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  1. 1. Philip M. Napoli Director Donald McGannon Communication Research Center Fordham University New York, NY Media Policy Fellow New America Foundation Washington, DC
  2. 2. Rationale  Large body of research on the dynamics of advertiser pressures on traditional media  Direct and indirect influences  Similar literature addressing online media has yet to develop  Focus has instead been on issues of economic viability
  3. 3. Objectives  To highlight the need for more research  To consider extent to which existing research on traditional media can inform research on online contexts  To put forth some propositions about the dynamics of advertiser pressures on online journalism  To consider the dynamics of advertiser pressures in terms of the interactions and interdependencies between traditional and online journalism
  4. 4. Background: Journalism & Advertising  Journalism’s dependence on advertising began in late 19th century grew more pronounced over time  Traditional advertising support model undermined in 21st century  Long tradition of concern about ways in which pressures to attract advertising might affect journalistic output
  5. 5. Advertising’s Influence on Journalism  Some Key Findings:  Emergence of “norm of objectivity”  Decline in competition ○ “Circulation Spiral”  Increasing emphasis on serving and attracting desirable demographic segments ○ Affects nature of news coverage  Creation of content to serve advertiser needs  Blurring of line between advertising and editorial
  6. 6. Relevance to Online Journalism  Indirect  Extension of traditional news outlets online  Influence of traditional news outlets on online news outlets  Direct  Extent to which economic and institutional dynamics of online news are comparable
  7. 7. Relevant Online News Dynamics +/- De-Institutionalization of journalism  Both organizationally and procedurally? + More journalism being produced outside of commercial news organizations - Lack of institutionalized “church-state” separation + Opportunities for greater variety and innovation in revenue models - Consumer resistance to paying for online content
  8. 8. Relevant Online News Dynamics  Online news organizations smaller/less bureaucratic - Less able to resist advertiser pressures? + Less internal pressure to maximize profits?  Long tail of audience attention and advertising dollars +/- Disproportionate clustering of advertising dollars around relatively few sources
  9. 9. Conclusion  Difficult to parse traditional from online journalism  Complex ecosystem ○ Developments affecting online platform affect traditional platforms and vice versa ○ Effects of inter-platform competition for news audience and advertising dollars  Comparative analyses key to testing propositions put forth here
  10. 10. Thank you!