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Information systems for dent


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Dental Informatics

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Information systems for dent

  1. 1. Review on Information Systems Mrs. Abegale B. Lajo Scitech Faculty / Computer Dept.
  2. 2. CBIS <ul><li>A computer-based information system (CBIS) is a data processing system that consists hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are designed to collect, manipulate, store and process data into information. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I.T. <ul><li>IT refers to the technology components of hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hardware <ul><li>Hardware comprises of computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output operations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Software <ul><li>Software are the computer programs that supervise the operation of the computer. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Database <ul><li>Database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed and updated. </li></ul>
  7. 7. People <ul><li>People as a component of CBIS, people include the personnel of the information systems who manage, run, program, and maintain the system. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Procedures <ul><li>Procedures include the policies, strategies, methods, and rules of using the CBIS. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Telecommunication <ul><li>Telecommunication is the electronic transmission of signals for communications, which enables organization to carry out their processes and tasks through effective computer networks 1 . </li></ul>
  10. 10. E-commerce <ul><li>Electronic commerce or E-commerce consists of the buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over computer networks. </li></ul>
  11. 11. M-commerce <ul><li>Mobile commerce or m-commerce involves transactions conducted anywhere and anytime with the use of wireless communications. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transaction Processing Systems <ul><li>Transaction processing is designed to maintain a database by ensuring that any operations carried out on the database that are interdependent are either all completed successfully or all cancelled successfully. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Enterprise Resource Planning <ul><li>An enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is a set of integrated programs capable of managing business operations, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Enterprise Resource Planning <ul><li>Ideally, ERP delivers a single database that contains all data for the software modules (stand-alone applications), which would include: </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Manufacturing  </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management  </li></ul><ul><li>Financials  </li></ul><ul><li>Project management  </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources  </li></ul><ul><li>Customer relationship management  </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouse and various self-service interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Access control </li></ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Manufacturing  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering, bills of material, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Supply chain management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order to cash, inventory, order entry, purchasing, product configurator, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, commission calculation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Financials  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General ledger, cash management, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costing, billing, time and expense, performance units, activity management </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Human resources  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources, payroll, training, time and attendance, rostering, benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer relationship management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact and call center support </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Data warehouse and various self-service interfaces for customers, suppliers, and employees </li></ul><ul><li>Access control - user privilege as per authority levels for process execution </li></ul><ul><li>Customization - to meet the extension, addition, change in process flow </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>To be considered an ERP system, a software package must provide the function of at least two systems. </li></ul><ul><li>QAD has been recognized as a leading provider of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software applications for global manufacturing companies. </li></ul>
  22. 22. MIS <ul><li>A management information system, or MIS, is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers. </li></ul>
  23. 23. MIS In order to provide past, present and prediction information , an MIS can include software that helps in decision making, data resources such as databases, the hardware resources of a system, decision support systems,
  24. 24. <ul><li>people management and project management applications, and any computerized processes that enable the department to run efficiently. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>MIS provides a large group of problem solvers with information to solve a wide range of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Other names for MIS include IS (Information Services) and IT (Information Technology). </li></ul>
  26. 26. DSS <ul><li>Decision support system, or DSS, is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support business and organizational decision-making activities. </li></ul>
  27. 27. DSS <ul><li>coined by G. Anthony Gorry and Michael S. Scott Morton </li></ul><ul><li>A system that is developed to assist a single manager or small group of managers solve a single problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: determining the best commission rate for the sales force. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>DSS Vendors: </li></ul><ul><li>Information Builders and iWay Software Professional Services specialize in building custom-tailored Web decision support systems. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Artificial intelligence includes: Playing games : training computers to engage in recreation. Expert systems : training computers to formulate decisions in real-life situations. Natural language : programming computers to know natural individual languages.
  30. 30. Artificial intelligence includes: Neural networks : Systems that replicate intellect by attempting to copy the types of substantial relations that take place in animal brains. Robotics : training computers to find out and listen to and act in response to other sensory stimuli.
  31. 31. Expert System <ul><li>Expert system is a system that gives a computer the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Managers as Information System Users <ul><li>Management Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Business Areas </li></ul>
  33. 33. Management Levels <ul><li>coined by Robert N. Anthony, a management theorist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>         Top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         Middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         Lower </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Management Levels <ul><li>Top level – strategic planning level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   Recognizes the impact that their decisions have on the entire organizations for years to come. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Management Levels <ul><li>Middle level – management control level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   Has the responsibility to put plans into action and to ensure that goals are met. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Management Levels <ul><li>Lower level – operational control level </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Responsible for accomplishing the plans specified by managers on upper levels since it is here that operations of the firm occur. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Business Areas <ul><li>3 Traditional Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>         Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently Added Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>         Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>         Information services </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Management Functions <ul><ul><li> developed by Henri Fayol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     P lan what they are to do </li></ul><ul><li>     O rganize to meet the plan </li></ul><ul><li>   S taff their organization with the necessary resources </li></ul><ul><li>     Di rect them to execute the plan </li></ul><ul><li>    Con trol the resources, keeping them on course. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Managerial Roles <ul><li> Developed by Henry Mintzberg that involve interpersonal, informational, and decisional activities </li></ul>
  40. 40. Interpersonal Roles <ul><li>   Figurehead. The manager performs ceremonial duties, such as giving visiting dignitaries tours of the facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>    Leader. The manger maintains the unit by hiring and training the staff and providing motivation and encouragement. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison. The manager makes contacts with persons outside the </li></ul>
  41. 41. Informational Roles <ul><li>   Monitor. The manager constantly looks for information bearing on the performance of the unit. The manager’s sensory preceptors scan both the internal activity of the unit and its environment. </li></ul><ul><li> Disseminator. The manager passes valuable information along to others in the unit. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Informational Roles <ul><li> Spokesperson. The manager passes valuable information along to those outside the unit – superiors and persons in the environment. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Decisional Roles <ul><li> Entrepreneur. The manager makes rather permanent improvements to the unit, such as changing the organizational structure. </li></ul><ul><li>   Disturbance handler. The manager reacts to unanticipated event, such as the devaluation of the dollar in a foreign country where the firm has operations. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Decisional Roles <ul><li>    Resource allocator. The manager controls the purse strings of the unit, determining which subsidiary units get which resources. </li></ul><ul><li>    Negotiator. The manager resolves disputes both within the unit and between the units and the environment. </li></ul>