
  
and	
  females.
Sex Roles
Behaviors	
  expected	
  of	
  males	
  
and	
  females	
  in	
  rela:on	
  to	
  
their	
  biological	
  differences	
  
and	
  reproduc:on.
Sexual Identity
Degree	
  of	
  awareness	
  and	
  
recogni:on	
  of	
  sex	
  and	
  sex	
  
roles	
  an	
  individual	
  may	
  have.	
  	
  
	
  
Gender	
  	
  Behaviors	
  or	
  pa,erns	
  of	
  ac0vi0es	
  that	
  a	
  society	
  or	
  culture	
  
deems	
  appropriate	
  for	
  men	
  and	
  women.
Gender Role	
  	
  Degree	
  to	
  which	
  a	
  person	
  adopts	
  the	
  gender-­‐specific	
  
behaviors	
  ascribed	
  by	
  his	
  or	
  her	
  culture.
Gender Identity Degree	
  to	
  which	
  a	
  person	
  has	
  awareness	
  or	
  
recogni0on	
  that	
  he	
  or	
  she	
  adopts	
  a	
  par0cular	
  gender	
  role.
Gender Role Ideology	
  	
  Judgments	
  about	
  what	
  gender	
  roles	
  in	
  a	
  
par0cular	
  culture	
  ought	
  to	
  be.
Gender Stereotype	
  	
  Psychological	
  or	
  behavioral	
  characteris0cs	
  
typically	
  associated	
  with	
  men	
  and	
  women.
CULTURE
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
3
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
7	
  years	
  in	
  China
Born	
  and	
  grew	
  up	
  
in	
  Indonesia
Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
3
14	
  years	
  in	
  Germany
7	
  years	
  in	
  China
Born	
  and	
  grew	
  up	
  
in	
  Indonesia
Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
Professional activities:
• Academic Teaching and Research,as well as Consulting,
Coaching,Training and Assessment in the area of:
- Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication
- Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management
- Corporate Learning and Development
- Executive Coaching and Assessment
- Global Leadership Development Program
- Facilitation of Strategic Conference
- Large Strategic Change Projects
International and National project references:
• BASF,Siemens,Dupont,Commerzbank,Hugo Boss,SAP,
Barco,GTZ,Telkom Indonesia,etc.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
4
Culture and Gender Stereotypes
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
4
Culture and Gender Stereotypes

Research Method Results
Pancultural Universality	
  in	
  Psychological	
  A?ribu:on	
  to	
  Gender	
  (Williams	
  &	
  Best,	
  1982)
 Adjective Check List (ACL)
ACL	
  is	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  300	
  adjec0ves.
Respondents	
  are	
  asked	
  to	
  decide	
  whether	
  
each	
  adjec0ve	
  is	
  considered	
  more	
  
descrip0ve	
  of	
  a	
  male	
  or	
  of	
  a	
  female	
  in	
  their	
  
culture.
Whether	
  the	
  subjects	
  agreed	
  with	
  the	
  
assignment	
  of	
  an	
  adjec0ve	
  to	
  males	
  or	
  
females	
  is	
  irrelevant.
•Men	
  are	
  generally	
  viewed	
  as	
  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,	
  with	
  psychological	
  needs	
  
such	
  as	
  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.	
  
While	
  women	
  are	
  generally	
  viewed	
  as	
  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,	
  with	
  
psychological	
  needs	
  such	
  as	
  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and
heterosexuality.
•Men	
  are	
  associated	
  more	
  with	
  the	
  personality	
  traits	
  of	
  conscientiousness, extroversion,
and openness.	
  While	
  women	
  are	
  associated	
  with	
  higher	
  scores	
  on	
  the	
  personality	
  traits	
  of	
  
agreeableness and neuroticism.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
4
Culture and Gender Stereotypes

Research Method Results
Pancultural Universality	
  in	
  Psychological	
  A?ribu:on	
  to	
  Gender	
  (Williams	
  &	
  Best,	
  1982)
 Adjective Check List (ACL)
ACL	
  is	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  300	
  adjec0ves.
Respondents	
  are	
  asked	
  to	
  decide	
  whether	
  
each	
  adjec0ve	
  is	
  considered	
  more	
  
descrip0ve	
  of	
  a	
  male	
  or	
  of	
  a	
  female	
  in	
  their	
  
culture.
Whether	
  the	
  subjects	
  agreed	
  with	
  the	
  
assignment	
  of	
  an	
  adjec0ve	
  to	
  males	
  or	
  
females	
  is	
  irrelevant.
•Men	
  are	
  generally	
  viewed	
  as	
  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,	
  with	
  psychological	
  needs	
  
such	
  as	
  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.	
  
While	
  women	
  are	
  generally	
  viewed	
  as	
  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,	
  with	
  
psychological	
  needs	
  such	
  as	
  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and
heterosexuality.
•Men	
  are	
  associated	
  more	
  with	
  the	
  personality	
  traits	
  of	
  conscientiousness, extroversion,
and openness.	
  While	
  women	
  are	
  associated	
  with	
  higher	
  scores	
  on	
  the	
  personality	
  traits	
  of	
  
agreeableness and neuroticism.
Research Results
Cross-Cultural Differences	
  in	
  Gender	
  Stereotypes
The	
  Japanese	
  have	
  more	
  tradi:onal	
  gender	
  role	
  orienta:ons	
  than	
  did	
  the	
  Germans.	
  Japanese	
  mothers	
  are	
  seen	
  as	
  more	
  controlling	
  than	
  
fathers,	
  but	
  German	
  mothers	
  are	
  less.
Perceiving	
  gender	
  differences	
  in	
  a	
  stereotype	
  fashion	
  is	
  rather	
  persistent	
  because	
  we	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  more	
  a?uned	
  to	
  informa:on	
  that	
  
reinforce	
  and	
  supports	
  our	
  gender	
  stereotypes.
Gender	
  role	
  stereotypes	
  increase	
  with	
  age	
  (children	
  are	
  more	
  like	
  to	
  sex-­‐type	
  same-­‐sex	
  figures),	
  cogni:ve	
  development	
  (children’s	
  
understanding	
  of	
  gender	
  and	
  sex	
  role	
  preferences	
  appear	
  to	
  be	
  related),	
  and	
  the	
  contribu:on	
  of	
  socializing	
  agents,	
  such	
  as	
  media	
  (the	
  
way	
  the	
  media	
  have	
  historically	
  portrayed	
  women	
  parallels	
  the	
  way	
  media	
  have	
  historically	
  portrayed	
  people	
  of	
  color).
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Tradi:onal	
  scores	
  
tend	
  to	
  describe	
  
gender	
  roles	
  that	
  
were	
  consistent	
  with	
  
the	
  tradi:onal	
  or	
  
universal	
  norms	
  
found	
  in	
  the	
  earlier	
  
research.
Egalitarian	
  scores	
  
reflect	
  a	
  tendency	
  
toward	
  less	
  
differen:a:on	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females	
  on	
  the	
  
various	
  psychological	
  
characteris:cs.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Hofstede’s Study (1980) about
Culture and Self-Concept
“Masculinity”
(MA)
The	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
a	
  culture	
  will	
  foster,	
  
encourage,	
  or	
  
maintain	
  differences	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females.
Tradi:onal	
  scores	
  
tend	
  to	
  describe	
  
gender	
  roles	
  that	
  
were	
  consistent	
  with	
  
the	
  tradi:onal	
  or	
  
universal	
  norms	
  
found	
  in	
  the	
  earlier	
  
research.
Egalitarian	
  scores	
  
reflect	
  a	
  tendency	
  
toward	
  less	
  
differen:a:on	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females	
  on	
  the	
  
various	
  psychological	
  
characteris:cs.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Hofstede’s Study (1980) about
Culture and Self-Concept
“Masculinity”
(MA)
The	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
a	
  culture	
  will	
  foster,	
  
encourage,	
  or	
  
maintain	
  differences	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females.
Tradi:onal	
  scores	
  
tend	
  to	
  describe	
  
gender	
  roles	
  that	
  
were	
  consistent	
  with	
  
the	
  tradi:onal	
  or	
  
universal	
  norms	
  
found	
  in	
  the	
  earlier	
  
research.
Egalitarian	
  scores	
  
reflect	
  a	
  tendency	
  
toward	
  less	
  
differen:a:on	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females	
  on	
  the	
  
various	
  psychological	
  
characteris:cs.
Japan, Austria,
Venezuela, Italy
Tend	
  to	
  endorse	
  items	
  and	
  
values	
  thought	
  to	
  be	
  
associated	
  with	
  masculinity	
  
and	
  male	
  gender	
  roles	
  in	
  
the	
  workplace.
Denmark, Norway,
Netherland, Sweden
Minimize	
  differences	
  between	
  
sexes	
  and	
  genders.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Society Changes
Genera:on	
  diversity
Globaliza:on
Exposure	
  to	
  western	
  culture
Hofstede’s Study (1980) about
Culture and Self-Concept
“Masculinity”
(MA)
The	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
a	
  culture	
  will	
  foster,	
  
encourage,	
  or	
  
maintain	
  differences	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females.
Tradi:onal	
  scores	
  
tend	
  to	
  describe	
  
gender	
  roles	
  that	
  
were	
  consistent	
  with	
  
the	
  tradi:onal	
  or	
  
universal	
  norms	
  
found	
  in	
  the	
  earlier	
  
research.
Egalitarian	
  scores	
  
reflect	
  a	
  tendency	
  
toward	
  less	
  
differen:a:on	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females	
  on	
  the	
  
various	
  psychological	
  
characteris:cs.
Japan, Austria,
Venezuela, Italy
Tend	
  to	
  endorse	
  items	
  and	
  
values	
  thought	
  to	
  be	
  
associated	
  with	
  masculinity	
  
and	
  male	
  gender	
  roles	
  in	
  
the	
  workplace.
Denmark, Norway,
Netherland, Sweden
Minimize	
  differences	
  between	
  
sexes	
  and	
  genders.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
5
Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
Result of Gender Role Ideologies
Research from Williams & Best (1990)
EgalitarianTraditional
Women Men
Nigeria, Pakistan,
India
Netherlands,
Germany, Finland
Society Changes
Genera:on	
  diversity
Globaliza:on
Exposure	
  to	
  western	
  culture
Hofstede’s Study (1980) about
Culture and Self-Concept
“Masculinity”
(MA)
The	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  
a	
  culture	
  will	
  foster,	
  
encourage,	
  or	
  
maintain	
  differences	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females.
Tradi:onal	
  scores	
  
tend	
  to	
  describe	
  
gender	
  roles	
  that	
  
were	
  consistent	
  with	
  
the	
  tradi:onal	
  or	
  
universal	
  norms	
  
found	
  in	
  the	
  earlier	
  
research.
Egalitarian	
  scores	
  
reflect	
  a	
  tendency	
  
toward	
  less	
  
differen:a:on	
  
between	
  males	
  and	
  
females	
  on	
  the	
  
various	
  psychological	
  
characteris:cs.
Japan, Austria,
Venezuela, Italy
Tend	
  to	
  endorse	
  items	
  and	
  
values	
  thought	
  to	
  be	
  
associated	
  with	
  masculinity	
  
and	
  male	
  gender	
  roles	
  in	
  
the	
  workplace.
Denmark, Norway,
Netherland, Sweden
Minimize	
  differences	
  between	
  
sexes	
  and	
  genders.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
6
Psychological Gender Differences across Cultures
Perceptual/Spatial/Cognitive Differences
Males	
  are	
  be,er	
  at	
  mathema0cal	
  and	
  spa0al	
  reasoning	
  tasks,	
  whereas	
  females	
  are	
  be,er	
  at	
  verbal	
  
comprehension	
  tasks.
Conformity and Obedience
Females	
  are	
  more	
  conforming	
  and	
  obedient	
  than	
  males.
Aggressiveness
Males	
  are	
  more	
  aggressive	
  than	
  females.
Other differences
Career	
  plans,	
  self-­‐presenta0ons,	
  dress,	
  suicidal	
  behavior,	
  dream	
  content,	
  personal	
  rela0onships,	
  self-­‐
esteem,	
  conflict	
  resolu0on,	
  response	
  styles,	
  nonverbal	
  behaviors,	
  aRtudes	
  toward	
  marriage	
  and	
  sexual	
  
behaviors,	
  religious	
  involvement,	
  personal	
  en0tlements,	
  etc.
What	
  factor	
  influence	
  which	
  type	
  of	
  differences,	
  and	
  why.
Links	
  between	
  cultural	
  variables	
  such	
  as	
  0ghtness	
  and	
  psychological	
  constructs	
  such	
  as	
  conformity,	
  
and	
  the	
  degree	
  to	
  which	
  gender	
  differences	
  on	
  such	
  constructs	
  are	
  fostered.
Exact	
  mechanisms	
  accoun0ng	
  for	
  these	
  differences,	
  taking	
  into	
  account	
  the	
  complex	
  interplay	
  
among	
  biology,	
  culture,	
  and	
  psychology.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Disgust
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Disgust Happiness
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Disgust Happiness Surprise
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Disgust Happiness Surprise
Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
7
Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
Disgust Happiness Surprise
Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion
BUT
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
8
Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
8
Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules
e.g.	
  Expression	
  of	
  Personal	
  Emo0ons	
  in	
  Self-­‐Ingroup	
  and	
  Self-­‐
Outgroup	
  Rela0onships	
  in	
  Individualis0c	
  and	
  Collec0vis0c	
  
Cultures
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
8
Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules
e.g.	
  Expression	
  of	
  Personal	
  Emo0ons	
  in	
  Self-­‐Ingroup	
  and	
  Self-­‐
Outgroup	
  Rela0onships	
  in	
  Individualis0c	
  and	
  Collec0vis0c	
  
Cultures
Seven response alternatives:
•Express the feeling with no modification
•Deamplify or reduce the expression
•Amplify or exaggerate the expression
•Mask or control your feelings bu showing something else
•Qualify your expression with a smile
•Neutralize your expression
•Something else
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
9
Universal,Pancultural and Culturally Specific Aspects of
Perception of Emotion
Cross-­‐Cultural	
  Similari.es
• Facial	
  expressions	
  recogni:on
• Rela:ve	
  intensity	
  ra:ngs
• Associa:on	
  between	
  perceived	
  
expression	
  intensity	
  and	
  influences	
  
about	
  subjec:ve	
  experience
• Second	
  mode	
  of	
  response	
  in	
  emo:on	
  
recogni:on
Cross-­‐Cultural	
  Differences
• Emo:on	
  recogni:on	
  rates
• Sociocultural	
  dimensions	
  account	
  for	
  
differences	
  in	
  the	
  percep:on	
  of	
  
emo:on
• A?ribu:ons	
  of	
  expression	
  intensity
• Influences	
  about	
  emo:onal	
  
experiences	
  underlying	
  facial	
  
experiences	
  of	
  emo:on
• A?ribu:ons	
  of	
  personality	
  based	
  on	
  
smiles
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
10
Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion
Experiences,Appraisal and Concept
SimilarityDifference
Emotion Experiences Emotion Appraisal Emotion Concept
People	
  share	
  the	
  same	
  
basic	
  emo0on	
  experiences.
Cultural	
  influence	
  is	
  not	
  as	
  
large	
  as	
  the	
  seemingly	
  
innate	
  differences	
  among	
  
the	
  emo0ons	
  themselves.
	
  Happiness
 Fear
Anger
Sadness
Disgust
 Shame and guilt
Most	
  cultures	
  have	
  a	
  
concept	
  for	
  emo0on.
All	
  cultures	
  categorize	
  their	
  
world	
  of	
  emo0on.
Every	
  culture	
  has	
  the	
  
loca0on	
  of	
  emo0on.
Emo0on	
  has	
  a	
  role	
  or	
  
meaning	
  in	
  people’s	
  life.
“Culture	
  Construc0on	
  of	
  
Emo0on”	
  Model:	
  Different	
  
reali:es	
  and	
  ideals	
  of	
  different	
  
cultures	
  produce	
  different	
  
psychological	
  needs	
  and	
  goals,	
  
which	
  produce	
  differences	
  in	
  
habitual	
  emo:onal	
  
tendencies.
Culture	
  differ	
  in	
  appraisal	
  
dimensions	
  that	
  require	
  
judgments	
  rela0ve	
  to	
  
cultural	
  of	
  social	
  norms	
  
such	
  as	
  fairness,	
  morality	
  
and	
  other	
  more	
  “complex”	
  
appraisal	
  dimensions.
Different	
  defini0on.
	
  Different	
  categoriza0on	
  or	
  
labeling.
Different	
  loca0ons.
Different	
  meaning	
  of	
  
emo0ons	
  to	
  people	
  and	
  to	
  
behavior.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
11
An Example of Culture Influences on Self-Perception
Independent construal of self Interdependent construal of self
Individuals	
  focus	
  on	
  personal,
internal attributes	
  –	
  individual	
  
ability,	
  intelligence,	
  personality	
  
traits,	
  goals,	
  or	
  preferences	
  –	
  
expressing	
  them	
  in	
  public	
  and	
  
verifying	
  and	
  confirming	
  them	
  in	
  
private	
  social	
  comparison.
Individuals focus	
  on	
  their	
  
interdependent status with
other people	
  and	
  strive	
  to	
  meet	
  or	
  
even	
  create	
  du0es,	
  obliga0ons,	
  and	
  
social	
  responsibili0es.	
  The	
  most	
  
salient	
  aspect	
  of	
  conscious	
  
experience	
  is intersubjective,	
  
rooted	
  in	
  finely	
  tuned	
  
interpersonal relationships.
Achievement	
  Mo:va:on
Self-­‐Enhancement
Social	
  Explana:on
Happiness
Indigenous	
  Emo:on
Social	
  Connota:on	
  of	
  
Emo:on
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Interested	
  in	
  human	
  psychology	
  within	
  the	
  anthropological	
  
discipline.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  View	
  of	
  personality	
  as	
  
culturally	
  specific,	
  formed	
  by	
  the	
  unique	
  forces	
  each	
  culture	
  
deals	
  with	
  in	
  its	
  milieu.
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  second	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Two	
  or	
  more	
  cultures	
  are	
  treated	
  as	
  independent	
  variables,	
  
and	
  are	
  compared	
  on	
  some	
  personality	
  traits	
  or	
  dimensions.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  See	
  culture	
  and	
  personality	
  as	
  
a	
  mutually	
  cons:tuted	
  system	
  in	
  which	
  each	
  creates	
  and	
  
maintains	
  the	
  other.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Interested	
  in	
  human	
  psychology	
  within	
  the	
  anthropological	
  
discipline.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  View	
  of	
  personality	
  as	
  
culturally	
  specific,	
  formed	
  by	
  the	
  unique	
  forces	
  each	
  culture	
  
deals	
  with	
  in	
  its	
  milieu.
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  second	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Two	
  or	
  more	
  cultures	
  are	
  treated	
  as	
  independent	
  variables,	
  
and	
  are	
  compared	
  on	
  some	
  personality	
  traits	
  or	
  dimensions.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  See	
  culture	
  and	
  personality	
  as	
  
a	
  mutually	
  cons:tuted	
  system	
  in	
  which	
  each	
  creates	
  and	
  
maintains	
  the	
  other.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Interested	
  in	
  human	
  psychology	
  within	
  the	
  anthropological	
  
discipline.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  View	
  of	
  personality	
  as	
  
culturally	
  specific,	
  formed	
  by	
  the	
  unique	
  forces	
  each	
  culture	
  
deals	
  with	
  in	
  its	
  milieu.
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  second	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Two	
  or	
  more	
  cultures	
  are	
  treated	
  as	
  independent	
  variables,	
  
and	
  are	
  compared	
  on	
  some	
  personality	
  traits	
  or	
  dimensions.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  See	
  culture	
  and	
  personality	
  as	
  
a	
  mutually	
  cons:tuted	
  system	
  in	
  which	
  each	
  creates	
  and	
  
maintains	
  the	
  other.
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Interested	
  in	
  human	
  psychology	
  within	
  the	
  anthropological	
  
discipline.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  View	
  of	
  personality	
  as	
  
culturally	
  specific,	
  formed	
  by	
  the	
  unique	
  forces	
  each	
  culture	
  
deals	
  with	
  in	
  its	
  milieu.
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  second	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Two	
  or	
  more	
  cultures	
  are	
  treated	
  as	
  independent	
  variables,	
  
and	
  are	
  compared	
  on	
  some	
  personality	
  traits	
  or	
  dimensions.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  See	
  culture	
  and	
  personality	
  as	
  
a	
  mutually	
  cons:tuted	
  system	
  in	
  which	
  each	
  creates	
  and	
  
maintains	
  the	
  other.
Locus of Control
How	
  much	
  control	
  people	
  believe	
  they	
  have	
  over	
  their	
  behavior	
  and	
  their	
  rela:onship	
  with	
  their	
  environment	
  and	
  with	
  others.
Americans
Higher	
  Internal	
  Locus	
  of	
  Control
Non-Americans
Higher	
  External	
  Locus	
  of	
  Control
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
12
Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of
Personality
Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  first	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Interested	
  in	
  human	
  psychology	
  within	
  the	
  anthropological	
  
discipline.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  View	
  of	
  personality	
  as	
  
culturally	
  specific,	
  formed	
  by	
  the	
  unique	
  forces	
  each	
  culture	
  
deals	
  with	
  in	
  its	
  milieu.
• Dominated	
  in	
  the	
  second	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  20th	
  century.
• Two	
  or	
  more	
  cultures	
  are	
  treated	
  as	
  independent	
  variables,	
  
and	
  are	
  compared	
  on	
  some	
  personality	
  traits	
  or	
  dimensions.
• Most	
  important	
  contribu:on:	
  See	
  culture	
  and	
  personality	
  as	
  
a	
  mutually	
  cons:tuted	
  system	
  in	
  which	
  each	
  creates	
  and	
  
maintains	
  the	
  other.
Locus of Control
How	
  much	
  control	
  people	
  believe	
  they	
  have	
  over	
  their	
  behavior	
  and	
  their	
  rela:onship	
  with	
  their	
  environment	
  and	
  with	
  others.
Americans
Higher	
  Internal	
  Locus	
  of	
  Control
Non-Americans
Higher	
  External	
  Locus	
  of	
  Control
Self-Esteem
Construct	
  of	
  self-­‐esteem	
  and	
  the	
  related	
  construct	
  of	
  self-­‐worth.
European Americans
Higher	
  Self-­‐Enhancing	
  Level
Asians (Chinese & particularly Japanese)
Lower	
  Self-­‐Enhancing	
  Level
Gender,	
  Emo+on	
  and	
  Personality	
  from	
  Cross-­‐cultural	
  Perspec+ve
13
Culture and Five Factor Model of Personality
✦ Cultures	
  may	
  differ	
  in	
  mean	
  levels	
  of	
  personality,	
  however,	
  more	
  
recent	
  research	
  suggest	
  that	
  the	
  Five	
  Factor	
  Model	
  –	
  a	
  constella:on	
  of	
  
personality	
  traits	
  comprising	
  Neuro:cism,	
  Extroversion,	
  Openness,	
  
Conscien:ousness,	
  and	
  Agreeableness	
  -­‐-­‐	
  may	
  be	
  universal	
  to	
  all	
  
humans.
✦ Research	
  on	
  indigenous	
  approaches	
  to	
  personality,	
  however,	
  have	
  
demonstrated	
  culturally	
  specific	
  aspects	
  of	
  personality	
  that	
  cannot	
  be	
  
accounted	
  for	
  by	
  the	
  FFM.
	
  	
  	
  We	
  have	
  suggested	
  that	
  these	
  two	
  seemingly	
  opposing	
  viewpoints	
  need	
  
not	
  be	
  seen	
  as	
  mutually	
  exclusive;	
  rather,	
  it	
  may	
  be	
  more	
  beneficial	
  to	
  
view	
  them	
  as	
  different, coexisting aspects of personality.	
  
	
  	
  	
  The	
  challenge	
  for	
  future research	
  is	
  to	
  capture	
  this	
  coexistence,	
  
examining	
  the	
  rela:ve	
  degree	
  of	
  contribu:on	
  of	
  biological	
  and	
  cultural	
  
factors	
  in	
  the	
  development	
  and	
  organiza:on	
  of	
  personality.
Thank	
  You
Contact us via …
Mail: hora_t@mac.com
Follow: twitter@htjitra
Website: http://horatjitra.com
Zhejiang	
  University,	
  Hangzhou	
  (China)

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Gender, Emotion and Personality: Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives

  • 1. Hangzhou, February 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Daisy Zheng, Zhejiang University Gender,  Emotion   and  Personality:   A Culture and Psychology PerspectiveMatsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.
  • 2. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.      
  • 3. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       CULTURE
  • 4. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       Gender    Behaviors  or  pa,erns  of  ac0vi0es  that  a  society  or  culture   deems  appropriate  for  men  and  women. Gender Role    Degree  to  which  a  person  adopts  the  gender-­‐specific   behaviors  ascribed  by  his  or  her  culture. Gender Identity Degree  to  which  a  person  has  awareness  or   recogni0on  that  he  or  she  adopts  a  par0cular  gender  role. Gender Role Ideology    Judgments  about  what  gender  roles  in  a   par0cular  culture  ought  to  be. Gender Stereotype    Psychological  or  behavioral  characteris0cs   typically  associated  with  men  and  women. CULTURE
  • 5. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 2 As  different  socie0es  live  in  different  environments,  survival  requires  that  they   balance  a  number  of  factors.  Thus,  as  different  cultures  must  deal  with  different   external  factors,  it  is  only  natural  that  gender  differences  vary  by  culture. Definition of Sex and Gender Sex Biological  and  physiological   differences  between  males   and  females. Sex Roles Behaviors  expected  of  males   and  females  in  rela:on  to   their  biological  differences   and  reproduc:on. Sexual Identity Degree  of  awareness  and   recogni:on  of  sex  and  sex   roles  an  individual  may  have.       Gender    Behaviors  or  pa,erns  of  ac0vi0es  that  a  society  or  culture   deems  appropriate  for  men  and  women. Gender Role    Degree  to  which  a  person  adopts  the  gender-­‐specific   behaviors  ascribed  by  his  or  her  culture. Gender Identity Degree  to  which  a  person  has  awareness  or   recogni0on  that  he  or  she  adopts  a  par0cular  gender  role. Gender Role Ideology    Judgments  about  what  gender  roles  in  a   par0cular  culture  ought  to  be. Gender Stereotype    Psychological  or  behavioral  characteris0cs   typically  associated  with  men  and  women. CULTURE
  • 6. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change
  • 7. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 3 14  years  in  Germany 7  years  in  China Born  and  grew  up   in  Indonesia Prof.Dr.Hora Tjitra - Excellence in Culture,Talent and Change Professional activities: • Academic Teaching and Research,as well as Consulting, Coaching,Training and Assessment in the area of: - Cross-Cultural Awareness and Communication - Cross-Cultural Issues in HR Management - Corporate Learning and Development - Executive Coaching and Assessment - Global Leadership Development Program - Facilitation of Strategic Conference - Large Strategic Change Projects International and National project references: • BASF,Siemens,Dupont,Commerzbank,Hugo Boss,SAP, Barco,GTZ,Telkom Indonesia,etc.
  • 8. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes
  • 9. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes  Research Method Results Pancultural Universality  in  Psychological  A?ribu:on  to  Gender  (Williams  &  Best,  1982)  Adjective Check List (ACL) ACL  is  a  list  of  300  adjec0ves. Respondents  are  asked  to  decide  whether   each  adjec0ve  is  considered  more   descrip0ve  of  a  male  or  of  a  female  in  their   culture. Whether  the  subjects  agreed  with  the   assignment  of  an  adjec0ve  to  males  or   females  is  irrelevant. •Men  are  generally  viewed  as  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,  with  psychological  needs   such  as  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.   While  women  are  generally  viewed  as  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,  with   psychological  needs  such  as  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and heterosexuality. •Men  are  associated  more  with  the  personality  traits  of  conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness.  While  women  are  associated  with  higher  scores  on  the  personality  traits  of   agreeableness and neuroticism.
  • 10. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 4 Culture and Gender Stereotypes  Research Method Results Pancultural Universality  in  Psychological  A?ribu:on  to  Gender  (Williams  &  Best,  1982)  Adjective Check List (ACL) ACL  is  a  list  of  300  adjec0ves. Respondents  are  asked  to  decide  whether   each  adjec0ve  is  considered  more   descrip0ve  of  a  male  or  of  a  female  in  their   culture. Whether  the  subjects  agreed  with  the   assignment  of  an  adjec0ve  to  males  or   females  is  irrelevant. •Men  are  generally  viewed  as  active, strong, critical, and adultlike,  with  psychological  needs   such  as  dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance.   While  women  are  generally  viewed  as  passive, weal, nurturing, and adaptive,  with   psychological  needs  such  as  abasement, deference, succorance, affiliation, and heterosexuality. •Men  are  associated  more  with  the  personality  traits  of  conscientiousness, extroversion, and openness.  While  women  are  associated  with  higher  scores  on  the  personality  traits  of   agreeableness and neuroticism. Research Results Cross-Cultural Differences  in  Gender  Stereotypes The  Japanese  have  more  tradi:onal  gender  role  orienta:ons  than  did  the  Germans.  Japanese  mothers  are  seen  as  more  controlling  than   fathers,  but  German  mothers  are  less. Perceiving  gender  differences  in  a  stereotype  fashion  is  rather  persistent  because  we  tend  to  be  more  a?uned  to  informa:on  that   reinforce  and  supports  our  gender  stereotypes. Gender  role  stereotypes  increase  with  age  (children  are  more  like  to  sex-­‐type  same-­‐sex  figures),  cogni:ve  development  (children’s   understanding  of  gender  and  sex  role  preferences  appear  to  be  related),  and  the  contribu:on  of  socializing  agents,  such  as  media  (the   way  the  media  have  historically  portrayed  women  parallels  the  way  media  have  historically  portrayed  people  of  color).
  • 11. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept
  • 12. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional
  • 13. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men
  • 14. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland
  • 15. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs.
  • 16. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs.
  • 17. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 18. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Society Changes Genera:on  diversity Globaliza:on Exposure  to  western  culture Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 19. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 5 Culture,Gender Role Ideology and Self-Concept Result of Gender Role Ideologies Research from Williams & Best (1990) EgalitarianTraditional Women Men Nigeria, Pakistan, India Netherlands, Germany, Finland Society Changes Genera:on  diversity Globaliza:on Exposure  to  western  culture Hofstede’s Study (1980) about Culture and Self-Concept “Masculinity” (MA) The  degree  to  which   a  culture  will  foster,   encourage,  or   maintain  differences   between  males  and   females. Tradi:onal  scores   tend  to  describe   gender  roles  that   were  consistent  with   the  tradi:onal  or   universal  norms   found  in  the  earlier   research. Egalitarian  scores   reflect  a  tendency   toward  less   differen:a:on   between  males  and   females  on  the   various  psychological   characteris:cs. Japan, Austria, Venezuela, Italy Tend  to  endorse  items  and   values  thought  to  be   associated  with  masculinity   and  male  gender  roles  in   the  workplace. Denmark, Norway, Netherland, Sweden Minimize  differences  between   sexes  and  genders.
  • 20. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 6 Psychological Gender Differences across Cultures Perceptual/Spatial/Cognitive Differences Males  are  be,er  at  mathema0cal  and  spa0al  reasoning  tasks,  whereas  females  are  be,er  at  verbal   comprehension  tasks. Conformity and Obedience Females  are  more  conforming  and  obedient  than  males. Aggressiveness Males  are  more  aggressive  than  females. Other differences Career  plans,  self-­‐presenta0ons,  dress,  suicidal  behavior,  dream  content,  personal  rela0onships,  self-­‐ esteem,  conflict  resolu0on,  response  styles,  nonverbal  behaviors,  aRtudes  toward  marriage  and  sexual   behaviors,  religious  involvement,  personal  en0tlements,  etc. What  factor  influence  which  type  of  differences,  and  why. Links  between  cultural  variables  such  as  0ghtness  and  psychological  constructs  such  as  conformity,   and  the  degree  to  which  gender  differences  on  such  constructs  are  fostered. Exact  mechanisms  accoun0ng  for  these  differences,  taking  into  account  the  complex  interplay   among  biology,  culture,  and  psychology.
  • 21. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression?
  • 22. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger
  • 23. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear
  • 24. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness
  • 25. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt
  • 26. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust
  • 27. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness
  • 28. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise
  • 29. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion
  • 30. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 7 Can You Tell Their Feeling from Facial Expression? Anger Fear Sadness Contempt Disgust Happiness Surprise Universality of Facial Expressions of Emotion BUT
  • 31. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules
  • 32. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules e.g.  Expression  of  Personal  Emo0ons  in  Self-­‐Ingroup  and  Self-­‐ Outgroup  Rela0onships  in  Individualis0c  and  Collec0vis0c   Cultures
  • 33. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 8 Cross-Cultural Differences in Display Rules e.g.  Expression  of  Personal  Emo0ons  in  Self-­‐Ingroup  and  Self-­‐ Outgroup  Rela0onships  in  Individualis0c  and  Collec0vis0c   Cultures Seven response alternatives: •Express the feeling with no modification •Deamplify or reduce the expression •Amplify or exaggerate the expression •Mask or control your feelings bu showing something else •Qualify your expression with a smile •Neutralize your expression •Something else
  • 34. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 9 Universal,Pancultural and Culturally Specific Aspects of Perception of Emotion Cross-­‐Cultural  Similari.es • Facial  expressions  recogni:on • Rela:ve  intensity  ra:ngs • Associa:on  between  perceived   expression  intensity  and  influences   about  subjec:ve  experience • Second  mode  of  response  in  emo:on   recogni:on Cross-­‐Cultural  Differences • Emo:on  recogni:on  rates • Sociocultural  dimensions  account  for   differences  in  the  percep:on  of   emo:on • A?ribu:ons  of  expression  intensity • Influences  about  emo:onal   experiences  underlying  facial   experiences  of  emo:on • A?ribu:ons  of  personality  based  on   smiles
  • 35. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 10 Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion Experiences,Appraisal and Concept SimilarityDifference Emotion Experiences Emotion Appraisal Emotion Concept People  share  the  same   basic  emo0on  experiences. Cultural  influence  is  not  as   large  as  the  seemingly   innate  differences  among   the  emo0ons  themselves.   Happiness  Fear Anger Sadness Disgust  Shame and guilt Most  cultures  have  a   concept  for  emo0on. All  cultures  categorize  their   world  of  emo0on. Every  culture  has  the   loca0on  of  emo0on. Emo0on  has  a  role  or   meaning  in  people’s  life. “Culture  Construc0on  of   Emo0on”  Model:  Different   reali:es  and  ideals  of  different   cultures  produce  different   psychological  needs  and  goals,   which  produce  differences  in   habitual  emo:onal   tendencies. Culture  differ  in  appraisal   dimensions  that  require   judgments  rela0ve  to   cultural  of  social  norms   such  as  fairness,  morality   and  other  more  “complex”   appraisal  dimensions. Different  defini0on.   Different  categoriza0on  or   labeling. Different  loca0ons. Different  meaning  of   emo0ons  to  people  and  to   behavior.
  • 36. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 11 An Example of Culture Influences on Self-Perception Independent construal of self Interdependent construal of self Individuals  focus  on  personal, internal attributes  –  individual   ability,  intelligence,  personality   traits,  goals,  or  preferences  –   expressing  them  in  public  and   verifying  and  confirming  them  in   private  social  comparison. Individuals focus  on  their   interdependent status with other people  and  strive  to  meet  or   even  create  du0es,  obliga0ons,  and   social  responsibili0es.  The  most   salient  aspect  of  conscious   experience  is intersubjective,   rooted  in  finely  tuned   interpersonal relationships. Achievement  Mo:va:on Self-­‐Enhancement Social  Explana:on Happiness Indigenous  Emo:on Social  Connota:on  of   Emo:on
  • 37. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality
  • 38. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 39. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 40. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other.
  • 41. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other. Locus of Control How  much  control  people  believe  they  have  over  their  behavior  and  their  rela:onship  with  their  environment  and  with  others. Americans Higher  Internal  Locus  of  Control Non-Americans Higher  External  Locus  of  Control
  • 42. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 12 Cross-Cultural Approaches and Results of Study of Personality Psychological Anthropology Cross-Cultural Psychology • Dominated  in  the  first  half  of  the  20th  century. • Interested  in  human  psychology  within  the  anthropological   discipline. • Most  important  contribu:on:  View  of  personality  as   culturally  specific,  formed  by  the  unique  forces  each  culture   deals  with  in  its  milieu. • Dominated  in  the  second  half  of  the  20th  century. • Two  or  more  cultures  are  treated  as  independent  variables,   and  are  compared  on  some  personality  traits  or  dimensions. • Most  important  contribu:on:  See  culture  and  personality  as   a  mutually  cons:tuted  system  in  which  each  creates  and   maintains  the  other. Locus of Control How  much  control  people  believe  they  have  over  their  behavior  and  their  rela:onship  with  their  environment  and  with  others. Americans Higher  Internal  Locus  of  Control Non-Americans Higher  External  Locus  of  Control Self-Esteem Construct  of  self-­‐esteem  and  the  related  construct  of  self-­‐worth. European Americans Higher  Self-­‐Enhancing  Level Asians (Chinese & particularly Japanese) Lower  Self-­‐Enhancing  Level
  • 43. Gender,  Emo+on  and  Personality  from  Cross-­‐cultural  Perspec+ve 13 Culture and Five Factor Model of Personality ✦ Cultures  may  differ  in  mean  levels  of  personality,  however,  more   recent  research  suggest  that  the  Five  Factor  Model  –  a  constella:on  of   personality  traits  comprising  Neuro:cism,  Extroversion,  Openness,   Conscien:ousness,  and  Agreeableness  -­‐-­‐  may  be  universal  to  all   humans. ✦ Research  on  indigenous  approaches  to  personality,  however,  have   demonstrated  culturally  specific  aspects  of  personality  that  cannot  be   accounted  for  by  the  FFM.      We  have  suggested  that  these  two  seemingly  opposing  viewpoints  need   not  be  seen  as  mutually  exclusive;  rather,  it  may  be  more  beneficial  to   view  them  as  different, coexisting aspects of personality.        The  challenge  for  future research  is  to  capture  this  coexistence,   examining  the  rela:ve  degree  of  contribu:on  of  biological  and  cultural   factors  in  the  development  and  organiza:on  of  personality.
  • 44. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: hora_t@mac.com Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://horatjitra.com Zhejiang  University,  Hangzhou  (China)