Russia : Rise of an Authoritarian Regime


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This powerpoint contains all the content related to Chapter Three from your history textbook and what I have gone through in class with regards to Russia.

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Russia : Rise of an Authoritarian Regime

  1. 1. Authoritarian Regimes Case Study: Communist Russia
  2. 2. Rise of Communism in Russia
  3. 3. How Communism came to Russia <ul><li>Before 1917, Russia was ruled by an emperor called the Tsar. He was a very powerful man who controlled everyone in Russia. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Communism came to Russia <ul><li>Under the Tsar, the rich people owned large areas of land, big businesses and houses and occupied important posts in the government. The peasants and the town workers were very poor. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Communism came to Russia <ul><li>Russians had been influenced by a German writer, Karl Marx. He believed that workers would one day rise up against the rich and overthrow the government. He also thought that the wealth of the rich should be shared equally among the people </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main Ideas of Communism <ul><li>Class Differences- Two main classes of people </li></ul><ul><li>The Bourgeois – the rich, owned factories, controlled the government </li></ul><ul><li>The Proletariat – the poor and powerless, workers who worked in factories </li></ul>
  7. 7. Main Ideas of Communism <ul><li>Marx and Engels believed that the bourgeois would continue to become richer while the proletariat would be exploited by the bourgeois and become poorer. This would lead to a revolution and overthrow of the government. The bourgeois would be robbed of their power. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main Ideas of Communism <ul><li>The revolution spread to other countries. Workers who are discontented with their working conditions would rise against the capitalist. </li></ul><ul><li>The rule of the Bourgeois would come to an end and power would pass into the hands of the ordinary people. </li></ul><ul><li>In this new world there would be no private ownership of property. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Main Ideas of Communism “ FROM EACH ACCORDING TO HIS ABILITY TO EACH ACCORDING TO HIS NEEDS”… <ul><li>Everything will belong to the community </li></ul><ul><li>This would be known as the “Communist society”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Communism came to Russia <ul><li>Marx’s followers were called Communists. In Russia, the Communists were lead by Lenin, the founder of the Bolshevik Party. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Communism came to Russia <ul><li>In March 1917, Russian workers went on strike. Instead of fighting the workers, the soldiers joined them. Without a proper army, the Tsar was forced to give up his throne. In Nov 1917, Lenin set up the first Communist state in the world </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spread of Communism <ul><li>From 1919 onwards, Russia helped to set up Communist parties in many countries. </li></ul>Gustav Klutsis , 1931 The USSR is the crack brigade of the world proletariat
  13. 13. Was the rise of Communism in Russia inevitable? What led to the rise of Communism in Russia? What led to the rise of Stalin? What was the impact of Stalin’s regime on the people of Communist Russia? <ul><li>Why and how the Communists took power in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>The inevitability of the rise of Communism. </li></ul><ul><li>How Stalin rose to become dictator of Communist Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s actions. </li></ul><ul><li>How they affected the lives of his people. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What led to the rise of Communism in Russia? <ul><li>Many opponents of the Tsar were inspired by the Communism ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them established political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>The Social Democratic Party was established in 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1903, it split into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolsheviks (led by Vladimir Lenin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To seize power by force, through strikes and violent demonstrations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mensheviks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual reform of society. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Impact of World War I and the fall of the Tsar Failure of the Provisional Government October 1917 Revolution Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War What led to the rise of Communism in Russia?
  16. 16. Impact of World War I and the fall of the Tsar <ul><li>Most Russians wanted the Tsar </li></ul><ul><li>to end the war </li></ul><ul><li>Living conditions of Russians deteriorated as a result of World War I — severe food and coal shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated defeats at the hands of the German Army — the Tsar was blamed for this, especially after he decided to take direct command in 1915. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian soldiers, who were poorly equipped and fed, were demoralised and deserted in large numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1917, there was little respect for the Tsar and many soldiers found it pointless to continue fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers wanted land </li></ul><ul><li>Land was mostly in the hands of rich landlords. </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants demanded a fairer distribution of land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Russians wanted food </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s involvement in World War I necessitated the transportation of food to the frontlines to feed the soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>The railway system could not cope with the double burden of sending crops from the countryside to both the cities and the frontlines. </li></ul><ul><li>Food shortages and skyrocketing prices in the cities led to riots in the country as workers demanded more food — ’bread riots’. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Impact of World War I and the fall of the Tsar February 1917: Series of strikes in the capital city, Petrograd. 12 March 1917: The Tsar ordered soldiers to put down the revolt, but the soldiers joined the striking workers instead and took over public buildings and police stations, released prisoners and looted food shops. 15 March 1917: Knowing that he had lost the support of the army and his people, the Tsar abdicated. A Provisional Government was established to run the country in place of the Tsar. The Provisional Government was to bring about a peaceful change of government in Russia, from the Tsar’s autocracy to an eventual democracy with an elected parliament. Back
  18. 18. Failure of the Provisional Government <ul><li>The Provisional Government had several important tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To hold elections for the Russian people to choose their own government by the end of 1917. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To grant a full and immediate amnesty to all political and religious prisoners and exiles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To cooperate with the committees of workers, peasants and soldiers, called soviets, which had taken over the major Russian cities, like Petrograd. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Failure of the Provisional Government <ul><li>However, the Provisional Government failed because it basically did not address the very issues that brought about the downfall of the Tsar: </li></ul><ul><li>Chose to keep Russia in World War I: </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain the integrity of ties with her allies. </li></ul><ul><li>To defend her national honour. </li></ul><ul><li>German army continued to defeat the Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources absorbed into war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Living conditions of the people remained poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the Bolsheviks grew at the expense of the Provisional Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not carry out land reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Rich landowners in the Provisional Government delayed the redistribution of land to the peasants . </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants, who made up the masses, were dissatisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>They murdered or chased away the landowners and seized the land for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to struggle for power with the soviets: </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets — groups of Russian workers, peasants and soldiers who had organised themselves into councils that would govern an area — wielded great influence with the Russian people. </li></ul>Back
  20. 20. October 1917 Revolution <ul><li>Lenin won support for the Bolsheviks with his promises of land, bread and an end to the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Provisional Government ordered the arrest of Lenin when the Bolsheviks continued to incite riots in July 1917 in Petrograd. Lenin fled to Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>However, unrest continued when the commander of the Russian army, General Kornilov, tried to overthrow the Provisional Government by force. </li></ul><ul><li>The Provisional Government had no choice but to turn to the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolsheviks who dominated it, for help to deal with this menace. </li></ul><ul><li>They armed the Bolsheviks, who formed their own army, the Red Guards . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dimitry Moor , 1919 Proletarians of all countries, unite! Soldier, farmer and worker: the new rulers. The text 'Proletarians of all countries, unite', is taken from the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848). The emblem of a hammer and a plough, in the red star at the centre above, is soon replaced by the familiar hammer and sickle.
  22. 22. October 1917 Revolution <ul><li>Although the Provisional Government managed to put down General Kornilov’s troops with the help of the Red Guards, the confrontation had exposed the fact that the Provisional Government was weak and true power in Petrograd was actually held by the Bolsheviks. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 1917, Lenin returned to Russia and overthrew the Provisional Government. The Red Guards took over key buildings in Petrograd and arrested the members of the Provisional Government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Provisional Government was swept from power after eight months. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin established the world’s first Communist regime. </li></ul><ul><li>He fulfilled his promise of ending the war by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. </li></ul>Back
  23. 23. Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War The Bolshevik’s opponents Social Revolutionaries (set up in 1901 with the aim of leading the peasants in a violent revolution against landlords and government officials) Wealthy landowners (lost their land due to the Bolsheviks) Army and navy officers (against the unfavourable terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) Monarchists Other conservatives A bitter three-year civil war was fought in Russia between the Bolsheviks and their opponents.
  24. 24. Designer unknown, 1919 A general military training is a safeguard for freedom In the years following 1917, the Soviet Union is torn by a bloody civil war between the 'Reds' (the communists) and the 'Whites'. This poster calls for the farmers to fight on the side of the Reds .
  25. 25. Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War <ul><li>The Red Army was a much more disciplined and united force under the leadership of Leon Trotsky. </li></ul><ul><li>In comparison, its enemies fought as fragmented and isolated forces. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Guards eventually won the war in 1921. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nikolay Kochergin , 1920 Long live the Red Army Trampled beneath the feet of the Red Army are the defeated White generals and the idol of Mammon, symbol of capitalism.
  27. 27. In 1924, the former territories of the Russian Empire were combined to form the Moscow became the new capital of the USSR. Soviet Union or USSR . (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) The Bolshevik Party adopted a new name, the Communist Party. Communist Russia was born. Back
  28. 28. Impact of World War I and the fall of the Tsar Failure of the Provisional Government October 1917 Revolution Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War What led to the rise of Communism in Russia?
  29. 29. Critical Thinking Was the rise of Communism in Russia inevitable? Given the depths of the suffering and the disillusionment of the Russians caused by Russia’s setbacks in World War I, do you think the Russian people cared more about the political system and ideology or changes that would quickly make living conditions better for them? What if democracy had been successfully established in Russia? Could it all have turned out differently? Did democracy have a chance of succeeding?
  30. 30. Critical Thinking What were Russia’s problems? What promises did Communism hold for the Russian people?
  31. 31. End of involvement in World War I: Most Russians wanted their country to be out of World War I. This was due to the deteriorating living conditions and devastating losses on the battlefields. Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, promised to end the war. An illustration of Russians listening to a Bolshevik leader in the mid 1910s. What were Russia’s problems during that time? What promises did Communism hold for the Russian people?
  32. 32. Redistribution of land: The peasants wanted a fairer system of land redistribution. Communism advocated the equal distribution of wealth among the people in the society.
  33. 33. End to food shortages: The severe shortages of food supplies in the cities and skyrocketing prices caused great hardship to the Russian people. The Communists promised them more food.
  34. 34. Critical Thinking What was ‘the democratic leaders’ referring to? Why did it fall from power after a mere eight months? What were its failures ? Do you think that the Communists capiltalised on the Provisional Government’s failures by promising to solve that very problems that the Provisional Government failed to address? Would the Provisional Government have succeeded if they had more time?
  35. 35. Designer unknown, 1920 What the October Revolution has given to working and peasant women The woman gestures towards a library, a mensa, a workers club, a school for adults and a 'house of mother and child'. The 'October Revolution' is nowadays usually referred to as the November Revolution, due to differences in calendar systems.
  36. 36. Rise of Stalin
  37. 37. Outwitted his rivals Trotsky’s weaknesses What led to the rise of Stalin? Establishment of dictatorship
  38. 38. Outwitted his rivals <ul><li>When Lenin died in January 1924 , there was a struggle to replace him as leader of the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the candidates were: </li></ul>Leon Trotsky <ul><li>Played a leading role in the October 1917 Revolution and the Civil War . </li></ul><ul><li>Brilliant man with great public speaking and writing skills and was respected as a political thinker. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded by Lenin as ‘the most able man in the Party’. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin’s choice as successor . </li></ul><ul><li>Did not try to win over the support of the key members of the Bolshevik Party, as he believed that he would definitely succeed Lenin. </li></ul>Lev Kamenev <ul><li>Member of the Bolshevik Party since its formation in 1903. </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted by Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>Had good leadership and organisational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Acted as Lenin’s deputy before. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed Lenin on the timing of the October Revolution. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Outwitted his rivals Grigory Zinoviev Josef Stalin <ul><li>Member of the Bolshevik Party since its formation in 1903. </li></ul><ul><li>Trusted by Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>Had good leadership and organisational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Also opposed Lenin on the timing of the October Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not play any significant role in the October Revolution or the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as a quiet man, neither liked nor disliked by Party members. </li></ul><ul><li>Was seen by Trotsky and many others as a ‘ dim-witted ’ person. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin was sceptical about whether he would make a good leader . </li></ul><ul><li>He was doubtful about Stalin’s ability to use power with sufficient caution. </li></ul><ul><li>He also felt that Stalin was rude, impatient and not attentive to his comrades. He wanted to remove Stalin as Secretary-General </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky was considered the front-runner. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1924, no one expected Stalin to become Lenin’s successor. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet by 1929, he had managed to outwit all his rivals to become the leader of the Soviet Union. How did he do that? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Pretended to have been close to Lenin <ul><li>When Lenin died in 1924, everybody expected Trotsky to take over the leadership.   Instead, Stalin schemed his way into power, using his position as General Secretary, and a series of ruthless political moves . </li></ul>
  41. 41. Pretended to have been close to Lenin <ul><li>Stalin & Lenin never sat together for this photo. It was ‘remastered’ in photo lab in the 1930s. Why? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Pretended to have been close to Lenin <ul><li>Lenin making a speech taken in 1920. The figures standing next to the rostrum are Trotsky and Kamenev. When this photograph was re-published after Stalin came to power, Trotsky and Kamenev were removed. Why? </li></ul>Trotsky and Kamenev were removed
  43. 43. Pretended to have been close to Lenin <ul><li>Lenin’s negative opinions towards Stalin in his will were not made public . “I am not sure that Comrade Stalin will always use his power properly. Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished by his outstanding ability”. Lenin’s will. </li></ul><ul><li>When Lenin died, Stalin organised the funeral and gave himself the role of chief mourner , making it seem as if he had always been close to Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>He also tricked his biggest rival, Trotsky, into missing Lenin’s funeral by giving him the wrong date. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, many party members were angry with Trotsky’s apparent lack of respect for Lenin when he failed to appear at the funeral. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Made alliances <ul><li>Stalin formed alliances with other members to get rid of his opponents . </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, he formed an alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev because he knew that they wanted his support in their struggle against Trotsky for the leadership of the Communist Party. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Made alliances <ul><li>However, once Kamenev and Zinoviev had served their purpose by helping Stalin to eliminate Trotsky as a rival candidate, Stalin found new allies to remove them as well. </li></ul>Zinoviev, one of Lenin’s closest associates, defended Stalin against Lenin’s call, in his will, for Stalin’s removal “ Comrades, every word of Lenin’s is law to us … But we are happy to say that in one point Lenin’s fears have proved baseless. I have in mind the point about Stalin. You have all witnessed our harmonious cooperation in the last few months ; and like myself, you will be happy to say that Lenin’s fears have proved baseless . ”
  46. 46. Used his position as Secretary-General <ul><li>Stalin used his power as Secretary-General to appoint his supporters to important posts. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, many key Party officials were loyal to him and he controlled the central Party machine. </li></ul><ul><li>He also controlled the local Party committees , spreading his influence even more broadly among the rank and file members. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Stalin was able to pack a 1925 Party meeting with his supporters, who voted to remove Trotsky from his posts. </li></ul>Back
  47. 47. Trotsky’s weaknesses <ul><li>Over-confident </li></ul><ul><li>Believed he would succeed Lenin and was complacent about building support within the ranks of the Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Drew his support from a narrow base: the youths, students and the Red Army. </li></ul><ul><li>Came across as arrogant to most Party members. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support for his idea </li></ul><ul><li>His idea of world revolution did not find broad acceptance among Party members because they were weary at the prospect of more fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, most Party members felt that Stalin’s idea of ‘ Socialism in one country ’ was more practical. </li></ul>Back
  48. 48. Establishment of dictatorship <ul><li>Stalin established an authoritarian regime and he was the dictator who ruled over it with absolute political powers. </li></ul>Absolute power Complete control over his government. Could make laws without seeking agreement from the people or other members of the government. Banned other political parties from the Soviet Union. Any person who opposed him was beaten, jailed or even killed.
  49. 49. Establishment of dictatorship <ul><li>Used propaganda to persuade people to accept and obey him as the rightful leader of the country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, he exaggerated his achievements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also made writers and journalists write about him as a hero of the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercised control through the education system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralised education system under strict government control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools had to teach Marxist and Leninist ideas and instil complete loyalty to the state among the students. </li></ul></ul>Back
  50. 50. What is Propaganda? <ul><li>Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) and uses loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda can be used as a form of political </li></ul><ul><li>warfare </li></ul>Back
  51. 51. What is Propaganda? <ul><li>While Lenin was uncomfortable with the popular personality cult that sprung up about him, the party exploited it during the civil war and officially enshined it after his death. As early as 1918, a biography of Lenin was written, and busts were produced.With his death, his embalmed body was displayed (to exploit beliefs that the bodies of saints did not decay), and pictures books of his life were produced in mass quantities </li></ul>Back
  52. 52. What is Propaganda? Back Stalin presented himself a simple man of the people, but distinct from everyday politics by his unique role as leader.His clothing was carefully selected to cement this image.
  53. 53. Use of Propaganda Back
  54. 54. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>This poster shows Stalin on equal footing with Marx and Engels who are the father of Communism. And Lenin who is the hero of the Russian Revolution </li></ul>Back
  55. 55. What is Propaganda? Back Study the great path of Lenin and Stalin Propaganda presented Stalin as Lenin's heir, exaggerating their relationship until the Stalin cult drained out the Lenin cult—an effect shown in posters, where at first Lenin would be the dominating figure over Stalin, but as time went on became first only equal, and then smaller.
  56. 56. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>This 1937 Soviet Union poster shows children thanking the party and &quot;Dear Stalin&quot; for a &quot;Happy, Joyful Childhood.&quot; </li></ul>Back
  57. 57. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>This poster portrays Staliln as the Father of the new USSR.. </li></ul>Back
  58. 58. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>Stalin propaganda poster, reading: &quot;Beloved Stalin—good fortune of the people!&quot; </li></ul>Back
  59. 59. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>This poster portrays Stalin as their good fortune. He is the “saviour” who will deliver Russia and Russians out of their misery and make them prosperous. </li></ul>Back
  60. 60. Use of Propaganda <ul><li>Stalin is seen here as very popular and much loved by the people of Russia. </li></ul>Back
  61. 61. Outwitted his rivals Trotsky’s weaknesses What led to the rise of Stalin? Establishment of dictatorship
  62. 62. Impact of Stalin’s Rule Crisis and Conflict: Communist Russia Copyright 2006
  63. 63. Communist Russia became an industrialised country Farms in Russia were collectivised Development of a terror state Tight control over culture What was the impact of Stalin’s regime on Communist Russia?
  64. 64. What was the impact of Stalin’s regime on Communist Russia? <ul><li>Stalin aimed to modernise and develop the Soviet Union into a great country, more powerful than Britain and the USA . </li></ul><ul><li>Two measures he implemented to achieve these were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid industrialisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivisation of culture. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. What was the impact of Stalin’s regime on Communist Russia? <ul><li>To consolidate his dictatorship and absolute power, Stalin also undertook two oppressive measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a terror state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight control over culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All these measures left a huge impact on the people of Communist Russia and would endure as the legacies to Stalin’s regime. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Communist Russia became an industrialised country <ul><li>Stalin talked about putting ‘the Soviet Union on an automobile and the farmer on a tractor ’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>he wanted to transform the Soviet Union into a modern industrial state , one which was strong enough to stand up and defend its independence against other countries, instead of suffering humiliating defeats. </li></ul></ul>Stalin in a 1931 speech to factory managers explaining the need for industrialisation “ Tsarist Russia suffered many defeats because of her backwardness. All those countries defeated her because she was weak. This is why we must no longer lag behind. Do we want our Motherland to be defeated and lose her independence? ……… ”
  67. 67. Communist Russia became an industrialised country <ul><li>Not just industrialisation, but rapid industrialisation ! </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin believed the country needed to be developed rapidly to be prepared for an attack by the non-Communist countries whom he thought might invade the Soviet Union. </li></ul>Stalin in a 1931 speech to factory managers explaining the need for industrialisation “ If you do not want this, you must put an end to backwardness in the shortest possible time. We are 50 to 100 years behind the advanced countries. We must catch up in 10 years or they will crush us. ”
  68. 68. Communist Russia became an industrialised country <ul><li>As a result, his economic plans focused on developing heavy industries such as steel, metallurgy, chemicals, oil, coal and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the steel industry, new industrial cities such as Magnitogorsk were built from scratch mainly using forced labour (i.e. people arrested for various reasons ) . </li></ul>
  69. 69. Communist Russia became an industrialised country <ul><li>Steel produced by the new factories was used for building industrial products such as tractors and railways . </li></ul><ul><li>High output targets for oil and coal were also set so as to generate more electricity to keep the new factories going and for the needs of the people. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Communist Russia became an industrialised country Labour and expertise that helped fuel the development of the new industries. Foreign experts who were sympathetic to the Communist cause were hired to teach the Russians, especially in technical areas . As many more job opportunities were created, more women were employed. Farmers were also encouraged to move to the cities to work in the industries.
  71. 71. How did Stalin implement industrialisation? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin implemented three Five-Year Plans : </li></ul><ul><li>Second Five-Year Plan (1933–1937) </li></ul><ul><li>Set new targets for heavy industries. </li></ul><ul><li>But it also gave more attention to industries that produced goods such as clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1934 onwards, priority was given to industries related to military production as the Soviet Union anticipated another war. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories were built to the East of the Ural Mountains , where they would be beyond the reach of Western invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport and communication networks were greatly improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Third Five-Year Plan </li></ul><ul><li>(1938–1942) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on industries related to military production. </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupted when the Soviet Union was invaded by Germany in 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>From then on, all resources were focused on military production and defeating the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>First Five-Year Plan </li></ul><ul><li>(1928–1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on heavy industries, especially iron and steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Output was to be doubled for iron and steel production and in electricity, chemicals and engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>After some early success, targets were increased and this Five-Year Plan was ordered to be completed in four years instead of five. </li></ul>
  72. 72. How did Stalin implement industrialisation? <ul><li>Despite the early successes of the First Five-Year Plan, some of the targets were not met. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there was a great increase in the amount of coal, iron, steel and oil produced. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1 500 factories and more than 100 new cities were built. </li></ul>
  73. 73. How did Stalin implement industrialisation? <ul><li>In the beginning, progress of Stalin’s industrialisation programme was inhibited because of these problems: </li></ul>Many of the new industrial workers were farmers who had lived in the countryside and were not used to life in the cities. <ul><li>They often found it hard to adjust to their new living environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Their inability to settle in affected their productivity . </li></ul><ul><li>Very few workers had the skills required for factory work. </li></ul><ul><li>Many workers were illiterate. </li></ul><ul><li>Machines were often damaged because of workers’ ignorance or lack of training. </li></ul><ul><li>When their equipment broke down, the workers did not know how to repair it and it would lie unused on the factory floor. </li></ul>
  74. 74. S. Mirzoyan, A. Ivanov, 1929 Help build the gigantic factories The first Five Year Plan aims to build up heavy industry from virtually nothing. This poster advertizes a state loan for the building of large factories.
  75. 75. Lyubimov, 1931 With shock labour we will ensure prompt delivery of the giants of the Five Year Plan Workers in supply companies, pictured below, have to speed up production in order to finish the large factories above in time.
  76. 76. Nikolay Dolgorukov , 1931 Full speed ahead for the fourth and final year of the Five Year Plan! The aims of the Five Year Plan are extremely high already. Then Stalin decides they have to be achieved in four years. Everything is subordinated to this, with disastrous long-turn effects.
  77. 77. Impact of industrialisation <ul><li>When the First Five-Year Plan was announced, many Russians, especially young, idealistic Party members formed ‘Shock Brigades’ or groups of highly-motivated workers. </li></ul><ul><li>However, their enthusiastic support for the industrialisation programma waned under appalling work conditions and unrealistic production targets. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1929, there was labour unrest as workers protested against their conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>In response, the government took disciplinary action against workers who were underperforming or who engaged in sabotage. </li></ul>Poor work conditions
  78. 78. Impact of industrialisation Restrictions placed on workers in the Soviet Union 1929 All factory workers had to work seven days a week. October 1930 Workers were not allowed to move around the factories during working hours. December 1930 Factories were not allowed to hire people who had left their previous jobs without permission . January 1931 Workers would be sent to prison if they broke any rules in the factories. February 1931 All factories were to keep notes on a worker’s job record.
  79. 79. Impact of industrialisation March 1931 Workers were responsible for any damage to tools. July 1932 Workers could be transferred from one place of work to another without their agreement. August 1932 Workers would be sentenced to death for stealing things from the factories, as these belonged to the government. November 1932 Workers could be dismissed if they missed a single day of work. December 1932 Workers had to make a passport for any travel within the Soviet Union.
  80. 80. Impact of industrialisation <ul><li>The Soviet Union’s economy became a planned economy — the government had complete control . A new government department was formed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set targets in each industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plan the locations of new towns and industrial cities like Magnitogorsk. </li></ul></ul>Poor work conditions
  81. 81. Many of the new towns and industrial cities were to be built in the East, beyond the Ural Mountains. This was very different from Tsarist Russia, where all the major cities were located in West Russia. The strategic location of these industrial cities would place them beyond the reach of Western invaders, thus ensuring that production critical to any war efforts could not be easily sabotaged by the enemies.
  82. 82. Impact of industrialisation <ul><li>To ensure that their targets were met, the Communist government implemented a system of rewards and incentives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salaries were pegged to the productivity of a worker — the more he produced, the more he earned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard work was rewarded with medals and the opportunity to go on a holiday at a discount. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The government started a big campaign to teach the Russian workers new skills so as to tackle the problems posed by an uneducated labour force. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New colleges, schools and universities were built. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary education was made compulsory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of teachers, scientists and engineers were trained. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1930s, Russian workers were able to obtain well-paid, high-skilled jobs. </li></ul>System of rewards and training for workers
  83. 83. Impact of industrialisation <ul><li>Initially, due to the focus on heavy industries, industries that produced basic goods were neglected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was a shortage of basic goods such as food, clothes and shoes . These items were rationed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shortages led to escalating prices. Between 1928 and 1933, the actual purchasing power of the workers’ salaries fell by 50%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After 1935, the situation began to improve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of basic goods increased and more supplies became available to the people. Rationing ended in 1936. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers received cheap meals and free uniforms . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free education, subsidised health care and the provision of extensive leisure facilities, such as cinemas, public parks, sports fields and gymnasiums, were provided. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, the living conditions of the Russians improved considerably. </li></ul>Changing living conditions
  84. 84. Impact of industrialisation Which do these viewpoints tell you about the Russians’ general feeling about Stalin’s industrialisation programme?
  85. 85. Impact of industrialisation Which do these viewpoints tell you about the Russians’ general feeling about Stalin’s industrialisation programme?
  86. 86. Impact of industrialisation Which do these viewpoints tell you about the Russians’ general feeling about Stalin’s industrialisation programme?
  87. 87. Impact of industrialisation <ul><li>Stalin managed to stave off the initial problems faced in his industrialisation programme. </li></ul><ul><li>With his Five-Year Plans, the Soviet Union’s heavy industries expanded rapidly and production of consumer goods increased. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union’s industrial capacity was also protected from an attack from the West due to the location of industrial cities in the Eastern part of the Soviet Union, beyond the Ural Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the Soviet Union was more ready to face the threat from Germany when it came under attack in June 1941. </li></ul>Back
  88. 88. Stalin towers over the great works of the Five Year Plan, such as the dam in the river Dnepr and the industrial complexes in Magnitogorsk and Stalinsk. Working conditions on these projects are terrible, and large numbers of political prisoners do forced labour. G. Brylov, 1933 The giants of the Five Year Plan The quote from Stalin above reads: 'The results of the Five Year Plan show that the working class is not only capable of destroying the old, but also of building the new'.
  89. 89. Farms in Russia were collectivised <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the farms in the Soviet Union were small strips of land owned by individual farmers. They used primitive equipment like ploughs to work the fields and harvest the crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s reasons for collectivisation: </li></ul>If farming methods were improved, fewer people would be needed to work the land. This meant that some of the people in the countryside would be able to move to the cities to work in the new factories. The farmers would be able to grow more crops. The Soviet Union would be able to sell the extra crops to other countries. The profit it earned could be used to pay for the building of new factories. Bigger plots of land Modern farming machinery = Greater productivity!
  90. 90. Farms in Russia were collectivised <ul><li>What did collectivisation entail? </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers in a particular area would combine all their land together to form a single large unit, known as a collective farm ( kolkhoz ) . </li></ul><ul><li>All their tools and animals were shared. </li></ul><ul><li>Each collective farm would have a common pool of tractors. These tractors were then rented out to the farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers would work together and share what the farm produced. They would be paid labourers on the state-owned farm. </li></ul><ul><li>They would sell a percentage of their crops to the government at a very low price. This made it easier for officials to get food supplies to the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>In return, the government would provide them with machines such as tractors and harvesters. </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials managed the farms. The collective farms would also have schools, hospitals and libraries. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Voluntary collectivisation <ul><li>Initially, Stalin used reasons and persuasion to try to garner the farmers’ support in joining collective farms. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a policy of voluntary collectivisation . </li></ul>Stalin speaking to Communist Party members in 1927 “ What is the way out? The way out is to turn the small and scattered farms into large united farms ... The way out is to unite the small and dwarf farms slowly but surely, not by pressure but by example and persuasion into large farms… There is no other way out. ”
  92. 92. S. Mirzoyan, A. Ivanov, 1929 Towards the collective The collectivization of agriculture means the forced merging of small private farms into large state enterprises. Here, the private farmer is pictured as a rich saboteur, jealous of the abundant harvest of the colelctive farm. In reality, rich farmers had already been disposed of. The remaining private farms were small, owned by poor peasants. The forced collectivization caused severe food shortages for years and years.
  93. 93. Voluntary collectivisation <ul><li>The response was mixed. </li></ul>Supportive!
  94. 94. Voluntary collectivisation <ul><li>The response was mixed. </li></ul>Not Supportive! <ul><li>Voluntary collectivisation did not work because many farmers did not want to abandon their traditional way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The kulaks (richer, land-owning farmers) especially, did not want to give up their land to the government. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Forced collectivisation <ul><li>Thus, Stalin adopted a policy of collectivisation by force. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He began by ordering Communist officials to force farmers to hand over their crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Communist Party members went around looking for food. They confiscated any crops that were found. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The farmers reacted by assassinating Communist Party members. In 1928 alone, 1 400 of such assassinations were reported. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer crops were harvested after collectivisation than in previous years. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Forced collectivisation <ul><li>Stalin put the blame squarely on the shoulders of the kulaks . </li></ul>Stalin addressing the Communist Party in 1929 “ The kulaks are the sworn enemies of the collective farm movement. We are to eliminate them as a class … We must break down the resistance of the kulaks and deprive them of their existence. We must smash them … We must strike at the kulaks so hard as to prevent them from rising to their feet again. ” <ul><li>He decided to eliminate them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s secret police, the NKVD were ordered to shoot farmers who resisted or send them to labour camps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of kulaks were persecuted in these ways since they preferred destroying their crops to handing them over to the government. </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. Forced collectivisation <ul><li>Backed by the NKVD, Party officials and volunteers were sent to the countryside to forcibly form collective farms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They forced the farmers to sign documents agreeing to the formation of collective farms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would then take over the fields, livestock, farming tools and buildings of the farmers. The Communist officials also forced farmers to hand over their crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Communist Party members went around looking for food. They confiscated any crops that were found. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin succeeded in his forced collectivisation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He had a cheap and regular supply of crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He freed workers from the countryside by mechanising the farms. Thus, more workers were available to work in the factories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altogether, an estimated 25 million farmers were forced to join huge collective farms. </li></ul></ul>
  98. 98. Impact of collectivisation <ul><li>The farmers rioted and engaged in armed resistance to try to stop forced collectivisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin responded by ordering 17 million horses used in farming to be killed so that the farmers would be forced to use tractors instead. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there were not enough tractors to replace the horses that had been killed. </li></ul>Riots and resistance
  99. 99. Impact of collectivisation <ul><li>Villagers who did not co-operate were forced to move from their villages. </li></ul><ul><li>They were sent to gulags (labour camps) to the north of the Soviet Union where they were made to work on Stalin’s ambitious construction projects. </li></ul>Getting rid of people who opposed collectivisation
  100. 100. Impact of collectivisation <ul><li>Farmers burnt their crops and grew less food rather than send them to the Communist officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The decline in crop production was made worse by natural disasters such as droughts and floods. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe food shortages caused famine in the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem was compounded when Stalin rejected offers of food aid from the USA. Instead, he suppressed information about the famine. </li></ul>Famine
  101. 101. Impact of collectivisation <ul><li>Despite the severe food shortages, Stalin ordered officials and the NKVD to take whatever crops were left. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the crops were sold to other countries to raise money to buy machines from other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that more than 10 million peasants and their families died in the famine. </li></ul>Famine Back
  102. 102. Sirocenqo, 1938 Long live the great Stalin! A parade, tanks, military airplanes and soldiers: Stalin may be smiling friendly, but war preparations are in full swing.
  103. 103. Development of a terror state Before 1934 <ul><li>Stalin dealt with his opponents by: </li></ul><ul><li>Expelling them from the Communist Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Sending them into exile. </li></ul><ul><li>Launch of the purges : </li></ul><ul><li>Used Kirov’s death as an excuse to eliminate his opponents in the Communist Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Accused them of murdering Kirov and of plotting to assassinate Stalin himself. </li></ul>After Kirov’s murder on 1 December 1934
  104. 104. Development of a terror state <ul><li>First to be arrested were the followers of Zinoviev. </li></ul><ul><li>Altogether, thousands of people were arrested by the NKVD in the weeks after Kirov’s murder. </li></ul><ul><li>The NKVD was given a quota, which meant that they had to arrest a minimum number of ‘enemies of the people’. </li></ul>Purges
  105. 105. Development of a terror state <ul><li>The people who were arrested were usually intellectuals because they were seen as a threat to Stalin’s rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They might have organised other Russians to resist Stalin’s rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, they were usually forced to sign confessions and implicate others, who were also arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1934 and 1935, the number of those sent to prison and gulags more than tripled. </li></ul><ul><li>The purges continued from 1934 to 1938. </li></ul>Purges
  106. 106. Development of a terror state <ul><li>In 1936, the old Bolshevik leaders, such as Kamenev and Zinoviev, were put on show trials. </li></ul><ul><li>This took place after they had been worn down by treacherous conditions, continuous questioning and threats to the lives of their loved ones. </li></ul><ul><li>They confessed to all the charges against them and were executed. </li></ul>Purges
  107. 107. Development of a terror state <ul><li>Altogether, 1 million lower-ranking Party officials were expelled and were either shot or sent to labour camps. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the officer corps was shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the Commander-in-Chief and a hero of the Civil War, Marshall Mikhail Tukachevsky, was not spared. </li></ul>Purges
  108. 108. Development of a terror state <ul><li>Later, the purges included even ordinary Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Russians were arrested and either shot or sent to the dreaded labour camps. </li></ul><ul><li>The NKVD arrested politicians, scientists, military men, teachers, writers and workers. </li></ul>Purges Prisoners of Stalin in a cell. Many of these prisoners were taken from their homes at night and never heard of again.
  109. 109. Impact of Stalin’s rule of terror <ul><li>During the period of the purges, people were encouraged to inform on their fellow workers, their neighbours and family members if they made any comments against Stalin or the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>As no evidence was needed for an arrest, anyone who had a grudge against another person could get rid of him by simply denouncing him to the NKVD. </li></ul><ul><li>The NKVD would often take people away from their homes in the middle of the night or in the early hours of the morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, many Russians were afraid of answering the door at night because they assumed that the NKVD had come to take someone away. </li></ul>Fear and suspicion Much fear and suspicion!
  110. 110. Impact of Stalin’s rule of terror <ul><li>As a result of the purges, there were mass executions. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 20 million Russians were victims of the purges. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass graves were discovered throughout Russia after Stalin died. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who had been purged were removed from any photographs and paintings that they had appeared in. </li></ul><ul><li>The old heroes of the Revolution, having been purged, were forgotten. From the 1930s until his death in 1953, Stalin was the only leader that mattered. </li></ul><ul><li>Russians feared and obeyed him. </li></ul>Mass executions
  111. 111. Impact of Stalin’s rule of terror <ul><li>Religion was banned for the Russians, most of whom were devout members of the Orthodox Christian Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Young Communist Party members spread anti-religious propaganda by distributing pamphlets and journals or organising lectures that criticised religion for promoting ‘harmful superstition’. </li></ul><ul><li>Churches, mosques and synagogues were vandalised. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian, Muslim and Jewish religious leaders were persecuted. </li></ul>Religious persecution Back
  112. 112. Tight control over culture <ul><li>How did Stalin control culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled what people were taught. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching of History was changed to focus on the importance of Lenin and Stalin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin was shown as having played a key and heroic role during the October 1917 Revolution (which was not true) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other leaders, such as Trotsky, were either unfairly presented or ignored. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very strict discipline in schools – for teachers and pupils. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers were closely watched and they were purged if it was felt that they had taught the pupils to be anti-Stalin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The arts </li></ul><ul><li>Only writers, artists and musicians who made art praising Stalin and his programmes could remain in their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many others were arrested and sent to labour camps. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, he also controlled the arts. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Tight control over culture <ul><li>Impact of Stalin’s control over culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writings, paintings and music were expected to act as propaganda for him and his programmes, such as industrialisation and farm collectivisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of these restrictions, there was a lack of variety in the arts in Communist Russia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Russians also grew up learning a skewed version of history where Stalin took centrestage and was hugely important. </li></ul></ul>
  114. 114. Tight control over culture <ul><li>Cult of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to make people in Communist Russia worship him as the leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayed himself as a fatherly, cheerful and popular man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had his pictures and statues placed almost everywhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All offices, classrooms and factory floors had pictures of Stalin and the successes of the country were attributed to him. </li></ul></ul>Back
  115. 115. Communist Russia became an industrialised country Farms in Russia were collectivised Development of a terror state Tight control over culture What was the impact of Stalin’s regime on Communist Russia?
  116. 116. Critical Thinking Did Stalin bring more harm than good to Communist Russia? Consider the viewpoints below. What were the ‘harms’ and what were the ‘goods’?
  117. 117. Critical Thinking Did Stalin bring more harm than good to Communist Russia? Consider the viewpoints below. What were the ‘harms’ and what were the ‘goods’?
  118. 118. Critical Thinking Did Stalin bring more harm than good to Communist Russia? Consider the viewpoints below. What were the ‘harms’ and what were the ‘goods’?
  119. 119. Summary Was the rise of Communism in Russia inevitable? Reasons for the rise of Communism in Russia How Stalin rose to power Impact of Stalin’s regime Industrialisation Collectivisation Purges World War I and the Tsar Failure of Provisional Government October 1917 Revolution Bolshevik victory in Russian Civil War Control of culture Outwitted his rivals Trotsky’s weaknesses Establishment of dictatorship
  120. 120. Summary Back to main summary Reasons for the rise of Communism in Russia World War I and the Tsar Failure of Provisional Government October 1917 Revolution Bolshevik victory in Russian Civil War <ul><li>Humiliating defeats and devastating losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants’ desire for land. </li></ul><ul><li>Food shortages. </li></ul><ul><li>Chose to keep Russia in World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not carry out land reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Power struggles with the soviets. </li></ul><ul><li>Provisional Government provided weapons which helped the Bolsheviks set up the Red Guards. </li></ul><ul><li>Showed that it did not have real power when it needed the Red Guards to help it defeat General Kornilov. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Guards swept the Provisional Government from power. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Guards defeated its enemies as a united and disciplined force. </li></ul><ul><li>The states of the Russian Empire were combined to form the Soviet Union. </li></ul>
  121. 121. Summary Back to main summary How Stalin rose to power Outwitted his rivals Trotsky’s weaknesses Establishment of dictatorship <ul><li>Pretended to be close to Lenin. </li></ul><ul><li>Made alliances. </li></ul><ul><li>Used his position as Secretary-General . </li></ul><ul><li>Over-confident and did not establish a broad enough support base. </li></ul><ul><li>His idea of world revolution was much less accepted than Stalin’s idea of ‘Socialism in one country’. </li></ul><ul><li>He had absolute political power and control in the authoritarian regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Used propaganda to get people to accept and obey him. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercised control through education system. </li></ul>
  122. 122. Summary <ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages, poor working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><li>Modernisation and industrialisation of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia became a powerful country. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher wages, better living conditions . </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread fear and suspicion. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass executions. </li></ul>Back to main summary Impact of Stalin’s regime Industrialisation Collectivisation Purges Control of culture <ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><li>Many killed or sent to labour camps. </li></ul><ul><li>Famine. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap and regular supply of crops. </li></ul><ul><li>More workers from the countryside to work in the factories and support the rapid industrialisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Skewed education. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of variety in the arts. </li></ul>