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THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
IT´S HISTORICAL CONTEXT, THE REDS AND THE WHITES
Modernizing
Russia –
19th Century
• Alexander II
• The great reforms
• Emancipation
• Industrialization
The Great Reforms: Emancipation
In 1857. Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, designated
a series of commissions in preparation for a
series of reforms in slavery, government, justice
& the army.
This reforms had the objective of modernizing
Russia after the Crimean Wars to the western
standards. This resulted in the publication of four
acts in 1861.
The most important of this series of reforms is the
Emancipation Act, which consisted in the
abolishment of serfdom, a russian form of slavery.
This act proposed gradual independence for the
peasants without heavily weakening the noble
class.
The process made the peasants “buy” the land
they worked for to their owners in order to be
independent, in a slow process that took nearly 20
years to conclude.
Social and Economic change in the end of
the XIX Century - Industrialization
The incomplete emancipation in 1861 coincided
with the first wave of modern Industrialization.
Many Peasants turned to the cities in the search for
new jobs.
This provoked the apparition of a new social class;
The proletariat.
This classes were heavily linked as they fought
together in search of better working conditions.
Along the last half of the century, many reforms
took place that brought syndicates and labour rights
to the country.
Peasant Life before the Revolution
In 1914, 85% of the russian population belonged to
the rural areas of the country (Even though many
had migrated to cities in the search of jobs).
The agricultural production became harsh even
after the emancipation, as there was no economic
aid and not full peasant control of their lands.
Political and economical frustration brought
troubles and destruction in the form of the 1905
revolution.
Between 1906 and 1912 a series of fundamental
reforms heavily improved the peasant´s state.
The agricultural productivity grew significantly
and the gross of the peasant class went from a
survival situation and economical poverty to a
rudimentary welfare state
The Bolsheviks; previous to 1903
1893: Russian Social Democratic Worker’s Party
founded
“The russian worker, at the head of all
democratic elements, will overthrow absolutism and
will drive the russian proletariat through the direct
path of open political warfare and towards the
victorious Communist Revolution” -Lenin, 1894
1880´s Lenin while in university has affiliation with
Narodnaya Volya;
A man whose family has been oppressed by the
tsarist regime and the bourgeois has his main
Einstellung (fixation) as hate towards these two
and all who oppose his views.
Dichotomy not only in his speech but in his soul,
also, just like Robespierre he considered himself
the people. Mind of a man with convictions and a
distorted reality.
His background with Narodnaya Volya provides
foundation to his revolutionary beliefs
Ideas in the political and social context
The profile of Vladimir Lenin and a view on the
political ideologies of the time make the
explanation of the Bolsheviks, a complex one;
Social democrats: In pursuit of a two step
transformation towards socialism. First the
transformation of the tsarist regime to a capitalist
one and then to a socialist regime.
Intelligentsia: Group of individuals characterized by
being knowledgeable of the political, social, cultural
context and therefore entitled to a view of the
status quo.
Within the Social Democrats, slowly, factions are
constructed; Julius Martov, future leader of the
Mensheviks. Stalin, future leader of the Bolsheviks.
Divided not by the hardly distinguishable views on
the revolution but rather by the ambition of each
leader to assure his power.
German Sozialdemokrat provides new way for Lenin
to counter the so called economism movement
made by some social democrats.
The peasant movement was developing
independently from the social democrat
intelligentsia.
Giving birth to the Bolsheviks
Lenin still heavily influenced by Narodnaya Volya,
upholds the concept of counterrevolutionary as all
factions who oppose the proletarian revolution.
“Men must be prepared not to consagrate
their free afternoons to the revolution, but rather
their lives” -Lenin, 1900
1900: Iskra (magazine) created as a tool for
orthodox marxism (anti-economism and anti-
revisionist). Created by Lenin, Potresov and
Martov
1902: What is to be done? Published, written by
Lenin
1902-1903: Lenin proposes a centralized organization of
the party while Martov proposes a less rigid structure.
In the Second Congress (1903), Lenin gathers a majority
and takes advantage of the loose structure of the party
to create parallel structures of power and build a
majority where he has a minority. Lenin names his
faction, “bolshevik”, which means majority.
“A disciplined order of committee professionals,
grouped together as faction of conspirators linked
definitely by ties of personal obedience towards their
leader, Lenin, and willing to follow him on whatever
adventure as long as his leadership is sufficiently radical
and extreme” - Pipes, 2016
The Soviets
1905: first Soviet is born in Ivanovna-Voznesensk
after a textile strike. The Soviet was an elected
body of the town’s workers. Soviets spread to
approximately 50 towns.
Soviets compared to Duma, did have elected
officials, which appealed greatly to the majority
of the population composed by workers and
peasants.
In December, the Soviets lose power due to the
arrests of prominent bolsheviks such as Leon
Trotsky.
After the fall of Nicholas II, Soviets regain power,
yet under a Menshevik majority.
Vladimir Lenin as leader of the bolsheviks,
assumes a military strategy towards the battle of
classes/parties. Adopting, Napoleon Bonaparte’s
tiraillerie in a political-social context, Lenin
identifies weak points in his enemies (Provisional
Government, mensheviks) and strikes with a
variety of political destabilizing tactics.
By the time the coup d’etat was a go, the
mensheviks had a majority in the Soviets.
1905
• Russo-Japanese War
• Revolution
• Twilight of an Monarchy
The 1905 Russo-Japanese War
After a long military buildup in Manchuria, August 7th
of 1904. A japanese fleet began the shelling and siege
of Port Arthur. At the time, the most fortified position
in the world.
The 50.000 men garrison held until December the 8th,
when from a recently captured hill, japanese 280mm
mortars shelled and sank the Russian Pacific fleet.
The Russian baltic fleet arrived in a rescue mission in
May 1905, where after a 7 month odyssey met in a
ferocious battle at the Tsushima straits.
After a Day-long battle, the bulk of the russian fleet
was sunk, including all their battleships. The war was
lost.
Rise of Socialism, Communism &
Government Opposition - 1905
In January 1905 in St. Petersburg the Army was sent to
stop a labour protest. The demonstration was met with
gunfire, in the event known today as the Bloody Sunday.
Marxist Political parties such as the Mencheviques lead
the insurrection along the socialist revolutionaries.
Combined with the liberals, they subjugated the
government to their demands.
This resulted in the October Manifesto, this was an
attempt by the Tsar to maintain control & the monarchy
in power, granting social liberties such as freedom of
expression, religion and association. Forming the Duma,
a russian Parliament. This, however, was hiding the
various structural problems of the empire.
The Great War
The first week of August on 1914, the world breaks into
chaos as Russia, France & Great Britain honor their
alliance and go to war with the Central Powers.
Russia guaranteed the Independence of Serbia, a
country Austria prepared to Invade. Germany, a
newcomer in the world powers but yet the most
powerful, joined Austria and declared war to Russia and
France. Such action brought Great britain into the
conflict, wich today we call the Ist World War.
Russia Enjoyed victory at the beginning, but ties turned
at the battle of Tannenberg, after which the Germans
pressed on Warsaw, Ukraine, the Baltics and Belarus.
The Great War, felt at home
The war made a great social and economic pressure in
Russia. The army suffered considerable losses, was ill
equipped and poorly supplied.
Great unrest was perceived among the troops. Quickly,
the russian industry suffered, as the men needed to
manufacture the army equipment, were already at the
front, as well as the food which escarced in the cities.
At the ending of 1916 the state of Russia was
dangerous, as the Tsar was publicly despised, the Duma
demanded more control over the Government and most
of the population suffered from the economy, the war
and the doubts about who was really the head of state.
Twilight of a Monarchy
After 1905, cultural and political trendings made the
Imperial family become isolated and unpopular.
The Tsar showed to have little intellect, highly
conservative and susceptible to manipulation. He did
not see the parliamentary Monarchy with good eyes.
The unpopularity of the Tsar was accelerated with the
internal circumstances of the family. Espeacially from the
Tsarina Alexandra, who heavily influenced the Tsar and
the decision taking in state´s matters. This was
accentuated with the presence of Grigori Rasputin in the
court, a Siberian psychic who took care of the Heir´s
health issues, but who heavily influenced the family
decision taking.
Oppressed revolt with bloodshed
The tsarist Russia until 1914
Semi-Feudal regime
Absolute Monarchy
Large-estate aristocracy
Poor peasantry
Small bourgeoisie
Rising proletariat
The defeat in the
Russo-Japanese war.
Parliamentary monarchy
The 1905 Revolution The creation of a Pseudo-constitutional regime
First World War
Poverty
Desire of peace
Popular Revolts
This ultimately led to The 1917 Revolutions
The February
Revolution
And the final days of an
Empire
The End of a Monarchy: A provisional
government.
The situation became so dire, that the Tsar,
unquestionable ruler of Russia was forced to abdicate
in February 1917. When no other member of the royal
family agrees to take his place, a Duma-appointed
provisional government is formed. Ending 300 years
of Romanov´s Rule.
The Provisional Government was poorly held
together, and between February and October, it was
reformed a total of four times. None were effective in
coping with the major problems of the nation: land
seizures, nationalist independence movements in
non-Russian areas and the collapse of the army
morale.
Meanwhile the Petrograd Soviet, a coalition of the
“Populus” as a city council in Petrograd, was in a direct
power struggle with the Provisional Government.
Among many things, the Soviet issued its Order no.1,
which commanded the army to obey the Soviet rather
than the Provisional Government, which it was never
able to overrule. The Soviets in the Petrograd model
adhered far closer to the sentiment of the people.
This is why, when Kerensky, a socialist, Became head of
the Provisional government, could barely grasp on to
power and ultimately led to the rise of the Bolsheviks.
The end of a Provisional Government: a
growing Soviet influence
On September 15, 1917 Kerensky proclaims Russia a
republic, which ideologically was contrary to the non-
socialists' understanding that the Provisional Government
should hold power.
The lower and middle classes, especially the soldiers,
believed that Russia would stop fighting when the
Provisional Government took power, and felt deceived
when the government decided otherwise.
Furthermore, Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik party were
promising "peace, land, and bread" under a communist
system. The army weakened, leading to desertion in large
numbers.
This would allow the Bolshevik elite, the main
opposition to the socialist Provisional Government, to
undermine its actions and prepare for a coupe at the
end of the year, on the month of October.
The October
Revolution
● The Russian Civil War
● The world in Crisis
● The birth of a
communist state
REDVOLUTION! - A Civil War
The first weeks of October of 1917, Lenin, along
Trotsky y Stalin made plans for a Coup d’etat at
Petrograd. October the 24th, Red guards, workers and
bolshevik soldiers took government offices and
comms facilities in Petrograd. The government at the
Winter Palace was neutralized and arrested.
The Soviets held a congress were a cabinet, led by
Lenin, was appointed. The revolution succeed.
The new government made a series of radical
reforms, in which private property was abolished and
peace talks with the Central Powers were held.
A set of reforms were to come. Lenin formed the
Cheka (KGB), an organization of state security based
on a terror regime which systematically eliminated
opposition. The Constitutional Democratic Party was
banned and all political organizations suppressed.
The constitutional assembly stopped (2:1) the package
of reforms. The Red Guards and the Bolsheviks
dissolved the assembly. 12 years of evolution towards
a parliamentary democracy were erased.
There began the Civil War. Not in support of the
monarchy, but in repugnance to the Bolsheviks.
The Reds
The reds was the name first given to the private
guards of the Bolsheviks, who evolved to be an army.
Them, among the Cheka, became the ones
responsible of imposing Lenin´s mandate, the
“Red Terror”, when needed, and were the ones who
October the 24th performed the bolshevik Coup.
When the red army formed, it immediately took
control of the two major Cities, Petrograd & Moscow.
With this, the bolsheviks took control of the country's
most industrial areas. Allowing them to control of the
military industry and communications networks.
This enabled them a superior logistic wich the
opposition, dispersed in several smaller republics,
was never able to match.
In 1918, the Bolsheviks changed to the name of the
Communist Party. Changing the capital from St.
Petersburg to Moscow.
Their Main military Objective was to reach a peace
agreement with Germany, key to free soldiers off
the front and gain control of the fully rebelled
country.
Leon Trotsky was the man who transformed the
red militias, in an efficient Red Army.
The Whites
The Anti-Bolshevik movement, the White Army, was
built around various governments of opposition. The
south became it´s main source of support, as an army
of volunteers with non-socialist officers formed.
To autonomous governments formed. One at the
Don, and one at Kubán. The cossacks and the whites
joined forces. It´s objective: To re-establish the
Constituent Assembly.
Other governments gathered around the Urals,
Samara, Omsk and Yekaterinburg. Their heads:
General Kornílov and Admiral Kolchak.
At the Caucasus, the Federal Transcaucasian
Republic formed, with the ideal of a union with a
Democratic Russia, and not a Bolshevik one.
The War & Foreign
Intervention
During 1918, the war was on the side of the Whites.
Their forces, even though in numerical disadvantage,
were professional, and enjoyed a superior command.
The british, japanese, french and american allies
provided equipment and supplies to the whites, as well
as expeditionary brigades into combat.
The reds held well in urban combat, but suffered of the
complexity of a campaign outside their cities. Their
biggest problem was the German Offensive that was
still in progress at the eastern front of the Great War.
The Baltic republics and Poland joined the war effort,
winning their Independence.
The Murder of the Romanov Family
Once Nicholas Romanov gave up the throne, he was sent
into exile with his family, moving to the Ipatiev House.
With Russia in full-scale revolution, and fearing the
possibility of an allied offensive for their rescue, on July
17th 1918, the Bolsheviks ordered the Imperial Family to
be shot and killed in Yekaterinburg.
The Tsar and it´s family, wife, daughters and son, were
gone, among with centuries of the Romanov Dynasty.
They were executed, even when they did not form a
threat to the bolshevik regime.
The Declining Allied Effort
& The end of the Conflict
The southern White Russian government accomplished many
victories during the winter of 1919. But these were to be
their lasts.
Unable to pursue the war effort and keep up with the
bolshevik industrial capabilities, the southern white army
disbanded into Siberia. The Don and Transcaucasian
governments collapsed in 1920. The last white bastion was
the Crimea, held until 1921, when the army retreated into
Istanbul, to disappear.
Insurrections were hunted until 1922 in the Volga and
Siberia. Met with the full force of the Red Army and Terror.
The war was over. And a Communist State was born.
The USSR
● The birth of a nation.
The Forming of a Communist State:
The USSR
The Communist Party and Lenin considered that all
the real power needed to be in charge of the Soviets.
Thus generating an institutional pyramid of
ascendant authority.
At the top the Supreme Soviet, assigning the function
of national government to the Communist Party,
immediately in its permanent Central Committee,
supervised by the Politburo (consisting of 7 people,
chaired by Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin)
Construction of the communist state: first try
The first try was placed between 1918 and 1921
Objectives were to exterminate the vestiges of
the old regime, introducing radical and
extensive changes.
The new regime was introduced that meant the
nationalization of the industry, generating a
socialist operation without benefits to replace
mechanisms of the capitalist market.
In cities and countryside there was hostility against the government
for the fulfillment of promises, causing the March 1921 uprising of
Kronshadt (Petrograd's most important naval base)
In 1921 Lenin proclaimed the abolition of "war communism" and in its
place introduced a New Economic Policy, whereby they granted
limited privatization and rights to the peasants.
The members whose opinions differed significantly from Lenin's
thought were accused of "factionalism," that is, the beginning of the
purges.
In 1922 the Cheka was reorganized, which was in charge of the
internal security of the Party. After the death of Lenin, Stalin took
control of the Party and in his speech he designated himself as the
sole custodian of Leninism.
On 28 December 1922, a conference of
plenipotentiary delegations from the
Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR,
the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian
SSR approved the Treaty on the Creation
of the USSR and the Declaration of the
Creation of the USSR, forming the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Ending - The Beginning
Annexes
Annex: The Russian Empire
.
Maximum Extension - 1902
Annex: The SSR´s
Geographically - 1952
Annex: The SSR´s
.
By Number - 1952
Ficha técnica:
British Library. (2018). Russian Revolution. Obtained from British
Library: https://www.bl.uk/russian-revolution/articles/timeline-of-
the-russian-revolution#October%20Revolution
Hamid, A. (17 de February de 2017). 1917. Obtained from
http://www.bolshevik.info/the-russian-revolution-before-1917-the-
gathering-storm.htm
Pipes, R. (2016). La Revolución Rusa. España: Penguin Random
House Grupo Editorial.
Simkin, J. (May de 2013). Spartacus Educational. Obtenido de
http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSsoviet.htm
Dejevsky, Milner Gulland (2006). Cultural Atlas of Russia and the
Former Soviet Union. Oxford Equinox Ltd.
Elaborado por:
● Fernando Flores
● Diego Gómez
● Roberto Cruz
● José Carlos Rodríguez
Agosto 2018.
Para el Instituto de Ciencias

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The Russian Revolution - Recurso Educativo Abierto - Fernando Flores

  • 1. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IT´S HISTORICAL CONTEXT, THE REDS AND THE WHITES
  • 2. Modernizing Russia – 19th Century • Alexander II • The great reforms • Emancipation • Industrialization
  • 3. The Great Reforms: Emancipation In 1857. Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, designated a series of commissions in preparation for a series of reforms in slavery, government, justice & the army. This reforms had the objective of modernizing Russia after the Crimean Wars to the western standards. This resulted in the publication of four acts in 1861. The most important of this series of reforms is the Emancipation Act, which consisted in the abolishment of serfdom, a russian form of slavery. This act proposed gradual independence for the peasants without heavily weakening the noble class. The process made the peasants “buy” the land they worked for to their owners in order to be independent, in a slow process that took nearly 20 years to conclude.
  • 4. Social and Economic change in the end of the XIX Century - Industrialization The incomplete emancipation in 1861 coincided with the first wave of modern Industrialization. Many Peasants turned to the cities in the search for new jobs. This provoked the apparition of a new social class; The proletariat. This classes were heavily linked as they fought together in search of better working conditions. Along the last half of the century, many reforms took place that brought syndicates and labour rights to the country.
  • 5. Peasant Life before the Revolution In 1914, 85% of the russian population belonged to the rural areas of the country (Even though many had migrated to cities in the search of jobs). The agricultural production became harsh even after the emancipation, as there was no economic aid and not full peasant control of their lands. Political and economical frustration brought troubles and destruction in the form of the 1905 revolution. Between 1906 and 1912 a series of fundamental reforms heavily improved the peasant´s state. The agricultural productivity grew significantly and the gross of the peasant class went from a survival situation and economical poverty to a rudimentary welfare state
  • 6. The Bolsheviks; previous to 1903 1893: Russian Social Democratic Worker’s Party founded “The russian worker, at the head of all democratic elements, will overthrow absolutism and will drive the russian proletariat through the direct path of open political warfare and towards the victorious Communist Revolution” -Lenin, 1894 1880´s Lenin while in university has affiliation with Narodnaya Volya; A man whose family has been oppressed by the tsarist regime and the bourgeois has his main Einstellung (fixation) as hate towards these two and all who oppose his views. Dichotomy not only in his speech but in his soul, also, just like Robespierre he considered himself the people. Mind of a man with convictions and a distorted reality. His background with Narodnaya Volya provides foundation to his revolutionary beliefs
  • 7. Ideas in the political and social context The profile of Vladimir Lenin and a view on the political ideologies of the time make the explanation of the Bolsheviks, a complex one; Social democrats: In pursuit of a two step transformation towards socialism. First the transformation of the tsarist regime to a capitalist one and then to a socialist regime. Intelligentsia: Group of individuals characterized by being knowledgeable of the political, social, cultural context and therefore entitled to a view of the status quo. Within the Social Democrats, slowly, factions are constructed; Julius Martov, future leader of the Mensheviks. Stalin, future leader of the Bolsheviks. Divided not by the hardly distinguishable views on the revolution but rather by the ambition of each leader to assure his power. German Sozialdemokrat provides new way for Lenin to counter the so called economism movement made by some social democrats. The peasant movement was developing independently from the social democrat intelligentsia.
  • 8. Giving birth to the Bolsheviks Lenin still heavily influenced by Narodnaya Volya, upholds the concept of counterrevolutionary as all factions who oppose the proletarian revolution. “Men must be prepared not to consagrate their free afternoons to the revolution, but rather their lives” -Lenin, 1900 1900: Iskra (magazine) created as a tool for orthodox marxism (anti-economism and anti- revisionist). Created by Lenin, Potresov and Martov 1902: What is to be done? Published, written by Lenin 1902-1903: Lenin proposes a centralized organization of the party while Martov proposes a less rigid structure. In the Second Congress (1903), Lenin gathers a majority and takes advantage of the loose structure of the party to create parallel structures of power and build a majority where he has a minority. Lenin names his faction, “bolshevik”, which means majority. “A disciplined order of committee professionals, grouped together as faction of conspirators linked definitely by ties of personal obedience towards their leader, Lenin, and willing to follow him on whatever adventure as long as his leadership is sufficiently radical and extreme” - Pipes, 2016
  • 9. The Soviets 1905: first Soviet is born in Ivanovna-Voznesensk after a textile strike. The Soviet was an elected body of the town’s workers. Soviets spread to approximately 50 towns. Soviets compared to Duma, did have elected officials, which appealed greatly to the majority of the population composed by workers and peasants. In December, the Soviets lose power due to the arrests of prominent bolsheviks such as Leon Trotsky. After the fall of Nicholas II, Soviets regain power, yet under a Menshevik majority. Vladimir Lenin as leader of the bolsheviks, assumes a military strategy towards the battle of classes/parties. Adopting, Napoleon Bonaparte’s tiraillerie in a political-social context, Lenin identifies weak points in his enemies (Provisional Government, mensheviks) and strikes with a variety of political destabilizing tactics. By the time the coup d’etat was a go, the mensheviks had a majority in the Soviets.
  • 10. 1905 • Russo-Japanese War • Revolution • Twilight of an Monarchy
  • 11. The 1905 Russo-Japanese War After a long military buildup in Manchuria, August 7th of 1904. A japanese fleet began the shelling and siege of Port Arthur. At the time, the most fortified position in the world. The 50.000 men garrison held until December the 8th, when from a recently captured hill, japanese 280mm mortars shelled and sank the Russian Pacific fleet. The Russian baltic fleet arrived in a rescue mission in May 1905, where after a 7 month odyssey met in a ferocious battle at the Tsushima straits. After a Day-long battle, the bulk of the russian fleet was sunk, including all their battleships. The war was lost.
  • 12. Rise of Socialism, Communism & Government Opposition - 1905 In January 1905 in St. Petersburg the Army was sent to stop a labour protest. The demonstration was met with gunfire, in the event known today as the Bloody Sunday. Marxist Political parties such as the Mencheviques lead the insurrection along the socialist revolutionaries. Combined with the liberals, they subjugated the government to their demands. This resulted in the October Manifesto, this was an attempt by the Tsar to maintain control & the monarchy in power, granting social liberties such as freedom of expression, religion and association. Forming the Duma, a russian Parliament. This, however, was hiding the various structural problems of the empire.
  • 13. The Great War The first week of August on 1914, the world breaks into chaos as Russia, France & Great Britain honor their alliance and go to war with the Central Powers. Russia guaranteed the Independence of Serbia, a country Austria prepared to Invade. Germany, a newcomer in the world powers but yet the most powerful, joined Austria and declared war to Russia and France. Such action brought Great britain into the conflict, wich today we call the Ist World War. Russia Enjoyed victory at the beginning, but ties turned at the battle of Tannenberg, after which the Germans pressed on Warsaw, Ukraine, the Baltics and Belarus.
  • 14. The Great War, felt at home The war made a great social and economic pressure in Russia. The army suffered considerable losses, was ill equipped and poorly supplied. Great unrest was perceived among the troops. Quickly, the russian industry suffered, as the men needed to manufacture the army equipment, were already at the front, as well as the food which escarced in the cities. At the ending of 1916 the state of Russia was dangerous, as the Tsar was publicly despised, the Duma demanded more control over the Government and most of the population suffered from the economy, the war and the doubts about who was really the head of state.
  • 15. Twilight of a Monarchy After 1905, cultural and political trendings made the Imperial family become isolated and unpopular. The Tsar showed to have little intellect, highly conservative and susceptible to manipulation. He did not see the parliamentary Monarchy with good eyes. The unpopularity of the Tsar was accelerated with the internal circumstances of the family. Espeacially from the Tsarina Alexandra, who heavily influenced the Tsar and the decision taking in state´s matters. This was accentuated with the presence of Grigori Rasputin in the court, a Siberian psychic who took care of the Heir´s health issues, but who heavily influenced the family decision taking.
  • 16. Oppressed revolt with bloodshed The tsarist Russia until 1914 Semi-Feudal regime Absolute Monarchy Large-estate aristocracy Poor peasantry Small bourgeoisie Rising proletariat The defeat in the Russo-Japanese war. Parliamentary monarchy The 1905 Revolution The creation of a Pseudo-constitutional regime First World War Poverty Desire of peace Popular Revolts This ultimately led to The 1917 Revolutions
  • 17. The February Revolution And the final days of an Empire
  • 18. The End of a Monarchy: A provisional government. The situation became so dire, that the Tsar, unquestionable ruler of Russia was forced to abdicate in February 1917. When no other member of the royal family agrees to take his place, a Duma-appointed provisional government is formed. Ending 300 years of Romanov´s Rule. The Provisional Government was poorly held together, and between February and October, it was reformed a total of four times. None were effective in coping with the major problems of the nation: land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas and the collapse of the army morale. Meanwhile the Petrograd Soviet, a coalition of the “Populus” as a city council in Petrograd, was in a direct power struggle with the Provisional Government. Among many things, the Soviet issued its Order no.1, which commanded the army to obey the Soviet rather than the Provisional Government, which it was never able to overrule. The Soviets in the Petrograd model adhered far closer to the sentiment of the people. This is why, when Kerensky, a socialist, Became head of the Provisional government, could barely grasp on to power and ultimately led to the rise of the Bolsheviks.
  • 19. The end of a Provisional Government: a growing Soviet influence On September 15, 1917 Kerensky proclaims Russia a republic, which ideologically was contrary to the non- socialists' understanding that the Provisional Government should hold power. The lower and middle classes, especially the soldiers, believed that Russia would stop fighting when the Provisional Government took power, and felt deceived when the government decided otherwise. Furthermore, Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik party were promising "peace, land, and bread" under a communist system. The army weakened, leading to desertion in large numbers. This would allow the Bolshevik elite, the main opposition to the socialist Provisional Government, to undermine its actions and prepare for a coupe at the end of the year, on the month of October.
  • 20. The October Revolution ● The Russian Civil War ● The world in Crisis ● The birth of a communist state
  • 21. REDVOLUTION! - A Civil War The first weeks of October of 1917, Lenin, along Trotsky y Stalin made plans for a Coup d’etat at Petrograd. October the 24th, Red guards, workers and bolshevik soldiers took government offices and comms facilities in Petrograd. The government at the Winter Palace was neutralized and arrested. The Soviets held a congress were a cabinet, led by Lenin, was appointed. The revolution succeed. The new government made a series of radical reforms, in which private property was abolished and peace talks with the Central Powers were held. A set of reforms were to come. Lenin formed the Cheka (KGB), an organization of state security based on a terror regime which systematically eliminated opposition. The Constitutional Democratic Party was banned and all political organizations suppressed. The constitutional assembly stopped (2:1) the package of reforms. The Red Guards and the Bolsheviks dissolved the assembly. 12 years of evolution towards a parliamentary democracy were erased. There began the Civil War. Not in support of the monarchy, but in repugnance to the Bolsheviks.
  • 22. The Reds The reds was the name first given to the private guards of the Bolsheviks, who evolved to be an army. Them, among the Cheka, became the ones responsible of imposing Lenin´s mandate, the “Red Terror”, when needed, and were the ones who October the 24th performed the bolshevik Coup. When the red army formed, it immediately took control of the two major Cities, Petrograd & Moscow. With this, the bolsheviks took control of the country's most industrial areas. Allowing them to control of the military industry and communications networks. This enabled them a superior logistic wich the opposition, dispersed in several smaller republics, was never able to match. In 1918, the Bolsheviks changed to the name of the Communist Party. Changing the capital from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Their Main military Objective was to reach a peace agreement with Germany, key to free soldiers off the front and gain control of the fully rebelled country. Leon Trotsky was the man who transformed the red militias, in an efficient Red Army.
  • 23. The Whites The Anti-Bolshevik movement, the White Army, was built around various governments of opposition. The south became it´s main source of support, as an army of volunteers with non-socialist officers formed. To autonomous governments formed. One at the Don, and one at Kubán. The cossacks and the whites joined forces. It´s objective: To re-establish the Constituent Assembly. Other governments gathered around the Urals, Samara, Omsk and Yekaterinburg. Their heads: General Kornílov and Admiral Kolchak. At the Caucasus, the Federal Transcaucasian Republic formed, with the ideal of a union with a Democratic Russia, and not a Bolshevik one.
  • 24. The War & Foreign Intervention During 1918, the war was on the side of the Whites. Their forces, even though in numerical disadvantage, were professional, and enjoyed a superior command. The british, japanese, french and american allies provided equipment and supplies to the whites, as well as expeditionary brigades into combat. The reds held well in urban combat, but suffered of the complexity of a campaign outside their cities. Their biggest problem was the German Offensive that was still in progress at the eastern front of the Great War. The Baltic republics and Poland joined the war effort, winning their Independence.
  • 25. The Murder of the Romanov Family Once Nicholas Romanov gave up the throne, he was sent into exile with his family, moving to the Ipatiev House. With Russia in full-scale revolution, and fearing the possibility of an allied offensive for their rescue, on July 17th 1918, the Bolsheviks ordered the Imperial Family to be shot and killed in Yekaterinburg. The Tsar and it´s family, wife, daughters and son, were gone, among with centuries of the Romanov Dynasty. They were executed, even when they did not form a threat to the bolshevik regime.
  • 26. The Declining Allied Effort & The end of the Conflict The southern White Russian government accomplished many victories during the winter of 1919. But these were to be their lasts. Unable to pursue the war effort and keep up with the bolshevik industrial capabilities, the southern white army disbanded into Siberia. The Don and Transcaucasian governments collapsed in 1920. The last white bastion was the Crimea, held until 1921, when the army retreated into Istanbul, to disappear. Insurrections were hunted until 1922 in the Volga and Siberia. Met with the full force of the Red Army and Terror. The war was over. And a Communist State was born.
  • 27. The USSR ● The birth of a nation.
  • 28. The Forming of a Communist State: The USSR The Communist Party and Lenin considered that all the real power needed to be in charge of the Soviets. Thus generating an institutional pyramid of ascendant authority. At the top the Supreme Soviet, assigning the function of national government to the Communist Party, immediately in its permanent Central Committee, supervised by the Politburo (consisting of 7 people, chaired by Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin) Construction of the communist state: first try The first try was placed between 1918 and 1921 Objectives were to exterminate the vestiges of the old regime, introducing radical and extensive changes. The new regime was introduced that meant the nationalization of the industry, generating a socialist operation without benefits to replace mechanisms of the capitalist market.
  • 29. In cities and countryside there was hostility against the government for the fulfillment of promises, causing the March 1921 uprising of Kronshadt (Petrograd's most important naval base) In 1921 Lenin proclaimed the abolition of "war communism" and in its place introduced a New Economic Policy, whereby they granted limited privatization and rights to the peasants. The members whose opinions differed significantly from Lenin's thought were accused of "factionalism," that is, the beginning of the purges. In 1922 the Cheka was reorganized, which was in charge of the internal security of the Party. After the death of Lenin, Stalin took control of the Party and in his speech he designated himself as the sole custodian of Leninism. On 28 December 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Ending - The Beginning
  • 31. Annex: The Russian Empire . Maximum Extension - 1902
  • 33. Annex: The SSR´s . By Number - 1952
  • 34. Ficha técnica: British Library. (2018). Russian Revolution. Obtained from British Library: https://www.bl.uk/russian-revolution/articles/timeline-of- the-russian-revolution#October%20Revolution Hamid, A. (17 de February de 2017). 1917. Obtained from http://www.bolshevik.info/the-russian-revolution-before-1917-the- gathering-storm.htm Pipes, R. (2016). La Revolución Rusa. España: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial. Simkin, J. (May de 2013). Spartacus Educational. Obtenido de http://spartacus-educational.com/RUSsoviet.htm Dejevsky, Milner Gulland (2006). Cultural Atlas of Russia and the Former Soviet Union. Oxford Equinox Ltd. Elaborado por: ● Fernando Flores ● Diego Gómez ● Roberto Cruz ● José Carlos Rodríguez Agosto 2018. Para el Instituto de Ciencias