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UNIT 7 - The Interwar Years and the World War II (Full).pdf

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UNIT 7
THE INTERWAR YEARS AND
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
1. RUSSIA: FROM THE TSAR TO THE USSR
2. THE USSR AND ITS DEVELOPMENT
3. POST-WAR YEARS: CRISIS AND RECOVERY IN THE 1920S
4. THE 1929 CRISIS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION
5. AUTHORITARIANISM AND TOTALITARIANISM
6. THE RISE OF NAZISM IN GERMANY
7. THE GERMAN THIRD REICH
8. THE SECOND WORLD WAR
9. THE SECOND WORLD WAR: CONSEQUENCES
UNIT 7 - The Interwar Years and the World War II (Full).pdf
1. RUSSIA: FROM THE TSAR TO THE USSR
1. Russia before the Revolution: the Russian Empire
Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th century):
• Political situation: autocratic regime.
• Supported by local bureaucracy, a powerful army and the Orthodox Church.
• Absolute power of the Tsar.
Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th
century):
• Agricultural base of economy.
• Large landowners, poor peasants.
Semi-feudal regime.
• Lack of industrial development
(late 19th, St Petersburg and
Moscow). Little railway and heavy
industries.
• Social characteristics:
• One of the least developed and
poorest in all Europe.
• Peasants and factory workers
suffered hard working conditions,
low wages, long working days, and
paid high taxes.
Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th century):
Political parties:
- Kadet (Democratic Constitutional Party). Bourgeois liberalism.
- Esers (Social-Revolutionary Party). Peasant revolution.
- Russian Social Democratic Party. Marxist and working-class militants.
- 1912: Mensheviks  Moderate. Allegiance with Kadet for overthrowing the
Tsar.
- Bolsheviks  Revolutionary.

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UNIT 7 - The Interwar Years and the World War II (Full).pdf

  • 1. UNIT 7 THE INTERWAR YEARS AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  • 2. 1. RUSSIA: FROM THE TSAR TO THE USSR 2. THE USSR AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 3. POST-WAR YEARS: CRISIS AND RECOVERY IN THE 1920S 4. THE 1929 CRISIS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION 5. AUTHORITARIANISM AND TOTALITARIANISM 6. THE RISE OF NAZISM IN GERMANY 7. THE GERMAN THIRD REICH 8. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 9. THE SECOND WORLD WAR: CONSEQUENCES
  • 4. 1. RUSSIA: FROM THE TSAR TO THE USSR 1. Russia before the Revolution: the Russian Empire Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th century): • Political situation: autocratic regime. • Supported by local bureaucracy, a powerful army and the Orthodox Church. • Absolute power of the Tsar.
  • 5. Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th century): • Agricultural base of economy. • Large landowners, poor peasants. Semi-feudal regime. • Lack of industrial development (late 19th, St Petersburg and Moscow). Little railway and heavy industries. • Social characteristics: • One of the least developed and poorest in all Europe. • Peasants and factory workers suffered hard working conditions, low wages, long working days, and paid high taxes.
  • 6. Pre-revolutionary Russia (Early 20th century): Political parties: - Kadet (Democratic Constitutional Party). Bourgeois liberalism. - Esers (Social-Revolutionary Party). Peasant revolution. - Russian Social Democratic Party. Marxist and working-class militants. - 1912: Mensheviks  Moderate. Allegiance with Kadet for overthrowing the Tsar. - Bolsheviks  Revolutionary.
  • 7. Early 20th century: the tsar (Nicholas II Romanov, since 1894) started losing power: 1. Social dissatisfaction: high taxes, scarce rights and periodic shortages of food. 2. Colonial defeats: in 1905 the Russian Empire was defeated by Japan, what was interpreted as an international humiliation. 3. The appearance of political parties and proletariat organizations, which were severely repressed. 2. The causes of the Revolution and first attempt
  • 8. THE 1905 REVOLUTION § 1905  Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War è Revolts  Harsh repression (Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg, Odessa, etc.)
  • 10. § Workers, peasants and soldiers organised in Soviets (councils) è Strikes and demonstrations § Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party, divided into the Mensheviks (moderate socialists) and the Bolsheviks (radical Marxists) gained more importance. § 1906  Tsar agreed to elections by universal suffrage (Duma) and an agricultural reform. § Never fulfilled. Autocracy reinstalled.
  • 11. First World War → Scarcity, discontent, etc. Also, military defeats è Discontent è February Revolution (Julian Calendar. March in Gregorian Calendar) 23rd February (7th March), 1917  • Huge demonstration in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), general strike and riots in military barracks. • Soviets by workers, soldiers and peasants demanding better working conditions, higher salaries, political reforms and the withdrawal from the war. 3. The bourgeois revolution of February 1917
  • 12. The February 1917 revolution...grew out of prewar political and economic instability, technological backwardness, and fundamental social divisions, coupled with gross mismanagement of the war effort, continuing military defeats, domestic economic dislocation, and outrageous scandals surrounding the monarchy (Alexander Rabinowitch).
  • 13. The situation escalated  End of Tsarism: abdication of Nicholas II in March. Creation of a Republic (power between the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet).
  • 14. Menshevik control of the provisional government (Lvov and Kerensky)  Moves towards a parliamentary democracy (constitutive elections), political and social reforms. But still in WWI. Slow progress + war + poverty è Popular discontent. 4. The provisional government
  • 15. Bolsheviks  Wanted no participation in WWI è Demanded resignation of the government. Vladímir Ilich Uliánov, Lenin  April Theses • All power to the soviets (as supreme political power). • Communist ideas. • Peace with Germany. • Land to the peasants.
  • 16. 1) In our attitude towards the war, which under the new [provisional] government of Lvov and Co. unquestionably remains on Russia’s part a predatory imperialist war owing to the capitalist nature of that government, not the slightest concession to “revolutionary defencism” is permissible. […] 2) The specific feature of the present situation in Russia is that the country is passing from the first stage of the revolution—which, owing to the insufficient class-consciousness and organisation of the proletariat, placed power in the hands of the bourgeoisie—to its second stage, which must place power in the hands of the proletariat and the poorest sections of the peasants. […] 5) Not a parliamentary republic—to return to a parliamentary republic from the Soviets of Workers’ Deputies would be a retrograde step—but a republic of Soviets of Workers’, Agricultural Labourers’ and Peasants’ Deputies throughout the country, from top to bottom. Abolition of the police, the army and the bureaucracy. 8) It is not our immediate task to “introduce” socialism, but only to bring social production and the distribution of products at once under the control of the Soviets of Workers’ Deputies. April Theses. Lenin
  • 17. 5. The October Revolution 25th October, 1917 (7th November) è Bolshevik (with soviets and Red Guards) uprising in Petrograd  Kerensky overthrown. Assault of the Winter Palace. Quickly spread.
  • 19. New government  Lenin (workers’ government) è Revolutionary measures: • expropriation of land and division among the peasants. • factories taken over by workers’ committees. • Brest-Litovsk Treaty (1918). • creation of the Comitern (Third International) to coordinate communist parties globally. • New Economic Policy (NEP): gave the state control of the most important sectors, but admitted some capitalist practices, such as national trading and small land properties.
  • 20. “The most equitable settlement of the land question is to be as follows: (1) Private ownership of land shall be abolished forever; land shall not be sold, purchased, leased, mortgaged, or otherwise alienated. All land, whether state, crown, monastery, church, factory, entailed, private, public, peasant, etc., shall be confiscated without compensation and become the property of the whole people, and pass into the use of all those who cultivate it. (2) All mineral wealth, ore, oil, coal, salt, etc., and also all forests and waters of state importance, shall pass into the exclusive use of the state. All the small streams, lakes, woods, etc., shall pass into the use of the communes, to be administered by the local self-government bodies. (6) The right to use the land shall be accorded to all citizens of the Russian state (without distinction of sex) desiring to cultivate it by their own labour, with the help of their families, or in partnership, but only as long as they are able to cultivate it. The employment of hired labour is not permitted. (8) All land, when alienated, shall become part of the national land fund.” Lenin. Decree on Land.
  • 21. Elections in November 1917  25 % for Bolsheviks è Lenin dissolved the Assembly (fear of counter-revolutionaries) è End of political pluralism. "[Because] the proletariat is still so divided, so degraded, so corrupted in parts ... that an organization taking in the whole proletariat cannot directly exercise proletarian dictatorship. It can be exercised only by a vanguard that has absorbed the revolutionary energy of the class.“ V. Lenin
  • 22. TSARISTS AND LIBERALS WHITE ARMY BOLSHEVIKS RED ARMY (led by Trostky) Early 1918 Rebellion Vs Soviet gov. 6. The Civil War (1918-21)
  • 23. Civil War  Misery, food shortages, political reprisals, etc. War communism  Collectivisations, nationalisations, harvests to the State. Summer 1918  Romanov family executed.
  • 24. 1921  Red Army defeats the White Army è Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in power  Prosecution of political rivals, repression of counter-revolutionary activities (Cheka).
  • 25. 1922  Formation of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR). 2. THE USSR AND ITS DEVELOPMENT 1. The formation of the USSR
  • 26. Federal State, from the imperial nationalities (Slavic, Caucasians, Muslims, Russians, etc.).
  • 28. Power in the hands of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Other parties banished.
  • 29. 1924  Constitution. Legislative power SUPREME SOVIET Head of State PRESIDIUM Executive power COUNCIL OF PEOPLE’S COMMISSARS Indirect universal suffrage DICTATORSHIP TOTALITARIAN STATE è Identified with the party
  • 30. 2. Stalinism Ths struggle for power after Lenin’s death (1924) è Trotsky and Stalin. Export the revolution (internationalisation) Socialism in one country è Strengthening the internal structure è USSR superpower è Future revolutions.
  • 31. Sole leader  Stalin Trotsky exiled (1940, killed in Mexico) Stalin  Personal dictatorship (even, personality cult).
  • 33. Stalinism: - No regard to previous revolutionary principles. - The CPSU gained power. - Very harsh repression  Enemies, party members, ordinary people, etc. è Crimes against the State. è Gulags (forced labour camps) - Great Purge  Massive political repression led by the NKVD (Soviet Secret Police). Around 1 million people killed. Moscow Trials (1936-8)  Old Bolshevik leaders, Trotskyists, political dissidents, army officers è Gulag, execution or jail. “Stalin committed a very grave crime against the Communist party, the socialist state, Soviet people and worldwide revolutionary movement... Together with Stalin, the responsibility for the abuse of law, mass unwarranted repressions and death of many thousands of wholly innocent people also lies on Molotov, Kaganovich, Malenkov...” Shvernik Commission, 1963.
  • 36. Stalin’s state planned economy - Planned, state-managed economy → Five-year plans. - Collectivisation of economy. No private property. - Rapid industrial development: heavy industry, energy production, infrastructures. - Problem: agriculture fell behind. No high production of consumer goods. By 1930: one of the great powers of the world. No great effect of the 1929 crisis.
  • 37. 3. POST-WAR YEARS: CRISIS AND RECOVERY IN THE 1920S Economic and cultural reconstruction after WWI. o Demographic catastrophe. o Economic disaster. o High unemployment. o Shortages of products and higher prices. o From creditors to debtors (to USA) 1. Post-war crisis in Europe (1918-23)
  • 38. • Germany  Very severe situation. Unable to pay war compensations (Treaty of Versailles): - Hyperinflation (loss of value of the Deutsch Mark) - High unemployment. - Decline in the standard of living. - Mid 1920s  USA loaned more funds (1924) and negotiated the restructuring of German debt.
  • 40. “No other nation has experienced anything comparable to the events of 1923 in Germany. All nations went through the Great War, and most of them have also experienced revolutions, social crises, strikes, redistributions of wealth, and currency devaluation. None but Germany has undergone the fantastic, grotesque extreme of all of these together; none has experienced the gigantic, carnival dance of death, the unending, bloody Saturnalia, in which not only money but all standards lost their value. […] Anyone who had savings in a bank or bonds saw their value disappear overnight. Soon it did not matter whether it was a penny put away for a rainy day or a vast fortune. Everything was obliterated...A pound of potatoes which yesterday had cost fifty thousand marks now cost a hundred thousand. The salary of sixty-five thousand marks brought home the previous Friday was no longer sufficient to buy a packet of cigarettes on Tuesday...In August, the dollar reached a million [marks]....In September, a million marks no longer had any practical value...At the end of October, it was a billion...The atmosphere became revolutionary once again.“ Sebastian Haffner, Defying Hitler. A Memoir (1939)
  • 41. WWI  Economic disaster for Europe. USA  Great prosperity: supply of food, arms and industrial goods. Largest creditor in the world  Loans to European nations. Half of the world’s gold reserves è Dollar as strong currency. Bank of America  World’s main investor. WORLD’S LEADING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL POWER 2. The USA: the roaring twenties (1924-29)
  • 42. PROSPERITY IN THE USA Second Industrial Revolution: Use of new energy sources (oil and electricity), new industries (automobile, electrical devices) and new media (radio, telegraph, cinema).
  • 43. Workers’ wages increased Improvement of the standard of living Consumer society (Mass consumption) The middle classes’ spending capacity allows consumerism
  • 44. THE ‘AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE’ Cultural input  American way of life - Promotion of specific values (initiative, personal effort, etc.) to help people to achieve success and well-being. - Based on consumption of goods and media (advertising, propaganda). - Mass entertainment  Cinema, sports, cabaret, theatre, etc. - New trends, less uptight and more focused on fun (instead of protocol) - Jazz, Charleston, blues, etc.
  • 45. 4. THE 1929 CRISIS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1. The 1929 Stock Market Crash 24th October, 1929  The Roaring Twenties abruptly ended è Collapse of the New York Stock Exchange è THE GREAT DEPRESSION.
  • 46. CAUSES OF THE STOCK EXCHANGE CRASH: - Overproduction  Larger offer than demand è Too much stock accumulated è Prices dropped è Many business went bankrupt. - Stock market speculation  Easy investment and large profits in the 1920 in the stock markets è Huge demand (small shareholders even asked for loans for buying more) è Shares rose value è Not backed by real productivity (speculative bubble).
  • 47. Black Thursday (24th October, 1929) - Several problems during 1929: mini crash in March, decline in production and sales, amount of private debt. - Realisation about the difference between real value and stock exchange value MASSIVE SELL-OUT NO BUYERS Law of supply and demand If no demand è Fall of prices STOCK MARKET CRASH Black Thursday, Black Monday and Black Tuesday
  • 48. Immediate economic consequences BANKING CRISIS SHORTAGES OF CASH LOSSES OF MONEY (investors and companies) MASSIVE ECONOMIC RECESSION
  • 49. • Great economic recession  Banking crisis, bankruptcy of private investors and companies, closures of factories, high unemployment, very low consumption, etc. • Unemployment  By 1932, 13 million people (about 25 % active population). Many families in poverty. 0 5 10 15 20 25 1920 1930 1934 1938 1942 1946 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 US Unemployment (1920-2014) % of active population 2. The Great Depression
  • 51. International spread è • The US Government withdrew their capital from Europe, asked to return loans, American companies stopped investments, reduction of imports in the US, decrease of trade.
  • 52. 1. THE USA’S NEW DEAL • President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1932-1945) NEW DEAL  Political programme based on the intervention of the state in economy. 3. The fight against the crisis
  • 53. • public expenditure and creation of public companies. • aid to private companies in difficulties. • agricultural stocks to be destroyed (control supply and demand). • banking controls and low-interest loans. • public works  for tackling unemployment. • encouragement to wage raises è More consumption. • reduction of the working hours to 40 per week.
  • 55. 2. PROPOSALS FOR EUROPE 1933 → London Economic Conference Purposes: • agreement on measures to fight global depression • revive international trade • stabilize currency exchange rates. No agreement reached. Proposals for economic recovery → Keynesian economies: State intervention in the economy with the objective of stimulating investment, employment and consumption.
  • 56. 5. AUTHORITARIANISM AND TOTALITARIANISM 1. The rise of totalitarianism Post-WW1 and 1929 crash → Affected democratic systems. § Defenceless middle class. § Powerless states for improving situation. § Nationalist, militarist sectors: blamed parliamentary democratic systems. § Fear of communism by conservative sectors. Totalitarian movements and parties → offered easy, direct and understandable solutions: expansionist foreign policies, reduction of unemployment through state intervention in the economy, ultra-nationalism and very dynamic reformist plans.
  • 57. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM: · Glorification of the state over the individual. · Nationalistic exaltation. · Militarism of social expressions. · Expansionist impulse. · Idea of superiority (racism, masculinity and youth) → Racism, persecutions of minorities. Legitimation of violence. · Rejection of liberalism, communism, democracies, etc. · Limitation of freedoms (press, association, expression, election, etc.). · Cult of personalities of charismatic leaders. · State control of the economy · Political repression and use of violence. · Use of propaganda and the control of education “The State not only is authority which governs and molds individual will with laws and values of spiritual life, but it is also power which makes its will prevail abroad… For the Fascist, everything is within the State and… neither individuals nor groups are outside the State... For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which individuals or groups are only relative… Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual.” Enciclopedia Italiana, 1932
  • 58. 1. Fascism in Italy
  • 59. ITALY AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR Great after-effects of WWI: • More than 700 thousand dead. • Destroyed industry. • Massive external debt. • Rising inflation. • Disappointment after the Treaty of Versailles (“Vittoria Mutilata”): • No territories they wanted. • Increasing irredentism (ethnic nationalism). Political instability, acute social tensions • Five different governments between 1919 and 1922. Political divisions. • Workers’ movements in the North: strikes, revolutionary movements, etc. Fear of a social revolution (like USSR).
  • 61. THE RISE OF FASCISM ‘Fascismo’ è Appeared in the scene among the political and social tensions. Benito Mussolini
  • 62. 1919  Formation of the ‘Fasci di combattimento’ (‘Camicie nere’, blackshirts) 1921  National Fascist Party: • Building a strong state. • Safeguard of public order and private property. • Overseas (colonial) expansion. • Support of the petite-bourgeoisie, large landowners, industrial owners. Tolerated by the Catholic Church and the king (Vittorio Emmanuele III).
  • 63. 1922 → Mussolini demanded the king the formation of government. • March on Rome (‘Marcia su Roma’): • 300 thousand blackshirts in the street. • Pressure from conservatives and the military.
  • 64. King Vittorio Emmanuele III appointed Mussolini head of the government in October 1922.
  • 65. THE FASCIST DICTATORSHIP Two phases: - 1922-24  Appearance of parliamentary regime. - Political prosecutions. - Restricted freedoms. - After 1924  Authoritarian regime with absolute power. - Victory in the 1924 elections (using violence).
  • 66. MUSSOLINI’S POWER • The state as main priority è No regard to individual rights and freedoms. • Control over society  Use of the media. • Roman symbols. • Government of the elites. • Mussolini  ‘Il Duce’ (‘The Leader’). • Totalitarian state run by the Fascist Party. No elections. • No Parliament  Chamber of Fasci and Corporations.
  • 67. • Autarky as economic system: self- sufficiency. • Political prosecution: • Banishment of political parties. • Jail for their leaders (ie. Gramsci). • Strikes forbidden. • Unions dissolved. • Foreign policy: • Control of the Mediterranean. • Colonial expansion (“New Roman Empire in Africa and the Balkans”)  Conquest of Ethiopia (1935). • 1936  ‘Axis’ with Adolf Hitler’s Germany.
  • 70. 6. THE RISE OF NAZI GERMANY
  • 71. • 1918  End of WWI è Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated è WEIMAR REPUBLIC. 1. The Weimar Republic • Government  Coalition of social-democrats, Catholics and liberals. • Treaty of Versailles è Loss of territories, reduction of army, compensations è Economic crisis, poverty, unemployment, sense of injustice and frustration.
  • 72. • Opposition to the Weimar Republic: • Left-wing revolutionaries  Uprising 1918-19. • Extreme-right groups  Munich Putsch by the Nazi militias (1923).
  • 73. • National Socialist German Workers’ Party - Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) • 1920  Founded. Adolf Hitler joined the party, and in 1921 was already the leader. 2. Hitler and the Nazi Party
  • 74. 1. We demand the unification of all Germans in the Greater Germany on the basis of the right of self-determination of peoples. 2. We demand equality of rights for the German people in respect to the other nations; abrogation of the peace treaties of Versailles and St. Germain. 3. We demand land and territory (colonies) for the sustenance of our people and colonisation for our surplus population. 4. Only a member of the race can be a citizen. A member of the race can only be one who is of German blood, without consideration of creed. Consequently, no Jew can be a member of the race. National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) 25 points (1920)
  • 75. • 1923  Munich Putsch • Hitler judged and sent to prison (he only did 1/5 of the sentence, not even a year in jail)
  • 76. • Mein Kampf  Written in jail. His basic philosophy. • No democracy • No bolshevism • Anti-Semitism • Superiority of the Aryans. • Need of unity of all German speakers è Reich.
  • 77. “The foremost connoisseurs of this truth regarding the possibilities in the use of falsehood and slander have always been the Jews; for after all, their whole existence is based on one single great lie, to wit, that they are a religious community while actually they are a race - - -and what a race![…] If we pass all the causes of the German collapse in review, the ultimate and most decisive remains the failure to recognize the racial problem and especially the Jewish menace. We National Socialists must hold unflinchingly to our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth. And this action is the only one which, before God and our German posterity, would make any sacrifice of blood seem justified. […] We National Socialists must go further. The right to possess soil can become a duty if without extension of its soil a great nation seems doomed to destruction. And most especially when not some little negro nation or other is involved, but the Germanic mother of life, which has given the present-day world its cultural picture. Germany will either be a world power or there will be no Germany.” Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf.
  • 78. • Demagoguery for reaching the workers: • Employment for everyone. • Fewer profits for factories. • Higher wages for workers. • United society. • Responsible for the crisis: Jews, democrats, communists, etc. “A political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than by using rational argument”.
  • 79. Party Assault Troops [Sturmabteilung - SA] Protective Sections [Schutzstaffel - SS] •For keeping public order  •But actually involved in insurgencies, riots, clashes with left-wing, etc.
  • 80. • 1929 crisis  After some stabilisation, the economy collapsed again è Extremist parties. • Nazis  Attracted: - Bankrupt middle classes. - Unemployed. - Big names in industry and finance. • Intellectuals and most of the working classes  Communist Party. 3. The Nazis in power
  • 81. July 1932 elections. • NSDAP: 230 seats (out of 608) • 1st in votes. • 1st in seats. • 2nd Social-Democrats • 3rd Communist But no coalitions è New elections.
  • 82. November 1932 elections. • NSDAP: 196 seats (out of 584) • 1st in votes. • 1st in seats. • 2nd Social-Democrats: 121 (-11) • 3rd Communist: 100 (+11)
  • 83. • Pressure on President Hindenburg è Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany (January, 1933).
  • 84. February, 1933 è Reichstag fire Blame on the communists è Hitler declared state of emergency, prosecution of opponents, cut civil liberties. Elections  44 % of the votes for Hitler.
  • 85. Progressive Gleichschaltung (coordination) è State and society assimilated by the Nazi Party è Totalitarian government. June  "Law against the establishment of political parties" (one-party state) 1934 è Hindenburg died è Proclaimed “Führer und Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler” (Merging president with Chancellor) è Dictatorship.
  • 86. 7. THE GERMAN THIRD REICH
  • 87. 1934  Dictatorship stablished. - Banishment of all political parties (except NSDAP). - No trade unions except the National Syndicalist Workers’ Front. - Closure of the Parliament. - Elections abolished. - Political and racial purges in the public administration. - 1934: Night of the Long Knives  Extra-judicial executions against SA leaders, anti-Nazi conservatives, old enemies, etc. - Police state: - Rule of terror. - SS + Gestapo (secret police)  Persecution of all opposition. - Concentration camps for opponents and enemies (1933). 1. Nazi totalitarianism
  • 88. • Nazi society  Aryan race + national socialism. • Education, culture, art, etc.  Nazi ideals. - Hitler Youth  For indoctrination. - Women  3 k’s (Kinder, Kirche and Küche – Children, church and kitchen). 2. Social homogenisation
  • 89. “The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these in slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan.” Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf.
  • 90. • Racial purity  Persecution of Jews - Businesses boycotted. - Nuremberg Laws  No mixed marriages, cancellation of citizenship for not ‘pure Germans’. - 1938: Kristallnacht o Novemberpogrome. - Jews forced to wear identification badges.
  • 91. • Economic policy  To help their expansionist and military projects. • Final breach of the agreements of the Treaty of Versailles, regarding the reduction of the German army. 3. Autarky and rearmament
  • 92. Strict control over the economy è Pursuing economic autarky (self-sufficiency of the country) - Heavy industry  Arms. - Control of prices and wages  For tackling inflation and unemployment. - Public works programme  highways, airports, massive buildings, etc. - Powerful army  Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles, creation of the Luftwaffe, increase of the navy, etc. è Economy towards war.
  • 93. 8. THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  • 94. 1. Causes • Military allegiance of Germany, Italy and Japan. • Great Depression. • Democracies: not knowing how to stop these ideas, not involvement (USA), internal problems, trying to avoid conflicts. Failure of the League of Nations. •German, Italian and Japanese expansionism (aggressive foreign policy) and militarism.
  • 95. Expansionism: - Japan: Manchuria, 1931; China, 1937. - Italy: Ethiopia, 1935; Albania, 1939. - Germany: militarisation of the Rhineland, 1936; - Austria (Anchluss) and Sudeteland (1938), etc. - Spanish Civil War: Germany and Italy involved.
  • 96. 2. The formation of blocs Two opposing blocs: 1. The Axis powers: Germany, Italy and Japan. Totalitarian expansionist policy. Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis in 1940. Germany – Italy (Pact of Steel) Germany – Japan + Italy (Anti-Comintern Pact). 2. The Allies powers: Originally, United Kingdom and France. Initially, UK tolerated the initial German expansion. 1939  Great Britain & France + Poland  Defence of Poland. Later (1941), USA (after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour) and the USSR (German invasion of its territory) joined.
  • 97. 1939 German-Soviet Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) USSR not to help Poland, division of Poland, no aggression. 3. The outbreak of the war
  • 98. 1 September, 1939 è Germany invades Poland è France and Great Britain declare the war.
  • 99. 4. Europe under the Nazis (1939-41): the great German Offensives
  • 100. • 1939  Invasion of Poland. • 1940  GER: Denmark and Norway (April); Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and France (May). • France Occupied (North) and free (puppet government, South). July è Only GB resisted, but threat of invasion (Battle of Britain). Postponed by Hitler (but maritime blockade). Blitzkrieg  Quick war, by surprise
  • 101. THE SUBJUGATION OF THE OCCUPIED COUNTRIES BY NAZI GERMANY • Annexed regions (Part of the Reich): Alsace, Lorraine, Luxembourg, etc. • Satellite states (Collaborationists): Vichy France, Slovakia, Romania, etc. • Occupied regions: eastern Poland, Baltic countries.
  • 102. 1941  The war extends beyond Europe. • North Africa: Axis Vs British (Control over the Suez Canal). • Pacific  JAP controlled South-East Asia, and continued conquering. • December, 1941: Pearl Harbor (US Navy base in Hawaii). 5. The war spreads across the World Europe: Balkans: GER conquered Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • 103. 1941  Russia: Operation Barbarossa  GER Vs USSR. Quick offensive. Reaches almost Moscow and Leningrad.
  • 104. 6. The change of course: 1941
  • 105. a) Operation Barbarossa: German invasion of the USSR. Vs Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (non-aggression) → USSR joined the Allies. b) Japanese attack to Pearl Harbour: USA joined the Allies.
  • 106. Great Britain + United States of America + United Soviet Socialist Republics. Reorganisation of economies for the war. PACIFIC FRONT → 1942: Midway and Guadalcanal victories Vs JAP.
  • 107. NORTH AFRICAN FRONT: El-Alamein (1942). British victory. 1943: Allied victory Vs Germany in Tunisia.
  • 108. RUSSIAN FRONT: Stalingrad (August 1942-February 1943)  Soviet victory. Start of the offensives.
  • 109. SOUTHERN EUROPE: - 1943  Allies conquered Sicily and southern Italy. Mussolini overthrown. Hitler invaded Italy and Mussolini as head of Italy (Republic of Saló, September’43-April’45) 7. The Allied offensives and the liberation of Europe
  • 110. WESTERN FRONT: 1944  Normandy landings (GB, USA, CAN, etc.) è Advance from the West. EASTERN FRONT  Russian advance towards Berlin (Race to Berlin).
  • 111. • 30th April  Hitler committed suicide. • 2nd May  Berlin surrendered. • 4th-8th May  All German armed forced surrendered. END OF THE WAR IN EUROPE
  • 112. PACIFIC FRONT Allied victories from 1942 onwards. Japanese resistance. •Atomic Bomb (Manhattan Project) •August 1945  Hiroshima and Nagasaki were targeted. JAPAN SURRENDERED
  • 113. 7. The peace conferences During and after the war (mostly USA, GB and USSR). • Tehran (1943)  Agreement on joint efforts. • Yalta (Feb’45)  Eradication of Nazism, division of Germany and Austria and their capitals in four areas. • Postdam (Aug’45)  About punishments to Germany. • Start of division in blocks → COLD WAR. • Paris (1946)  Redrawing of Europe.
  • 115. 9. THE SECOND WORLD WAR: CONSECUENCES 1. Consequences of the Second World War Largest, most brutal and merciless conflict in all history. "There can be no poetry after Auschwitz“ (T. Adorno)
  • 116. 1) Demographic consequences: over 60 million casualties (over 35 million civilians). 70 million severely wounded or mutilated. 40 million displaced after the war due to border modifications. More than 50 million people died.
  • 117. 2) Economic consequences: widespread destruction in Europe, China and Japan. Only the USA maintained its economic power, and emerged as economic superpower.
  • 118. 3) Political consequences: democratic regimes replaced monarchies and totalitarian regimes in many countries.
  • 119. Formation of new blocs that will mark the Cold War: western-capitalist (linked to the USA) and eastern-communist (linked to the USSR). Loss of importance of Western Europe in world politics.
  • 120. 4) Territorial consequences: many modifications after the war. USSR had larger territories; Poland new borders; Germany and Berlin divided.
  • 121. HOLOCAUST  systematic, bureaucratic, state- sponsored persecution and extermination of Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Jewish: thought to be inferior than the Aryan race; problems for its purity; blame for the defeat of Germany of WW1. 2. The Holocaust
  • 122. Initial measures: • Social exclusion from the German administration. • Prohibition and annulment of mixed marriages. • Expropriation of properties and forced closures of business (“The night of broken glass”). • Creation of ghettos surrounded by walls or fences.
  • 123. 1942 - The Final Solution: total annihilation of the Jewish population through their transportation to concentration camps (e.g. Auschwitz or Treblinka). The prisoners were forced to work and were killed in gas chambers. More than six million Jews died.
  • 129. United Nations: • Successor of the League of Nations. • Created in April 1945. • 46 states. • Objectives: • Maintain international peace and suppress aggressions. • Promote and defend Human Rights (Declaration of HR, 1948). • UN General Assembly (all members) • Security Council (USA, GB, FR, USSR/RUS and CHI as permanent members). 3. The Holocaust