Dropped Objects (DROPS) Prevention


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This presentation covers dropped objects, how we define dropped objects and understand their causes and consequences.
Topics covered include:
> Static Dropped Objects
> Dynamic Dropped Objects
> Working at height
> Hazard identification

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  • Statistics speak for themselves.
    Of 412 fatalities, 88 were directly attributed to Dropped Objects.
    Access latest statistics at Bureau of Labor / OSHA
  • First let’s make sure we understand what a dropped object is. Let us look now at how we define dropped objects and understand their causes and consequences.
    >>What is a Dropped Object? Ask the class.
    >>(Reveal answer) A dropped object is any item or object that falls from its previous position. (use your prompts around you. A projector, a screen, a picture frame, an airconditioning unit, a lighting fixture…basically anything stored, fixed or used at height. Let’s say you select a lighting fixture. If this fell from the ceiling, it would be a dropped object)
    It is important for us to analyse these objects and define them further.
    Ask delegates to describe different kinds of dropped objects. Try to include examples from all activities – even home and leisure.
    Note that some industries and regions may use different terms such as falling items, struck by, material fall – and in some cases we may report dropped objects as other types of injuries. Crush injuries for example can be caused by items being dropped on hands and feet.
    It is important for us to analyse dropped objects and define them further – so we can understand how they happen and what we can do to prevent them.
    Ask delegates if they know what the two definitions of dropped objects are. Try to use a visual example – perhaps something in the worksite or classroom.
    You could even use a pen attached to a piece of string…
    >>Static - any object that falls from its previous static position under its own weight – the weight of the pen causes the knot in the string to fail and it falls. Gravity is one of the hazards identified in our Hazard Identification Wheel.
    >> Dynamic - any object that falls from its previous static position due to applied force from equipment/machinery or moving object – the pen is struck or is snagged, causing the knot to fail or the string to snap.
    Think Gravity, plus mechanical, motion, pressure – even electrical (electric shock from power tool results in drop etc)
    >> Also consider kinetic potential - any object that falls from its previous static position due to failure caused by repeated cyclic loading and movement – the pen swings continuously in a noisy, vibrating, windy environment – perhaps extreme temperature changes too - for days, weeks, months, causing the knot to fail or the string to snap or even the pen clip to fail due to the continuous wear.
    Consider more combinations of potential hazards that affect items secured or stored at height – or even stacked against a wall. If we add other factors such as corrosion or poorly selected and installed fittings, we begin to identify potential scenarios around common working activities that can cause dropped objects.
    Discuss some more examples / real incidents. Determine which were static, which were dynamic and which were kinetic. We will study these in more detail later on.
  • Consider this image. What can you see. It is a potential dropped object.
    Identify the individual components (housing, bracket, t-bar mount). Identify the primary fixings.
    Consider how this could fall (static or dynamic). What would cause it to fall (collision, corrosion, poor maintenance, vibration etc).
    Any other fixings that may prevent the light from falling (power cable, safety wire)
  • Have a closer look. The primary bolting uses a washer system as secondary retention (ie maintaining the torque).
    The arrangement here shows two washers. This is not good practice.
    It is apparent that this would not be Original Equipment Manufacturer recommended either (note evidence on bottom arrangement – inner washer covers view-hole and thread appears short).
    These primary fixings must be considered as potential failure points and should be reviewed against OEM guidance.
  • Now the safety wire. This has been retro-fitted, is not good practice, already shows signs of corrosion etc.
    All safety wires, nets etc must be carefully considered, ideally in association with OEM. Always focus on primary fixings.
  • This short video shows the result after a 220g bolt was dropped from 27m – through 3 stands of drillpipe.
  • There are a number of tools and techniques available for classifying the potential consequences from potential dropped objects. Many companies will use their own tool or technique and all the tools are for guidance only. There are simply too many influencing factors/variables for any tool to accurately predict the consequences of a potential dropped object. Some of these variables are difficult to quantify and build into a simple model, eg the shape of an object and its impact on the person, the operations and controls already in place. Hence the reason why this is a tool and guide to provide some starting point for investigation.
    One such guidance tool, known as the DROPS Calculator, is offered by the DROPS Workgroup.
    >>The legend may require some explanation,
  • Be sure to inspect all tools before using them for working at height. Ensure approves tools are selected. Never use inappropriate or home-made securing devices.
  • Barriered Areas are No Go Zones, unless you have been included in the TBRA/ JSA and PTW processes.
    Never cross a barrier…
    Discuss what is missing from this movie example
  • Red Zones or Restricted Access Areas feature on all Company operated drilling packages. However the principle can be applied to any asset zone where personnel may be exposed to dropped objects – as well as other hazards such as moving equipment, remotely operated equipment, high pressure and other hazards determined by risk assessments for the task in hand.
    Areas defined as Red Zones are clearly marked. Personnel within the Red Zone must be required for the current operation and authorized by the relevantTeam Leader. The Team Leader must ensure all personnel entering the Red Zone are aware of all moving equipment such as the top drive, drawworks, pipe handling equip and so on.
    It is equally important for personnel who are authorised to work within the Red Zone. Personnel must identify Step Back Safety Zones and look to limit physical time spent working within any Red Zone.
    Yellow Zone – Personnel with specific work related tasks to do may enter subject to Team Leader and Permit to Work authority.
    Green Zone – Anyone may enter as long as there are no additional barriers in place. In the case of visiting the dog house, it is always advisable to call ahead and plan any visits to eliminate unnecessary distractions.
    These same principles are in force on many rigs worldwide, not just our organisation. Simple rule of thumb is never enter the drill floor area unless you are part of the drilling crew, have an appropriate permit and authority to enter or have the express permission of the Driller.
  • We are typically very good at spotting potential Static dropped objects. We can almost sense when they will happen, perhaps due to our natural perceptions of gravity, height and weight.
    But when there is an activity that involves motion, do we always consider all of the potentials for Dynamic dropped objects?
    Let’s imagine our task today is the removal of the table cloth from the dining table in the background. Our two young volunteers are planning to remove this quickly without causing any damage to the crockery. What hazards can you identify?
    Hot liquid? Sharp edges? Spills?
  • A wealth of technical experience and knowledge: - Over 35 years combined in Drilling - Over 30years combined each in Asset Integrity and Renewables - Over 24years combined in CFD - Over 20years combined in
    Failure Analysis
  • A top drive is a mechanical device on a drilling rig that provides clockwise torque to the drill string to facilitate the process of drilling a borehole. It is an alternative to rotary table. It is located at the swivel place and allows a vertical movement up and down the derrick.
    An advantage of a top drive is that it allows the drilling rig to drill longer sections of a stand of drill pipe. A rotary table type rig can only drill 30-foot (9.1 m) (single drill pipe respectively) sections of drill pipe while a top drive can drill 60–90-foot (18–27 m) stands (double-triple respectively. A triple being three joints of drillpipe screwed together.), depending on the drilling rig type. Having longer sections of drill pipe allows the drilling rigs to drill deeper sections of the wellbore, thus making fewer connections of drill pipe. Another advantage of top drive systems is time efficiency. When the bit progresses under a kelly, the entire string must be withdrawn from the well bore for the length of the kelly drive. With a top drive, the draw works only has to pick a new stand from the rack and make two joints. The savings in time reduces the risk of a stuck string from annulus clogging.
    Several different kinds of top drives exist, and are usually classified based on the "Safe Working Load" (SWL) of the tool, and the size and type of motor used to rotate the drillpipe. For offshore and heavy duty use, a 1000 short ton, top drive would be used, where a smaller land rig may only require a 500. Motors are available in all sizes, and come in Hydraulically powered, AC, or DC motors.
  • Dropped Objects (DROPS) Prevention

    1. 1. Dropped Objects (DROPS) Prevention IPTC Conference & Exhibition Doha, January 2014 Joachim van der Meulen M&S Manager LRED AP & ME Secretary DROPS Asia Working together for a safer world
    2. 2. Lloyd’s Register Energy
    3. 3. www.dropsonline.org Lloyd’s Register Energy
    4. 4. Dropped Objects Lloyd’s Register Energy
    5. 5. Definitions Static Dropped Object any object that falls from its previous position under its own weight – where Gravity takes over! Dynamic Dropped Object any object that falls from its previous position due to applied force from equipment/machinery or moving object – like a collision, perhaps during lifting or stacking… think wind, pressure or electrical energy sources too Lloyd’s Register Energy
    6. 6. Static Dropped Objects When gravity takes over… • Fixings fail (nuts, bolts, screws, clips etc.) • Structure fails (gratings, signage, wind walls) • Unsecured items fall (poor stacking, tools) What are the Contributing Factors? • Incorrect or home-made fixings • Poor inspection, repair and maintenance • Poor housekeeping, no control of items aloft • Environmental factors over time • Lack of experience, hazards not identified Lloyd’s Register Energy
    7. 7. Dynamic Dropped Objects Over 70% of Dropped Objects are dynamic • Striking against/colliding with objects or structure • Excessive vibrations and extreme conditions • Heavy lifts, moves, activities where force is applied What are the Contributing Factors? • Unnecessary distractions whilst undertaking task • Not following the plan or procedure • Failure to recognize and manage change • Lack of experience or knowledge • No awareness of surroundings Lloyd’s Register Energy
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. 10
    11. 11. Reliable Securing Rev 3 • DROPS Reliable Securing • Securing Methods • Understanding Dropped Objects • Risk Management • General Tips for Dropped Object Free Worksites • Working at Height • Hoisting, Lifting and Suspended Items • Securing Structural Items and Sundries • Securing Electrical Equipment and Instruments • Moving Equipment • Material Storage Lloyd’s Register Energy
    12. 12. Reliable Securing Rev3 Content Lloyd’s Register Energy
    13. 13. What if? If this machine bolt was to fall from 27m - and strike someone below, on the head (whilst wearing a hardhat), what could happen to them? Lloyd’s Register Energy
    14. 14. DROPS CALCULATOR Lloyd’s Register Energy
    15. 15. Tools at Height Lloyd’s Register Energy
    16. 16. Tools at Height Lloyd’s Register Energy
    17. 17. Never Cross a Barrier Lloyd’s Register Energy
    18. 18. Red Zones / Restricted Access Areas   Step Back Safety Zones  Lloyd’s Register Energy Permission to enter Access diagrams posted
    19. 19. Hazard Identification Competence, distractions, communication, roles and responsibilities, the work environment… … Authority to Stop Work that is unsafe. Lloyd’s Register Energy
    20. 20. Dropped Objects Through the Supply Chain Lloyd’s Register Energy
    21. 21. Lloyd’s Register & DROPS • Sponsorship and organization of DROPS Forums • Inspections • Audits • Certification & Class • Training • Research & Development Lloyd’s Register Energy
    22. 22. GTC Research Team • Multi-disciplinary expertise from LR family > 35 years in Drilling > 30 years in Asset Integrity > 25 years in CFD > 20 years in Failure analysis > 20 years in Marine architecture Lloyd’s Register Energy • • • • • Industry and consulting experience 80% Senior researchers with MSc / PhD PhD students doubling year-on-year 13 nationalities Fluent in 18 languages
    23. 23. Background to TDS DROPS workshop • Originally initiated and fully supported by Brunei Shell Petroleum Company • Based on incident data provided by Brunei Shell Petroleum Company • Supported by historical data available within Lloyds Register Energy Drilling inspection records • Participation of operators, rig owners and manufacturer Lloyd’s Register Energy
    24. 24. Discussions and outcome of the workshop • New design fully enclosed TDS • Full automated operation • Remove / eliminate non essentials on current TDS • Focus on design and maintenance of primary fixing • Measure operational vibration levels; verify design accordingly • Zone management systems • Time requirements for maintenance and DROPS inspections • DROPS inspections by suitable technically trained personnel • Use visual aids to highlight critical inspection items • Create application to upgrade picture book to handheld devices • Develop industry standard Lloyd’s Register Energy
    25. 25. Further Resources • Download my free whitepaper on ‘Top Drive Systems Dropped Objects Prevention’ • www.lrenergy.org/drops • www.dropsonline.org Lloyd’s Register Energy
    26. 26. Joachim van der Meulen Marketing & Sales Manager AP & ME Lloyd’s Register Energy Drilling T +65 8133 1369 E joachim.vdmeulen@lr.org Connect with me on LinkedIn Lloyd’s Register Drilling Integrity Services Asia Pacific Pte Ltd. 1 Bukit Batok Street 22 #05-02, Singapore 659592 Working together for a safer world Lloyd’s Register and variants of it are trading names of Lloyd’s Register Group Limited, its subsidiaries and affiliates. Copyright © Lloyd’s Register [Entity]. 2013. A member of the Lloyd’s Register group.