Using information


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Presentation to cover the Using Information Unit in the Higher course.

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Using information

  1. 1. Information Systems Using Information(Higher and Intermediate 2) 1
  2. 2. Information Systems A system to convert data from internal and external sources into information and to communicate that information, in an appropriate form, to people at all levels in all functions to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible. 2
  3. 3. Introduction Information and knowledge are so important nowadays that society can be divided up into two groups.  Information rich – those who have access to:  many TV and radio channels  books, newspapers and journals  computers and the World Wide Web.  Information poor – those who:  tend to not have access to the Web and probably find it difficult to access relevant books and journals.  If you are following this course you will probably be information rich. 3
  4. 4. Learning Objectives Throughout this unit we will learn about the nature and uses of information by looking at: Differences between Data and Information Organisational Information Systems Information Management Software Implications of Information and Communications Technology. 4
  5. 5. Data and Information Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning. Information is processed data that has meaning and a context. Data Information 36.41 £36.41 – bill for DVDs Binary patterns on Processed data – e.g. display on a disc screen, icons, etc. 5
  6. 6. Data and Information A single unit or item of data is called a datum It is one or more symbols used to represent something. 6
  7. 7. Knowledge Knowledge is derived from Information We gain knowledge from information and we use that information to make decisions.  Explicit knowledge is rules or processes or decisions that can be recorded either on paper or in an information system.  Tacit knowledge exists inside the minds of humans and is harder to record. It tends to be created from someone’s experiences, so again is a set of rules or experiences. 7
  8. 8. Metadata Metadata can be thought of as data that describes data. It is structured information about a resource. Examples  a data dictionary  A meta tag in a web page contains information about the contents of the web page.  the card index system used by libraries before computerisation, where each card told you the author, title and where to find the book 8
  9. 9. LI - Categorisation of Information Information can be categorised under several headings that allow us to determine its overall usefulness.  Main categories  Source  Frequency  Nature  Use  Level  Form  Time  Type. 9
  10. 10. Source – Primary or Secondary  A primary source provides the data to an information system from an original source document. • e.g. an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received. • sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week or several weeks and one or several locations.  A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the original. • e.g. an accounts book detailing invoices received, or a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in.Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys orpolls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and theconclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are 10secondary sources
  11. 11. Source – Internal All organisations generate a substantial amount of internal information relating to their operation.  Examples of internal sources:  Marketing and sales information on performance, revenues, market share, distribution channels, etc.  Production and operational information on assets, quality, standards, etc.  Financial information on profits, costs, margins, cash flows, investments, etc.  Internal documentation such as order forms, invoices, credit notes, procedural manuals. 11
  12. 12. Source – External An external source of information is concerned with what is happening beyond the boundaries of the organisation. • census figures • telephone directories • judgments on court cases • computer users’ yearbook • legislation, e.g. the Data • gallup & national opinion polls Protection Act • Ordnance Survey maps • trade journals • Financial services agencies • professional publications such as Dunn and Bradstreet • industry standards • the Internet 12
  13. 13. Source - Nature Formal Communication  information presented in a structured and consistent manner  main methods  the formal letter, properly structured reports, writing of training materials, etc. in cogent, coherent, well- structured language. Informal Communication  less well-structured information  transmitted within an organisation or between individuals who usually know each other. 13
  14. 14. Source - Nature Quantitative Information  information that is represented numerically. Qualitative Information  information that is represented using words. 14
  15. 15. Levels of Use of Information Long-term decisions - both internal & external sources Top level of management STRATEGIC Medium-term decisions - mostly internal but some external sources TACTICAL Middle management Day-to-day decisions - largely internal sources OPERATIONAL Lowest level of staff 15
  16. 16. Time Historic  Information gathered and stored over a period of time.  It allows decision makers to draw comparisons between previous and present activities.  Historic information can be used to identify trends over a period of time. Present  Information created from activities during the current work- window (day, week or month).  In real-time systems this information would be created instantly from the data gathered (e.g. the temperature in a nuclear power plant turbine) giving accurate and up-to-date information. Future  Information that is created using present and historic information to try to predict the future activities and events relating to the operation of an organisation. 16
  17. 17. Frequency of Information Continuous  This is information created from data gathered several times a second. It is the type of information created by a real-time system. Periodic  Information created at regular time intervals (hourly, daily, monthly, annually).  Annually – On an annual basis a company must submit its report and accounts to the shareholders.  Monthly – Banks and credit card companies produce monthly statements for the majority of their customers.  Daily – A supermarket will make daily summaries of its sales and use the product information to update its stock levels and reorder stock automatically.  Hourly – A busy call centre will often update totals for each operator on an hourly basis and give the top employee for the hour some reward. 17
  18. 18. Uses of Information withinOrganisations Planning is the process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done.  Planning is decisions by management about:  What is to be done in the future  How to do it  When to do it  Who is to do it An objective is something that needs to be achieved. A plan describes the activities or actions required to achieve the objective. 18
  19. 19. Uses of Information withinOrganisations  Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a pre-defined plan or standard.  Operational level  the manager’s time will be spent on control activities  At higher levels  planning and control are more closely linked, with management being concerned with the monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself, and predicting future conditions. 19
  20. 20. Uses of Information withinOrganisations  Decision-making –  means selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available.  involves determining and examining the available actions and then selecting the most appropriate actions in order to achieve the required results.  is an essential part of management and is carried out at all levels of management for all tasks.  is made up of four phases: • Finding occasions for decision making • Finding possible courses of action • Choosing among these courses of action • Evaluating past choices. 20
  21. 21. Forms of Information Written  Hand-written, word-processed, e-mails.  Reports from different classes of software.  Reports, memos and tables, receipts, invoices, statements, summary accounting information. Aural  Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages.  Employee presentations to a group where there may be use made of music and sound effects as well as speech. Visual  pictures, charts and graphs.  Presentations via data projects, DVDs, etc. 21
  22. 22. Types of Information  Detailed  An inventory list showing stock levels  Actual costs to the penny of goods  Detailed operating instructions  Most often used at operational level  Sampled  Selected records from a database  Product and sales summaries in a supermarket  Often used at a tactical level (maybe strategic)  Aggregated  Totals created when detailed information is summed together  Details of purchases made by customers totalled each month 22
  23. 23. LI - Characteristics of Information  There are 8 main characteristics of  Completeness information  Accuracy  Not all information has all the characteristics  Timing  Conciseness  Always use the example given when answering  Reliability  Relevance  You may have to make assumptions when answering questions  Availability  PresentationUse CATCRRAP mnemonic 23
  24. 24. Availability / Accessibility  Information should be easy to obtain or access for use when required  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is available/accessible or not  give your reason why  eg. if on-line it is very accessible, but need hardware if on paper, only accessible to those who have the paper copy.  24
  25. 25. Accuracy  Information needs to be accurate enough for the use to which it is going to be put.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is Accurate or not  Generally professional/Government bodies provide accurate info  Adverts are supposed to be accurate  Internally created info is open to debate  Websites must be treated with caution 25
  26. 26. Reliability or Objectivity  Reliability deals with the truth of the information or the objectivity with which it is presented.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is reliable or not  a trusted source will usually provide reliable info  internal info ie. e-mails are usually reliable  Websites must be treated with caution 26
  27. 27. Relevance / Appropriateness  Information should be relevant to the purpose for which it is required. It must be suitable.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is relevant to the purpose it is intended or not 27
  28. 28. Completeness  Information should contain all details required by the user.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is complete or not  if not state what might be missing and the problems this would cause to the user of the info 28
  29. 29. Level of Detail / Conciseness  Information should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its examination and use. There should be no extraneous information.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is concise or not  if not describe the amount of time that would be wasted reading irrelevant info  If it is describe the info that is needed for the task 29
  30. 30. Presentation  Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is well presented or not  if it is well presented describe how this will aid the user in digesting the info  If not, describe how this will cause difficulty in reading and digesting the info 30
  31. 31. Timing  Information must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received too late will be irrelevant.  How to write about it:  state the information item  state whether the info is on time or not  Give reasons for your answer 31
  32. 32. Value and Cost Value  The relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its value to an organisation. Cost  Information should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation. The difference between value and cost  Valuable information need not cost much.  Information costly to obtain may not have much value. 32
  33. 33. Categories of Information Systems  Data Processing Systems (DPS)  Management Information Systems (MIS)  Decision Support Systems (DSS)  Executive Information System (EIS) 33
  34. 34. Categories of Information SystemsHow do Information systems fit into levels of IS?Organisational Type of information systemLevelStrategic Executive Information System (EIS)Tactical Decision Support Systems (DSS) Management Information Systems (MIS)Operational Data Processing Systems (DPS) 34
  35. 35. Data Processing Systems (DPS) Transactional Processing System  Deals with day-to-day transactions  Accountancy, invoicing, stock control  Items scanned by bar code reader etc DPS are the tools used at the Operational level of an organisation DPS involves use of a computer 35
  36. 36. Concepts in Relation to OrganisationalManagement Systems  Speed  The processor is able to carry out millions of calculations per second.  Accuracy  Computers store and process numbers to a high degree of accuracy.  Depends on the software written and of course human accuracy.  Much financial software is accurate to 3 decimal places rounded to 2.  The software and hardware combined will perform the calculation correctly every time.  Volume  The number of transactions in a period of time is the volume.  Efficiency  The efficiency of an Information System is a combination of the speed, accuracy and volume of the data processed. 36
  37. 37. The Data Processing Cycle Information Data Output Gathering Processing Data and Preparation Storage and Input See CDP Presentation 37
  38. 38. The Functions of an Organisational InformationSystem (1) Gathering data  Turnaround documents in mail order and bills  Bar codes on almost every item sold  Call centres, customers pay by card  Internet ordering – credit and debit cards  Cards with magnetic strips and chip and PIN  Magnetic ink character reader on cheques  Optical character recognition  Mark sense reader (Lottery tickets)  In each case the data is captured and then stored electronically and used for some purpose. 38
  39. 39. The Functions of an Organisational InformationSystem (2) Storing information  Magnetic media  Magnetic tape – long-term and backup storage. Very cheap but slow to access.  Hard disk – very fast random access, used in most applications including ordering and booking systems.  Optical media  CD-ROMS and DVDs – both available in writeable and re-writeable formats. Not as flexible as disk, but very compact. 39
  40. 40. The Functions of an Organisational InformationSystem (3)  Processing data  Searching and selection  Search and select a sub-section of the data that matches specified criteria.  Sorting and rearranging  Alphabetic or numeric, ascending or descending.  Aggregating  Summarising data by totalling details.  Performing calculations  Working out bills like utility bills. 40
  41. 41. The Functions of an Organisational InformationSystem (4)  Outputting information  Paper  Till receipts, statements, cheques, internal reports and almost anything.  Screen  Data entry screens and reports for managers.  Web-aware applications where pages are viewed as if on the Internet.  File  Saving to backing storage.  Files can be e-mailed as attachments. 41
  42. 42. Management InformationSystems MIS convert data from internal and external sources into information for managers. The source of data for an MIS usually comes from numerous databases. These databases are usually the data storage for Data Processing Systems. MIS summarise and report on the organisation’s basic operations. MIS produce reports for managers interested in historic trends on a regular basis. MIS operate at the tactical level. 42
  43. 43. Decision Support Systems DSS provide information and models in a form to help tactical and strategic decision-making. They support management decision-making by integrating:  Company performance data  Business rules in a decision table  Analytical tools and models for forecasting and planning  A simple user interface to query the system. DSS are useful when making ad-hoc, one-off decisions. The sources of data for DSS tend to be a combination of summary information gathered from lower-level DPS and MIS. 43
  44. 44. Executive Information Systems EIS provide senior managers with systems to assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. Purpose – to analyse, compare and identify trends to help the strategic direction of the organisation. EIS incorporate data about external events. They:  draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS.  filter, compress, and track critical data.  reduce time and effort required to obtain information useful to strategic management.  employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends.  do not provide analytical models. EIS allow the user to look at specific data that has been summarised from lower levels within the organisation and then drill down to increase the level of detail - data warehouse analysis. 44
  45. 45. Expert Systems An expert system is a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning. It does this by combining the knowledge of human experts and then, following a set of rules, draws inferences (solutions). 45
  46. 46. Expert Systems An expert system is made up of three parts:  A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the knowledge of the expert.  An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries.  A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried. 46
  47. 47. Expert Systems Expert systems are used for the following purposes:  To store information in an active form as organisational memory.  To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry.  To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a short period of time. 47
  48. 48. Organisational Information SystemManagement Strategies  Network strategy  Addresses data transfer, distribution, access and security, facilities, storage.  Security strategy  Deals with access to the network and keeping unauthorised people out.  Backup and recovery strategy  To ensure data is not accidentally erased and that it can be recovered once backed up.  Upgrade strategy  To plan new hardware and software and ensure that everything new will work properly.  Software strategy  Choose between bespoke and standard packages. 48
  49. 49. Centralised Database A very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation.  Database program is called the database engine; it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships between the tables.  Information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database.  Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have access to the database. Advantages to the database being centralised.  Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data.  Communications are easier.  No real disadvantages to a centralised database. 49
  50. 50. Network StrategyNetworks  LAN (Local Area Network) – in one area.  Device sharing.  Software sharing.  Data sharing.  Communication. 50
  51. 51. A typical Local Area Network A local area network is a computer network across one building or site. Work Station Work Station Printer Fileserver Network Cable Work Station Work51 Station
  52. 52. LAN Topologies Topology means layout There are various different topologies The main ones are: Bus Star Ring Mesh Tree 52
  53. 53. Star network All computers are connected to a central hub. Bottlenecks may occur because all data must pass through the central hub. Fast data flow 53
  54. 54. Bus network All devices connected to a central cable (bus). Easy to install. If one machine breaks down it can be removed from the network Data flow can be slow as queues can result 54
  55. 55. Ring network All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Fast data flow Problems may arise if one computer breaks down 55
  56. 56. Mesh Network Fully connected mesh - every node is connected to every other node. Partially connected mesh – not all nodes are connected. Expensive Greatest amount of redundancy which means that routes are always available to pass the data Difficult to manage Errors can be difficult to detect 56
  57. 57. Tree Network Series of star networks Nodes can be easily added Easy to install and wire No disruptions if a device fails within a segment Whole segment may fail if the segment central node fails Easy to detect faults 57
  58. 58. Network Strategy Protocol  Rules that govern communication across network  Often called handshake  Deals with eg.  Data transmission speed, access method, topology, packet size, cabling 58
  59. 59. Ethernet Protocol Most common cabled system Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Computer senses (listens) to cable 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet standard 59
  60. 60. Network HardwareClient-server networkCentral server stores data files and log-indetails. Workstation server clients workstation workstation 60
  61. 61. Network HardwareServerA computer or device that manages the networkresources.File serverPrint serverApplication server 61
  62. 62. Architecture - Application Server Server hosts the main programs which are used by the terminals on the network All the users require is a ‘dumb’ terminal which can send keystrokes/input and receive screen output from the server. Needs a high powered server with a large RAM to cope with the demands on it. Example – Travel Agents viewdata screens 62
  63. 63. Architecture - File Server The server hosts main programs and data files for all the work stations to access When a work station wants to process data, the data and the application are transferred to the work station for processing to take place. Little demand on the server as the application programs which created the files are run on the work station processor. Example – UCAS software 63
  64. 64. Client - Server Architecture The server hosts dedicated network programs such as database management and communications When a work station (client) wants to process data, it requests a service. The server transfers the data back to the client and it is then formatted by the client workstation. Processing is split between the server and the client. Example - EDI 64
  65. 65. Network StrategyPeer-to-peer network (P2P) No central server All stations equal Cheaper Files can be shared between computers Communication is easy between computers Data less secure 65
  66. 66. Network StrategyWAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world. Uses telecommunications Enables one network between branches Internet is good example 66
  67. 67. The Internet Uses Client-Server architecture Many host servers transmitting data on a request basis (client pull) Occasionally server transmits data which is not a direct request from the user (server push – pop-ups) 67
  68. 68. Network Strategy Distributed networks  LAN with several servers  Processing is shared  Data accessible from all over the network 68
  69. 69. Network Hardware Hub  Connects segments of a network together  Send packets to all segments Switch  Routes packets only to their intended destination Router  Forwards the data packets along the network path Repeater  Regenerates or boosts signals on a network Bridge  Connects two LANs using the same protocols together 69
  70. 70. Network Adapter Card (NIC)  Attached to or Built-in to the computer.  Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network.  Uses MAC addresses to locate the computer Wireless networking would require a wireless network hub and each computer would require a wireless network adapter card More information on Network Hardware 70
  71. 71. Extending Networks Internet R e m o t e O f f i c e R o u t e r F i l e S e r v e r R e p e a t e r S w i t c h R e p e a t e r H u b H u b 71
  72. 72. Extending a network Switch Hub Hub HubSegment 1 Segment 3 Segment 2 72
  73. 73. Repeater Allows the connection of segments Extends the network beyond the maximum length of a single segment A multi-port repeater is known as a Hub Connects segments of the same network, even if they use different media Receives a signal which it cleans up Transmits the signal on to the next segment 73
  74. 74. Hub A central point of a star topology Allows the multiple connection of devices Can be more than a basic Hub – providing additional services (Managed Hubs, Switched Hubs, Intelligent Hubs) In reality a Hub is a Repeater with multiple ports Functions in a similar manner to a Repeater 74
  75. 75. Bridge Like a Repeater or Hub it connects segments of the same LAN or two different LANS using the same protocol Acts as a ’filter’, by determining whether or not to forward a packet on to another segment 75
  76. 76. Switch Similar to a hub but interprets the destination of the data packet Keeps track of the locations of all attached devices (just like a bridge) Sends the data packet only to its intended destination Similarly priced to Hubs – making them popular 76
  77. 77. Router  Work in LAN, MAN and WAN environments  Usually located at Gateways – where two or more networks connect  Can interconnect different protocol networks – Ethernet with Token Ring  Changes packet size and format to match the requirements of the destination network  Determines the ‘best path’  Share details of routes with other routers 77
  78. 78. Advantages and Disadvantages Repeater  Advantages – Can connect different types of media, can extend a network in terms of distance, does not increase network traffic  Disadvantages – Extends the collision domain, cannot filter data, can not connect different network architectures, limited number only can be used in network 78
  79. 79. Advantages and Disadvantages (2)Hub Advantages – Cheap, can connect different media types Disadvantages – Extends the collision domain, can not filter information, passes packets to all connected segments 79
  80. 80. Advantages and Disadvantages (3)Bridge Advantages – Limits the collision domain, can extend network distances, uses MAC address to filter traffic, eases congestion, can connect different types of media, some can connect differing architectures Disadvantages – Broadcast packets can not be filtered, more expensive than a repeater, slower than a repeater – due to additional processing of packets 80
  81. 81. Advantages and Disadvantages (4)Switch Advantages - Limits the collision domain, can provide bridging, can be configured to limit broadcast domain Disadvantages – More expensive than a hub or bridge, configuration of additional functions can be very complex 81
  82. 82. Advantages and Disadvantages (5)Router Advantages – Limits the collision domain, can function in LAN or WAN, connects differing media and architectures, can determine best path/route, can filter broadcasts Disadvantages – Expensive, must use routable protocols, can be difficult to configure (static routing), slower than a bridge 82
  83. 83. Network Hardware Structured Cabling  Cables made from copper wire, co-axial cable, fibre-optic cable and twisted pairs.  Twisted pair Ethernet is the most common.  Fibre optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth  Structured cabling attempts to future proof the network architecture 83
  84. 84. Network Software Network Operating System – 2 parts  The version that runs on the server  This is needed to control which users and workstations can access the server eg. restrict and control access; to keep each user’s data secure; and to control the flow of information around the network.  It is also responsible for file and data sharing, communications between users and hardware, and peripheral sharing. 84
  85. 85. Network Software  Network Operating System – 2nd part  The version that runs on the personal computers to turn them into network stations.  Each workstation (computer) connected to the network needs the Network Operating System installed before it can connect successfully to the network facilities. 85
  86. 86. Network Software Network Auditing and Monitoring Software  This software keeps a track of network activity.  It records user activity and workstation activity.  In a commercial organisation this sort of auditing and monitoring can be used to detect fraud and suspicious activity. 86
  87. 87. Network Software Network Management Systems  Performance management  Used to control and measure network performance  Configuration management  Monitors the configuration of different devices attached to the network  Fault management  Detects, logs, notifies and corrects network faults  Security management  Controls user’s access to the network 87
  88. 88. Recommend a network strategy for a new school –similar in size and structure as Rothesay Academy  What type of data will be transferred on the network?  Where is the network to be located?  Will structured cabling be used?  What security will be in place?  What hardware and software will be required?  What storage will be required? 88
  89. 89. Security Strategy This covers security, integrity and privacy of data.  Data security means keeping data safe from physical loss.  Data integrity means the correctness of the stored data.  Data privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it. 89
  90. 90. Security Risks to InformationSystems  Unauthorised access  Hacking  Malware  Virus, worm, trojan, spyware, dishonest adware  Denial of Service  Theft  Physical damage 90
  91. 91. Unauthorised Access Also known as Hacking This is the gaining of unauthorised  access to a computer information system. The hacker often alters, steals or  deletes data 91
  92. 92. Malware  This is a piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event in a computer system.  Viruses can be transmitted  as attachments to an e-mail  as a download  on a removable storage being used for something else. 92
  93. 93. Malware  Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system.  Others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer.  Viruses can be extremely harmful and may erase data or require the reformatting of a hard disk once they have been removed. 93
  94. 94. Types of VirusTrojan These are used to sneak in where theyre not expected. A Trojan is a method for inserting instructions in a program so that the program performs an unauthorized function while apparently performing a useful one. Trojan horses are a common technique for planting other problems in computers, including viruses, worms. Often used for fraud as they are hard to detect. 94
  95. 95. Types of VirusVirus A virus is a program which modifies other programs so that they replicate the virus. How? It inserts a copy of itself in the code. Thus, when the program runs, it makes a copy of the virus. This happens only on a single system. It can then be copied via removable storage to other systems. 95
  96. 96. Types of VirusWorm Unlike a virus, a worm is a standalone program in its own right. It exists independently of any other programs. To run, it does not need other programs. A worm simply replicates itself on one computer and tries to infect other computers that may be attached to the same network. 96
  97. 97. Phishing Employees should be made aware of identity theft Phishing is the criminally fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication 97
  98. 98. Spyware Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the users interaction with the computer, without the users informed consent. While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the users behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habit 98
  99. 99. Adware Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertisements to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used. Some types of adware are also spyware and can be classified as privacy-invasive software. 99
  100. 100. Denial of service This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a large number of requests for information (traffic). This increase in traffic overloads the server, which becomes incapable of dealing with the backlog of requests, and results in the server crashing or needing to be taken offline to resolve the problem. 100
  101. 101. Theft and physical damage Break ins to the building or computer in order to steal or cause damage Personnel damage  Employees with a grudge  Employees who accidentally lose or delete data Natural disasters 101
  102. 102. Policies and Procedures forImplementing Data Security Codes of conduct  These apply to users of an information system.  Most organisations insist that users follow a set of rules for using their system.  Employees have to sign a code of conduct as part of their conditions of employment.  A code of conduct can cover basic professional competences as well as obvious statements like “Never disclose your password to anybody else and change your password every week.” 102
  103. 103. Policies and Procedures for ImplementingData Security BCS code of ethics covers: Professional conduct Professional integrity Public interest Fidelity Technical competence. Password guidelines Minimum length of 5 characters Must consist of letters and numbers Must not contain any words Must not be the same as the previous password Must not use easily guessed strings of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef). 103
  104. 104. Implementing Data Security Virus protection  Prevention  Prevent users from using floppy disks.  Scan incoming e-mails for viruses.  Do not open mail or attachments from someone you don’t recognise.  Detection  Install anti-virus software.  Update it regularly to detect new viruses.  Repair  Anti-virus software can quarantine a virus.  Can delete the virus code from an infected file. 104
  105. 105. Implementing Data Security Firewalls  Device or software used to prevent unauthorised access to a network.  Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router).  Can block sections of the network.  Only allows authorised users to join the network (dial-in). 105
  106. 106. Implementing Data SecurityEncryptionThis is the process of transforminginformation (referred to as plaintext) usingan algorithm (called cipher) to make itunreadable to anyone except thosepossessing special knowledge, usuallyreferred to as a key. 106
  107. 107. Encryption Used by on-line retailers to keep card details secure Needed in order to gain trust of purchasers 32-bit encryption almost impossible to crack Public-key encryption schemes  Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)  Data Encryption Standard (DES)  Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) 107
  108. 108. Implementing Data Security Access rights  Read – allows users to read files.  Allows files to be made read only.  Write – allows users to write (save) files.  Create – allows users to create new files.  Erase – allows users to erase files.  Modify – allows users to modify files.  Groups of users may have.  Read/write/create/erase on home drive.  Read only on shared areas. 108
  109. 109. Back-up Strategy Every computer user should have a strategy in place to back-up their data. Backing up is the process of making a copy of the data stored on fixed hard disks to some other media. This can be tape, external portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. 109
  110. 110. Archive Archiving is the process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term storage. Long-term archives are usually stored in a fireproof safe away from the main site location 110
  111. 111. RecoveryData verification It is important to check that the data stored on the back-up media can be recovered. Special backup and recovery software is used to recover the data 111
  112. 112. Storage methods DAT tape on built-in drives on servers. USB removable hard drives. 112
  113. 113. Frequency and version control Full back-up (monthly)  all data is copied Differential (weekly)  all files that have changed since the last full backup are copied Incremental (daily)  only files that have changed since the last backup 113
  114. 114. Media rotation and storage Grandfather-father-son method 114
  115. 115. Upgrade Strategy Future proofing  Making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon  Hardware & software compatibility  Will older s/w work with new operating systems, etc?  Will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers)? 115
  116. 116. Upgrade Strategy Integration testing  Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system?  Does the network software support the hardware and operating system?  Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer?  Is the hardware compatible with the operating system? 116
  117. 117. Upgrade Strategy Legacy systems  Old information systems running on out-of-date hardware and operating systems are often referred to as legacy systems.  Problems with legacy systems led to many computer companies developing software that conformed to Open Standards. 117
  118. 118. Upgrade Strategy Emulation  This allows access to a greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware platform.  The use of an emulator allows data to be transferred between platforms. 118
  119. 119. Software Strategy Needs to take account of the issues:  evaluating the software for use, using several key criteria  the user support for the software  the training supplied for end users of the software  the upgrade path of the software. 119
  120. 120. Software Evaluation Software evaluation should cover:  Functionality – This refers not only to the number of features an application program has but to the number of useable features it has. Also the tasks to be completed need to be evaluated against the features in the software.  Performance – The performance of software can be measured by several different criteria depending on the type of software. 120
  121. 121. Criteria for Evaluation of Software  Speed  Reliability  Measured against  Does the job it is supposed benchmarks. to?  Usability  Resource requirements  Look and feel, choices in  Has the computer enough menus, etc. RAM, big enough disks, etc?  Compatibility  Portability  With operating system.  Will it work on different  Data Migration systems?  Translating from one  Support format to another.  Assistance from vendors or writers? 121
  122. 122. Training in Using Software On-the-job  A new user needs to be introduced to the software.  This means working through a tutorial to become familiar with the functions of the software. It usually involves an online tutorial program or tutorial manual that teaches the user about the software. In-house  This is when small groups of staff, within the company, receive a training course delivered by IT staff. External  This is offered by specialist training providers for popular application software, such as software created by Microsoft, Macromedia and Adobe. 122
  123. 123. User Support Manuals  Installation guide – gives advice on how to install the software and how to configure it to work with various hardware.  Tutorial guide – gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the software.  Reference manual – is an indexed guide detailing all the functions of the software. On-line help  Explains to the user what each feature of the software does. It is a part of the program situated on the computer and is not on the Internet. On-line tutorials  Step-by-step instructions on the computer, not on the Internet. 123
  124. 124. User Support Help desk  Internal (end user) and external (software vendors). Newsgroups  A Newsgroup allows users of a piece of software to post e- mail messages to the wider user community. FAQs  This stands for Frequently Asked Questions. It is usually a file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries about a piece of software. Manufacturer’s web site  Often the manufacturer has a web site which hosts FAQ and other on-line (on the internet) support 124
  125. 125. Issues Affecting Decisions to UpgradeSoftware Lack of functionality  Business changes, new technology outdates software. Hardware incompatibility  Upgraded computers do not support old software. Software incompatibility  New operating system will not run old software. Perfecting the software  Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it? 125
  126. 126. Learning Objectives  Distributed databases  data warehousing  data mining 126
  127. 127. Centralised Databases All the data is held on a central computer mainframe or server. Advantages mean it is  far easier to manage and control if it is only in one location.  far easier to back up when it is centralised. 127
  128. 128. Distributed database A database that is stored in more than one physical location on a network. Different users can access it without interrupting one another. The DBMS must synchronise the scattered databases to make sure they all have consistent data. 128
  129. 129. Partitioning Where the central database is split over different areas/locations Each remote server has the necessary data to suit their location Vertical - common data (accessed often) is mirrored to all locations with less common data held centrally Horizontal - Data is split so that each region/area holds it’s own data 129
  130. 130. Replication Copies of the entire database are held at all locations Data is processed and held locally The central database is then updated with the changes at regular intervals. 130
  131. 131. Data Warehousing Historical data transactions are separated out from the ongoing business. The data is re-organised in such a way as to allow it to be analysed; the newly structured data is then queried and the results of the query are reported. Data warehousing could be used as a predictive tool, to indicate what should be done in the future. The main use of data warehousing is as a review tool, to monitor the effects of previous operational decisions made in the course of a business. 131
  132. 132. Data Mining ‘The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data.’ It uses machine learning, statistical and visualisation techniques to discover and present knowledge in a form that is easily comprehensible to humans. Data mining is the analysis of data and the use of software techniques for finding patterns and regularities in sets of data. The computer is responsible for finding the patterns by identifying the underlying rules and features in the data. The mining analogy is that large volumes of data are sifted in an attempt to find something worthwhile (in a mining operation large amounts of low-grade materials are sifted through in order to find something of value). 132
  133. 133. Information Management Software LI – to learn about and become skilled in using: Information Management Software Classes of software  Print media, on-line media, spreadsheet, project management, PIM Word processing / DTP software Presentation / web authoring s/w Spreadsheet software Project management software Personal information management software Evaluation of software 133
  134. 134. Information Management Software Word processing  Chat client  Commonest application -  Send and receive messages Word interactively Spreadsheet  Desk-top publishing (DTP)  Financial and numerical  Layout text and graphics analysis and record professionally keeping - Excel  Presentation Database  Create slide shows  Store, select, sort data  Reference Graphics design  Encyclopaedias and  Create and manipulate dictionaries pictures  Financial Browsers  Manage and control money  Surf the Net  Web authoring E-mail client  Create web pages and sites.  Compose, send and receive e-mails 134
  135. 135. Classes of Software There are five classes of software:  Presenting information for print media  Presenting information for on-line media  Spreadsheet (data handling)  Project management  Personal information management 135
  136. 136. Presenting Information for Print Media Most applications are designed to produce printed output, except for graphics and web authoring which tend to be more visual. Word Processing (WP) and Desk Top Publishing (DTP) are classed in this group. Differences between WP and DTP:  WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text.  DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily.  WP can deal with multi-page documents but DTP handles multi-page documents far better.  DTP files tend to be very large, especially if real pictures are used. 136
  137. 137. Presenting Information for On-line Media  Presentations  Large growth in the use of s/w to create presentations.  Cost of data projectors has dropped.  Presentation s/w allows the user to create a slide show.  Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects.  Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks.  PowerPoint is most popular package.  Web authoring  Software allows users easily to make up web pages.  You can drag and drop objects onto the screen.  Click on icons to link graphics and media files.  Deal easily with hyper-linking.  File written as HTML or XTML code. 137
  138. 138. Data Handling – Spreadsheet Education  Record and analyse marks and results.  Keeping track of budgets and financial information. Home situation  Keep track of household expenditure, track share values and even keep track of contacts.  Very good at formatting output, used for printing address labels. Financial application  Cash flow forecast, statement of accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders, etc. 138
  139. 139. Data Handling - Spreadsheet Modelling and simulation  Predicting a new situation from existing one - “what-if?” analysis. Statistical analysis  E.g. analysis of numerical information. Two examples are Descriptive Statistics and Goal Seeking. Macro use  A macro is a sequence of instructions that can be used to automate complex or repetitive tasks. 139
  140. 140. Project Management A project can be any task which can be completed. Eg. Building a new school Projects have a time limit, budget and scope Project management software is used to plan and control a project 140
  141. 141. Project Triangle The budget is the estimated cost of a project The schedule is the budget schedule timing and sequence of taks within a project The scope of a project defines what is to be achieved scope 141
  142. 142. Project Tasks are individual jobs that have to be completed Milestones are tasks grouped together in logical blocks Timelining is the process of allocating time and dates to project tasks and milestones 142
  143. 143. Project Management Software Simplifies the management of a project. It enables planning, monitoring and control of the various tasks or resources that contribute to its success. Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency. Plans output as PERT or Gantt chart. Software packages  Microsoft Project; CA SuperProject and Hoskyns Project Managers Workbench. 143
  144. 144. Timelining Allocates time and dates to project tasks and milestones Tasks are given names and duration and priority Resources and costs for the task can also be assigned Predecessor tasks are those which must be completed before another can begin Concurrent tasks are ones which can run at the same time 144
  145. 145. Resource Allocation Each task must have a resource allocated to it. Eg, worker, equipment, tools, money Software will allocate resources flexibly If a resource is needed elsewhere and moved the software can adjust the schedule to suit and change the tasks accordingly 145
  146. 146. Budget Control Each resource is given a cost As resources are allocated to a project the cost of the project can be calculated by the software If the use of the resource changes eg. A sub- contractor works longer than originally planned, the costs of the project will change accordingly 146
  147. 147. Project management charts Graphically represent the project, its tasks and its progress Gantt charts – project timelines  Show the timeline at the top and a list of tasks down the side  Show dates of the start and end of tasks  Show float – the amount of time a task may be delayed before it affects the project finish date Network diagrams – PERT charts  Show task lists and resources using flow diagram graphics 147
  148. 148. Optimisation Projects can be optimised in three ways:  To meet a time schedule  Tasks may be shortened  Tasks may be overlapped  To meet a specific budget  Use fewer tasks to reduce costs  Shorten tasks that need resources  To meet the requirements of the project scope 148
  149. 149. Critical path analysis This is the process of identifying the critical path in a project plan – a series of tasks which begin when the project starts and finish when the project is completed. These tasks must be completed on schedule It is necessary to identify this because any delay in these tasks will cause a delay in the project Modifying tasks that are not on the critical path may not affect the schedule 149
  150. 150. Personal Information Management Personal information management software (PIM) is a type of software application designed to help users organise random bits of information. PIMs enable you to enter various kinds of textual notes such as reminders, lists and dates - and to link these bits of information together in useful ways. Many PIMs also include calendar, scheduling, and calculator programs. 150
  151. 151. Word Processing Software Data objects  characters, words  paragraphs  graphic objects. Operations  File menu – performed on whole files.  Edit menu – cut, copy and paste.  View menu – including headers and footers.  Insert menu – page break, date/time, picture, etc.  Tools menu – Mail merge, spelling and grammar, options and customisation.  Table menu – Insert table then table operations.  Window and Help much as in other Windows applications. Formatting Functions - Format menu – format text (an extensive menu). 151
  152. 152. Desk Top Publishing Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help. Also Layout, Type, Element Utility.  most of the formatting functions here. Also a Toolbox.  Arrow and Text, basic drawing tools, and a colour palette. 152
  153. 153. Desk Top Publishing Advanced operations and functions  Page Layout  Headers and Footers  Columns  Multi-Page Layout  Pagination  Contents and Indexing  Style Sheets  Font Selection – Serif v San-Serif  Colour use 153
  154. 154. Desk Top Publishing Inserting graphics  Clip art  Scanned pictures  Digital camera Formatting graphics  How graphic behaves on the page  Square, tight, in front of, behind. A graphic formatted with Tight Layout means text flows around it. 154
  155. 155. Web Authoring Software Page structure  Individual pages linked to form a site. Incorporation of graphics  Used to enhance appearance of the page.  Graphics should be JPEG or GIF – size matters.  Graphics linked to the page (not pasted in). Presentation style  Font selection limited, careful use of colour. Navigation  Pages linked together by Hyperlinks.  Set Home Page, use arrows, bookmarks, history. Templates  Use style sheets to provide common fonts, colours, etc. 155
  156. 156. Presentation Software Page structure  Individual slides follow a linear pattern, can be hyperlinked. Incorporation of graphics  Used to enhance appearance of the page.  Graphics inserted into slide, embedded in the page. Presentation style  Font selection vast, careful use of colour. Navigation  Move to next slide by click of mouse.  Slides can be linked together by hyperlinks. Templates  Various pre-prepared templates available.  Can make up own template as a slide master. 156
  157. 157. Spreadsheet Software Data Objects  Cells and groups of cells  Containing text, numbers, formulas. Operations  File menu – performed on whole files.  Edit menu – cut, copy and paste.  View menu – including headers and footers.  Insert menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions.  Tools menu – spelling protection and macros.  Data menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables.  Window and Help much as in other Windows applications.  Foramtting Functions - Format menu – format cells including numeric like currency as well as standard text formatting. 157
  158. 158. Spreadsheet Software Advanced functions  Goal seeking  Automatically change values until desired result achieved.  Forecasting  Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values.  Look-up tables  Can be used to insert text in a cell depending on a value.  E.g. Grades or Pass/Fail from an exam mark.  Nested IF  Using an IF function within an IF function.  Count  Gets the number of entries in a range of cells (COUNTA for text values).  Macros  A sequence of instructions that can be used to automate a task. 158
  159. 159. Project Management Timelining  Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Resource allocation  Software tools to help match up the materials, machines, people and money.  Maximising profits or achieving best quality. Gant and PERTT charts  Gant shows timings of each activity in a chart.  PERTT shows relationship between activities. Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis  A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time.  Used for very complicated processes (managing a production line). 159
  160. 160. Personal Information Management (PIM) Such as Microsoft Outlook:  Contacts - can be thought of as a very comprehensive address book.  Calendar - lets the user keep a diary of events, meetings, appointments and activities.  Task list - also called a “To-do list”. It keeps a list of all the tasks that require to be carried out and reminds the user when each task is due to be completed.  Communication – e-mail. Most PIM applications support sending, receiving and management of emails. 160
  161. 161. Evaluation of Software Range of Data Objects  Are the objects appropriate to the software?  e.g. graphics and audio files important for web design. Range of Operations  Appropriate to software – database should have good search and sort and reporting. Formatting Functions  Look at fonts, style, graphics handling, paragraphing, text wrap, numerical formats, etc. HCI  Use of keyboard commands, menus, toolbars and icons. Help and Tutorials  Most packages have on-line help and tutorials.  Often displayed as web pages but are NOT on the Internet. 161
  162. 162. Example using Word Processing Objects: Formatting Functions:  characters, words, sentences,  change size, colour, font, style of paragraphs, document, section, text footnote, column  line spacing, margins  header footer, line page  number of columns  text box, graphic, chart  size of cells in table  table, table of contents, index  shading of cellsOperations: create, insert, delete, search, HCI: format  familiar toolbar align, search and replace,  shortcuts, eg ctrl P spellcheck  customize toolbars cut, copy, paste  customize menu page numbering  on-line help 162
  163. 163. Implications of ICTLI – you will learn about: Social implications Legal implications Economic implications Ethical implications 163
  164. 164. Social Implications Ease of access and availability Information rich / poor Impact of IS on social structures Educational qualifications and ICT Knowledge workers Online retail Globalisation The impact on business of an IS-driven business model Identities and personas Privacy 164
  165. 165. Globalisation Technological changes Removal of trade barriers E-commerce advantages Customer services 165
  166. 166. Ease of Access and Availability Access to Internet at work and home. Digital satellite TV with all its services. Access to magazines, books & newspapers. Access in social lives – libraries and Internet cafes. We expect Internet access on holiday and in hotel rooms. Fact – There are more telephones in the city of New York than the continent of Africa (and telephones give access to information). 166
  167. 167. Information rich/Information poor Information rich – They will:  Have easy access to computers and electronic communications.  Get information and news from the Internet  Buy the latest products through on-line shopping.  Follow computer-based learning and skills training courses at home.  Look for jobs that are advertised solely on the Internet.  Find it easier to get well-paid jobs and will enjoy a more comfortable and secure life-style. Information poor – They will not:  Have easy access to computers.  Have the IT skills and confidence to take part in teleshopping, telebanking, Internet chat and news groups. 167
  168. 168. Impact of IS on Social Structures Families  Feel more secure with two wages coming into the family.  More mothers have careers and they may not have any children till they are 30 or older.  Is this change in family patterns partly caused by computerisation?  Are there any risks to the family and to society as a whole from this development? Banks  Used to be paper based and only for middle and upper classes – for reasons of wealth and trust.  Use of IT means anyone can have a bank account – transaction processing and high levels of security.  Now widespread use of plastic money – credit and debit cards. 168
  169. 169. Educational Qualifications and ICT Educational qualifications  Qualifications in Computing since the early 1960s, but these were solely in universities and colleges.  By mid-1980s computing was available in schools.  By 1999 the two strands of software and hardware divided into Computing and Information Systems.  Now there are very many different courses offered at degree and NC level, all related to ICT. Need for ICT awareness  ICT lets people vote by text on game shows, shop on the Internet, use digital TV to order goods.  Families send digital photos round the world.  Almost all office jobs and professionals need to use ICT. 169
  170. 170. Knowledge Workers Knowledge worker  A person who adds value by processing existing information to create new information that could be used to define and solve problems. Examples of knowledge workers  Lawyers, doctors, diplomats, law-makers, software developers, managers and bankers.  People who use their intellect to convert their ideas into products, services, or processes.  Problem solvers rather than production workers.  Use intellectual rather than manual skills to earn a living. Core knowledge workers  Those in specific ‘knowledge management’ roles.  Knowledge managers, librarians, content managers, information officers, knowledge analysts, etc. Everyone else  All the other knowledge workers – everyone engaged in some form of ‘knowledge work’. 170
  171. 171. Online Retail Internet shopping – the here and now.  Young people much more likely to shop online than older people.  Young people spend on low-value goods (CDs, DVDs, books and hair straighteners).  Older people spend on high-value items like holidays and make repeat grocery orders. Why Internet shop?  Goods can be difficult to buy locally.  Goods are often much cheaper.  National chains carry the same goods – the Internet gives wider choice. 171
  172. 172. Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Shopping Consumer advantages  More choice of goods online.  Cheaper prices.  Home delivery – Grocery shopping on-line very useful for young families. Consumer disadvantages  Often long delivery times.  Temptation to spend more money than intended.  Social isolation (supermarkets are the new social scene). On-line Retailer advantages  Can reach a far wider audience.  Doesn’t need expensive showrooms.  Doesn’t need to employ trained sales staff. On-line Retailer disadvantages  Must spend money on a website with secure payment system.  Must accept a high rate of returns.  Never meets customers. 172
  173. 173. The Changing Relationships betweenRetailer and Customer Shoppers are:  Becoming intolerant of goods being unavailable or out of stock.  Very wary of over-pricing and long delivery times. Consumers are:  More willing to go online and order from different retailers.  Willing to use a credit card to buy online  Aware of the stress of waiting for goods bought when presents don’t turn up on time. We still maintain relationships:  With local specialist shops.  Customers who buy their groceries on-line and have the same delivery driver every week often build up a good relationship with the driver. In general:  The two types of shopping can complement each other, opening up new markets to specialist retailers and giving more choice to customers. 173
  174. 174. Globalisation  Globalisation  Is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world.  Has been a hotly debated topic in economics.  Positive aspects  Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago.  Negative aspects  It has increased inequality.  It contributes to environmental degradation.  It is most conspicuous in huge companies producing products as diverse as oil, Cola and burgers. 174
  175. 175. Impact of IS on Business and Societies Multinational companies  As diverse as Cola and Oil technology.  Achieved globalisation through the use of information systems.  Originally a few large companies with mainframe computers.  Confined to major US networks and European cities. Present-day examples of globalisation  Smaller companies have global presence.  Communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet.  Publish reports, memos, etc & e-mail round the world.  Don’t need mainframe systems.  Use web and mail servers to communicate. 175
  176. 176. The Impact on Business of an IS-DrivenBusiness Model Traditional businesses  Have embraced IT with open arms.  Have had IT forced upon them and adapted. Modern IS-driven businesses  Companies without High Street branches.  Call centre based companies.  Advertise heavily on TV.  Much lower overheads than maintaining a network of branches.  Call centres can bring employment to smaller towns rather than cities. 176
  177. 177. Identities & Personas Using the Internet as a medium of communication  Change is having a dramatic impact on people’s lives.  Ability to communicate with anyone regardless of age, sex, location, background, etc.  The Internet allows people to develop different identities and personas when communicating.  Can join chat rooms and newsgroups and offer an expert opinion even when not an expert. Disadvantages  Criminal offence of “grooming” via the Internet.  Parents wary of letting teenagers have use of the Internet.  Fear of the Internet among certain groups in society. Read about  Jonathan Lebed and Marcus Arnold (either online or in the notes). 177
  178. 178. Privacy Private communications across the Internet  Should be secure and safe.  We feel we have a right to this privacy.  Websites we visit should be our business. National security or criminal actions  Terrorists use e-mail, mobile phones and the Internet to communicate amongst themselves.  Criminals use the Internet to host websites. What about our privacy?  Security organisations can scan all e-mail and mobile phone messages looking for tell-tale phrases.  FBI caught thousands of paedophiles across USA and Europe via their IP address and phone number. 178
  179. 179. Learning Intentions Know about the different Acts of Parliament which affect ICT Know the main principles of each Act Know when an Act should be applied 179
  180. 180. I am looking for… A PowerPoint presentation which:  correctly describes the purpose of an Act of Parliament affecting ICT  Gives the main points or principles of the Act  Details the rights of each party  Details exemptions to the Act (if applicable)  Details of penalties  Describes situations when the Act might be applied 180
  181. 181. Legal Implications of InformationSystems The Data Protection Act 1998 Computer Misuse Act 1990 Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 Health and safety regulations Fair Use Policy (not legislation) 181
  182. 182. The 1998 Data Protection Act The 8 data protection principles  Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully.  Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes.  Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive.  Personal data shall be accurate and kept up to date.  Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary.  Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects.  Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data.  Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe. In the UK, data must be registered with the Data Commissioner. 182
  183. 183. The 1998 Data Protection Act  Unconditional exemptions:  Data related to national security.  Data which by law has to be made public (e.g. the voters’ roll).  Data held by the Police and National Health Service.  Conditional exemptions:  Mailing lists (names and addresses).  Data used for calculating and paying wages.  Information used for club memberships.  Data used by a data subject at home. 183
  184. 184. The 1998 Data Protection Act Rights of data subjects:  To see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about them.  The data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data.  To have their data corrected if it is inaccurate.  To prevent their data being used by companies to send them junk mail. Responsibilities of data users:  Have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wish to hold personal information about data subjects.  They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, and must amend any false data without charge.  Data users must also be willing to remove subjects’ names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to. 184
  185. 185. The 1998 Data Protection Act Changes from the 1984 Act:  The 1984 DPA had certain shortcomings:  It only covered data in electronic form.  Companies could circumvent certain provisions.  It had no European or worldwide dimension.  There was no obligation on data users to tell the data subjects that they held any data about them.  The 1998 Act:  Covers the transmission of data in electronic form, which was not really an issue in 1984.  Harmonised the European Union Data Protection legislation.  It also made it a requirement of the Act to ask for the prior consent of data subjects to have data held about them, and it included paper-based records. 185