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  1. UGC Status and Levels of Control in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican, Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish, US and Venezuelan Online Newspapers Austin, 2009
  2. Elvira Garcia de Torres Lyudmyla Yezers’ ka Fernando Zamith Nora Paul Jorge BadilloMabel Calderin Miladys Rojano Silvia Martinez Martinez Janet Rodriguez Martinez Jose Azevedo Roberto Igarza
  3. Elvira Garcia de Torres Lyudmyla Yezers’ ka Fernando Zamith Nora Paul Jorge BadilloMabel Calderin Miladys Rojano Silvia Martinez Martinez Janet Rodriguez Martinez Jose Azevedo Roberto Igarza
  4. UGC - Journalism Bowman and Willis (2004):a form of participatory journalism Hermida and Thurman (2008): a process… opportunity to participate or contribute De Keyser and Raeymaeckers (2008): the sum of participatory and citizen journalism Wunsh/Vincent and Vickery (2007): publication, creative effort (also adapting) and outside of professional practices
  5. UGC Citizen Journalism UGC (news reporting) Participatory Journalism (MSM)
  6. Approach In this context, we propose to analyze participatory journalism messages taking into consideration the relationship between users and producers as the relationship provides a context in which messages acquire meaning
  7. Framework Our approach is based in the Interactional view, that looks into verbal and non verbal messages to find out the rules of the relationships There can be, for example, a pattern of authority/submission or weakness/assistance
  8. Messages Also, tacit messages and explicit messages on the relationship acquire importance We found them in the terms of use and privacy policies, the more or less control of the users’ participation, data on participation and so on.
  9. Purpose In this preliminary approach we seek to explore relational messages in the user- producer relationship regarding control and recognition of UGC
  10. Research Questions Q1. Are there any patterns in messages regarding UGC? Q2. Do media give visibility to the users contributions? Q3. Is there a correlation between control for comments on journalistic and amateur content? Q4. How far do media get involved in producing a citizen reporter toolkit?
  11. Method Survey of 24 websites of Argentine, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Spain, US and Venezuela Sample takes circulation in consideration. It is based on circulation audits data and other significant sources when reliable figures are not easily available
  12. Argentine
  13. Argentine
  14. Argentine
  15. Colombia
  16. Colombia
  17. Colombia
  18. Mexico
  19. Mexico
  20. Mexico
  21. Peru
  22. Peru
  23. Peru
  24. Portugal
  25. Portugal
  26. Portugal
  27. Spain
  28. Spain
  29. Spain
  30. United States
  31. United States
  32. United States
  33. Venezuela
  34. Venezuela
  35. Venezuela
  36. Parameters The coding scheme is based partially in Domingo et al (2008) We put emphasis in The rules The mechanisms of control Recognition of UGC I.e. Send a picture
  37. Send a picture For example, for “Send a picture” in our grid it is possible to code: Moderator/ moderator on ocassion Registration Categories Conceptualization: what news is Tips: how to take a better picture Undesirable material Report Abuse Displayed in other sections Monetary compensation /on ocassion
  38. Send a picture Users have to pay Photos can be shared Post a comment Editing tools Specific rules / Read / Accept General rules / Read /Accept Grant license on rights License for adaptations Minimum age to participate Minors are supposed to have permission Has to be original work /consent by people shown/ parents or guardians if minors Right to reject the picture
  39. CR Channel Rules Formats What “news” is Ethics Control Monetary compensation Warning signals for sensitive material Unwelcome content Posibility to publish in other sections/webs/media
  40. Codebook
  41. Reliability Test of the codebook (two papers per country) and final version Test of reliability, as a prior step, before entering the coding process When the level of agreement was considered sufficient, the analysis took place We decided that each paper would be coded by two analists, in view of the length and the attention it required
  42. Communication A wiki was created to facilitate the coordination and communication between the members of the group. Challenges: Working at different hours along the day Language barriers
  43. Conclusion 1 Results reflect a duality regarding UGC status: there is a wide implementation of 2.0 tools, but the most accepted are those that allow users to work on the content provided by the newspapers, but not so much the tools to produce content.
  44. UGC STATUS AR CO ME PE PT ES VE US TO T News Stories audience-driven hierarchy 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 20 Stories/Blogs list audience-driven hierarchy on the homepage 2 2 3 0 3 3 3 3 19 Reporter blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 18 Polls, Live discussion, forum… on the home page 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 18 Comments embedded in journalist blogs 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 3 17 Comments embedded in journalist stories 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 2 17 UGC on the frontpage 2 2 3 0 3 3 2 2 17 All blogs are open to comments 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 16 Social networking in the stories 1 2 3 1 1 3 1 3 15
  45. Conclusion 2 At the same time, recognition of content provided by users is high regarding both the number of options given to them to be contributors to the newspaper and the publication of their contributions in the front page.
  46. Conclusion 3 The most significant pieces in the puzzle of status is who retains the rights over content and if monetary compensation for contributions is given. This is where the real recognition or the status is established in terms of authorship and both were found to provide little in the way of protection or rights for the users’ contributions.
  47. UGC RIGHTS ON CONTENT ARG COL MEX PER PTR ES VE US TOT Invitation to submit photos 0 0 3 1 2 2 2 2 12 Grant license on rights 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 6 (50%) License for adaptations 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 5 (41.6% ) Invitation to submit videos 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 2 7 Grant license on rights 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 5( 71.4 %) License for adaptations 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 3 (42.8% ) Citizen Reporter Channel 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 8 Grant license on rights 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 4 (50%) License for adaptations 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 6 (75%)
  48. Conclusion 4 This is significant given that users were generally not asked to explicitly accept the legal terms, that is, the contract, as a step prior to uploading or sending contributions.
  49. Read the rules Example for “Read the rules” (El Mundo, (Spain)
  50. Acceptance is compulsory to post a comment Example for “Accept the rules” ( Clarín, Argentine)
  51. Conclusion 5 Control of UGC is exerted though a variety of tools. Some of them require a very active stance by the newspapers, such as moderation, especially when it does not depend on the reporting of abuse by the users. Other means of control are based on more or less strong directions and guidelines (rules, recommendations or prohibitions).
  52. Conclusion 6 Newspapers present a high variance with a majority of papers adopting different strategies depending on the tool offered.
  53. Conclusion 7 Problems arising from participation and attempts to solve them by mechanisms of control based on human resources and/or technology are well known, but the coordination of the actions regarding UGC in the websites requires further examination.
  54. Conclusion 8 The “citizen reporter channel,” the most significant feature regarding UGC as participation described here as doing the job, was adopted by eight out of 24 papers of the sample. The study shows that the citizen reporter toolkit is almost empty of principles or concepts; we have to explore the differences found by countries.
  55. Name Newspaper Country Soy Corresponsal La Nación Argentine Yo Público El Tiempo Colombia Reportero Ciudadano El Universal Mexico Yo lo vi Milenio Mexico Cidadao Repòrtero Jornal de Noticias Portugal Correio do Lector Correio da Manha Portugal Yo, Periodista (El País) El País Spain Yo reportero El Nacional Venezuela
  56. Code of ethics Tutorial; tips to write a good story Citizen reporter channel in La Nación (Argentine) Regarding Ethics (3 newspapers), principles mentioned in the channels were Truth (3), Accuracy (1), Freedom from bias (2), Fair Play (1) and Sources should be identified (2).
  57. Conclusion 9 Research on the users´ attitudes, perceptions and activity regarding the options given by the papers, their knowledge of the legal terms affecting participation and its consequences, as well as privacy policies and rules will contribute to greater understanding of the structures in the user-producer relationship.
  58. UGC Status and Levels of Control in Argentine, Colombian, Mexican, Peruvian, Portuguese, Spanish, US and Venezuelan Online Newspapers Austin, 2009