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DETAILS ABOUT THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEN AND OTHER SYSTEMS WORKING IN AN ORGANISATION.

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO MIS<br />Management Information System plays a very important role in an organization. There is hardly a business magazine that dos not contain article about information system.<br />MIS can be defined as –<br />“A system which collects, processes, stores and distributes information to help in decision making for managerial functions.”<br />(Planning, staffing, directing, controlling, organizing and budgeting)<br />It may also be defined as Integrated user/ Machine system for providing information to support the decision making process.<br />MIS is a computer based system, which presents both external and internal information of business.<br />This system utilizes computer hardware and software, manual procedure for analysis, planning, control and decision making.<br />These system do not take decisions but they assist in providing a necessary information as an input to the decision making process.<br />MIS should provide information which is consistent, accurate, timely, economically flexible and relevant.<br />MIS can be computerized or manual. MIS provides information in report format on regular basis to assist managers with decision which occur frequently and can be anticipated.<br />MANAGEMENT<br />Management has been defined in a variety of ways, but for our purpose it compromises the processes or activities that describes what managers do in the operation of their organization; plan, organize, initiative and control operations.<br />INFORMATION<br />Data must be distinguished from information. Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in decision process.<br />Information consist of data that have been retrived, processed or otherwise used for informative or inference purposes, arguments, or as a basis for forecasting or decision making.<br />SYSTEMS<br />A system can be described simply as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. The system concept of mis is therefore one of the optimizing the output of the organization by connecting the operating sub-system through the medium of information exchange<br />PYRAMIDICAL STRUCTURE OF MIS<br /><ul><li>Lower level:-The bottom layer consists of information required for transaction processing and inquiry processing.
  2. 2. Operational level:- This layer has the information which is required for day to day performance of activities and their control.
  3. 3. Middle level:- This layer has the information which is useful for tactical planning and decision making to implement the policy of top management.
  4. 4. Top level:- This layer has information which is useful for strategies and policy planning.</li></ul>CHARACTERISTICS OF MIS<br />The mis plays a vital role in management, administrations and operations of an organization as it helps in information generation, communication, problem identification in the process of decision making.<br />The main features of mis are:-<br /><ul><li>Management oriented:- The development of mis starts after deciding the management needs and keeping in view overall objective of management.
  5. 5. Management directed:- A good mis removes the lack of knowledge, enriches experience and improves analytical abilities leading to better business judgement.
  6. 6. Integrated system:- MIS binds together database of business system and through information interchange, integrates the organization. It also provides adequate development resources and removes the human and organizational barriers to progress.
  7. 7. Avoid redundancy:- Since mis is a integrated system, it avoids unnecessary inconsistency and redundancy in data gathering and storage.
  8. 8. Common data flow:-MIS provides common data flows, which try to utilize minimum data processing efforts and minimize the number of output document.
  9. 9. Heavy planning element:- Designing and implementation of mis require detailed and meticulous planning of activities like acquisition and utilization of resources.
  10. 10. Common database:- MIS acts as a master that holds the functional sub-system together. It achieves this aim by allowing access to different master files of data to several functional sub-systems.
  11. 11. Flexibility:- MIS design should be flexible so as to provide alternate ways of processing data and system should be easy to operate so that not much of computers skills are required.
  12. 12. Computerization:- MIS can be computerized because of its nature. This provide speed, accuracy and consistency in creating and access of files.
  13. 13. Relevance:- MIS should deal only with operation and control of relevant information.
  14. 14. Support to top management:- MIS cannot be effective unless they receive the full support of top management. For this, top management should be educated about cost and benefits of mis.
  15. 15. Periodic evaluation:- The last feature of mis is that the system should be evaluated at periodic intervals to ensure that mis is achieving the objective of which this has been installed.</li></ul>COMPONENTS OF MIS<br />Management information system refers to the data, equipment and computers program that are used to develop information for managerial use. The MIS consists of following components which are as follows-<br /><ul><li>People:- People is only living component of mis which operates and controls the other components of mis. They enter, analyze and diagnose data, so that useful information is produced and provided to top executives for decision making.
  16. 16. Data process:- Data process uses different procedures, so that data can be properly analyzed and effective information is generated. Procedures explain people how to operate the computer hardware, what program to run, what data to use and what to do with the results.
  17. 17. Data communication:- There are different ways for communication of data. It may be informed orally or in the form of written report. Written forms are more appropriate than oral ones as it is permanent and systematic way of organizing information.
  18. 18. Information:- Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in decision process. Data is process by applying different procedures to obtain information. It may be recorded into computer, storage media or manual files and is retrived whenever required.
  19. 19. System planning:- We have achieved a very high degree of automation and combination sub-system in scientific, mechanical and factory manufacturing operation. The system concept of mis is therefore of optimizing the output of the organization by connecting the operation sub-system, through the medium of information exchange.
  20. 20. Hardware and Software:- The hardware generally consists of computer equipments, on the other hand software consists of programs or instructions given to the computer such as pay roll processing, invoices etc.</li></ul>FUNCTIONS OF MIS<br />A MIS is used to collect data, store and process data and present information to managers.<br /><ul><li>Collect data:- Data can be obtained from source within and outside the organization. Internal sources such as records, reports and external sources such as publications, customers and consultancy.
  21. 21. Store and process data:- After creation of data, a database must be stored and processed in a form useful to managers. The data can be loaded into computers for easy access by user.
  22. 22. Present information to users:- After collection of data, storing and processing of data, the next step is to present the information to managers for their use.</li></ul>USES/BENEFITS/ROLE OF MIS<br /><ul><li>MIS ensures that appropriate and relevant data is collected from various sources, processed and is sent further to needy destination.
  23. 23. It fulfills the needs of individual, group, management.
  24. 24. Mis helps in strategic planning, management control, operational control and transaction processing system.
  25. 25. Mis plays an important role in information generation, communication, problem identification and decision making administration.
  26. 26. With good mis support marketing, finance, production and personnel functions increases efficiency.
  27. 27. Mis creates structured database and therefore saves time.
  28. 28. Mis brings clarity in communication and understanding, thus helps in bringing degree of professionalism.</li></ul>INFORMATION<br />We breathe information, eat information, drink information, wake up with information, sleep with information etc. So information is as life blood of any organization, without information survival of any organization is not possible.<br />Information means “processing of data or analyses of data in a specific context to get required information”. It is a basis of decision making. The decision taken on basis of complete and accurate information is less risky.<br />The value of perfect information is calculated by finding out the difference between the optimal policy with and without perfect information.<br />Characteristics of an information<br /><ul><li>Accuracy:- accuracy means that information is free from mistakes and error and it accurately and clearly reflects the meaning of data from which it is derived. It conveys the accurate picture to receiver and is free from biasness.
  29. 29. Timeliness :- information must be delivered at the right time and the right place to the right person otherwise information would be of little value to the organization. hence, making information available to the receiver within time is very crucial for every organization.
  30. 30. Relevance :- information should be to the point and meaningful to the decision maker. Relevance of information for different users will be different.
  31. 31. Correct information format :- information should be given to the user in such a form that it could be easily understood by user.
  32. 32. Completeness :-information is said to be complete if decision maker can satisfactory solve the problem at hand using that information. Incomplete information has no meaning for user.
  33. 33. Subjectivity :- it is the value and usefulness of the information.
  34. 34. Accessibility :- information should be readily accessible in desired format when needed. Technological advancement has made data accessibility easy.</li></ul>Types Of Information System<br /><ul><li>TPS(Transaction Processing System) :- Most fundamental computer system which is concerned with processing of business is called TPS. The objective of TPS is to improve routine business activities on which functions of organization depends. The main work of TPS is to record and process the data resulting from business transactions. A transaction is an event or entity which affects the organization. Transaction processing could also be considered as a set of procedures for handling transactions and it includes activities like calculation, classification, storage and retrieval, sorting, validation, verification, summarization etc. These activities occur at operational level in nay organization. TPS produces a variety of information system for internal and external cause.
  35. 35. OAS(Office Automation System) :- OAS collects, processes, stores and transmits data and information in the form of electronic office communication. These automatic systems rely on text processing, telecommunication and offer information system technologies. Example- word processing, electronic mail, desktop publishing, telecommunication and document image processing. It enhances the abilities of users to communicate with their colleagues within their work groups and organization and with external contact such as customers and suppliers.</li></ul>Advantages-<br /><ul><li>They provide more time to managers to concentrate on their basic jobs.
  36. 36. They improve the quality of work in terms of content, throughness, timeliness and accuracy.
  37. 37. They speed up specific functions and thereby increases the quantity of clerical output.
  38. 38. They reduce the time spent on input capture and creation.
  39. 39. They co-ordinate and integrate office tasks.
  40. 40. They enable more cost- effective and time- effective communications.
  41. 41. They increase the productivity of office workers at all levels.</li></ul>Disadvantages –<br /><ul><li>Cost of automated office hardware is very high.
  42. 42. Oas can disrupt traditional office work roles and environment.
  43. 43. Oas may lead to security problems.
  44. 44. EIS(Executive Information System):- The decision made by executives are mostly unstructured for which informational requirements are generally for processed and summarized data from variety of sources. Initially tip executive information system relies on non computer source. Top level executives get information whenever they require from many sources like letters, memos, periodicals and report produced manually as well as by computer system. Thus, with computer based EIS provides top management with immediate and easy access to selective information, which reduces the information overload on executives and help to achieve firm’s strategic objective.
  45. 45. ES(Expert System):- Expert system aims at formalizing expertise and makes it available for repetitive types of business decisions. They use artificial intelligence tools to generate knowledge out of information. It helps human experts perform their jobs effectively and is important where expertise is scarce and is therefore expensive. The expert system has been developed for the purpose of expertise from those with the knowledge in a convenient and easily accessed manner. Expert systems are designed to replace the function formed by human experts. Expert system provide information to managers as expert advice.
  46. 46. An expert system supports the intellectual work of professionals engaged in design, diagnosis or evaluation of complex situation requiring expert knowledge in a well- defined area.
  47. 47. Advantages:-
  48. 48. Planning:- ES can make a valuable contribution to planning. It can use information from earlier project which can be used to improve subsequent plans.
  49. 49. Decision making:- ES can support decision making by storing information in its knowledge base from several experts rather than a single expert.
  50. 50. Monitoring:- ES can be used to monitor the process, activities of employees and cash management etc.
  51. 51. Diagnosis:- ES can be used in diagnosing different conditions. Ex- in diagnosing the reasons for manufacturing equipment, human diseases in medicine etc.
  52. 52. Training:- when an ES is being used as a regular nature in the course of work, users learn the way the system reaches destination.
  53. 53. Timely response:- ES are available on call at all the time and, can be used to provide immediate support and to perform task immediately.
  54. 54. Reliability:- they are reliable in the sense that they do not become tired or bored. They pay attention to all details and do not overlook any relevant information.</li></ul>Disadvantages:-<br /><ul><li>Expert system are not problem solver.
  55. 55. It may take longer time to solve problem than an expertise.
  56. 56. Expert system take long development time and are expensive.</li></ul>SYSTEM VIEW OF BUSINESS <br />We should be able to visualize any business organization as a system. Thus business is a system which is a set of interrelated components that are working together to achieve organization’s objective in a controlled manner. In the past, managers had to solve the problem, independently and in isolation. Suppose organization face the problem of decline in sales and it is traced that problem is due to poor performance of sales man. But practically there are no. Of reasons responsible for that such as poor management, poor understanding, poor quality of product, poor marketing policy etc.<br />This type of activity could be related to a system. A business must maintain appropriate relationships with other political, economic and social systems in the environment. This group includes its stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, stockholders etc. Information system can help a business to shape its relationships with each of these stakeholders. In the same way, MIS is also a system which consists of group of people, a set of manual and data processing equipment which aims to provide information to reduce the uncertainity in decision making.<br />SYSTEM APPROACH<br />The system approach in business was born in decade of 1960’s. it is a systemmatic process of problem solving based on scientific methods which defines problems and oppurtunity in a system context.<br />Information describing the problem or oppurtunity is gathered. Alternative solutions are identified, evaluated so that, best solution is selected, implemented and then its success is evaluated.<br />Purpose of system approach is to utilize scientific analysis in complex organization for-<br /><ul><li>Developing and managing operating system i.e. money flow, personnel system.
  57. 57. Designing information system for decision making.</li></ul>System approach of MIS is optimizing the output of the organization by connecting to operative sub system through the medium of information exchange. The basic notation of system approach in MIS is to provide information on decision making on planning, organizing, controlling the operations of sub-system of the firm.<br />The system approach in business for MIS is implemented by “SYNERGY”. The concept of synergy tells us that the sum of part is greater then the whole i.e. the output of total organization can be enhanced if the components part can be integrated.<br />Thus, in an organization synergy is simultaneous action of separate but inter-ralated parts that together produce a total effect greater than sum of individual parts.<br />SYSTEM APPROACH IN PLANNING<br />The Most Basic And Important Function Of Management Is Plannning. We Know That Plannning Is Needed At All Levels Of Management And Success Of All Other Management Function Depend Upon Plannning<br />Planning means deciding in advance what has to be done, who has to do it, when it has to be done and how it has to be done. It bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go.<br />This system approach to planning starts with strategic plan as a framework. The strategig plan is specific but not detailed. The long term goal provides the constraints for setting intermediate and short term goals.<br />Therefore strategic plans ties together the development plan also.<br />The strategic plannning process consists of two steps-<br /><ul><li>Developing the strategy
  58. 58. Formulating the steps, timing, cost required to achieve the strategy.</li></ul>SYSTEM APPROACH IN ORGANIZING<br />Organizing is important to managers because it helps in effective group action. It also helps in maintaining the people to work together and accomplish objectives i.e. organizing. It involves the grouping of tasks necessary to accomplish plans and assign activity to department.<br />It consists of following componenets-<br /><ul><li>The formal organization system as describes in chart policies and procedures.
  59. 59. The informal organization
  60. 60. The individual as a system
  61. 61. The organizational communication system
  62. 62. The power system
  63. 63. The functional system
  64. 64. The managemnet process system
  65. 65. The material logistic system</li></ul>We know that system approach saya that, output is greater if all part work with integration. This is same concept of organizing.<br />Phases of organizing are-<br /><ul><li>Developing a technical organization based on traditional methods of departmentalization.
  66. 66. Start with overall company’s objectives and develop a hierarchy of network of system required.
  67. 67. Involve key manager and specialist in order to select group of people so that plannned activities are done in order to achieve objective.</li></ul>SYSTEM APPROACH IN CONTROLLING<br />Controlling Is Important Because It Is Needed To Achieve The Desired Results. The Most Common Process Consists Of Three Steps-<br /><ul><li>Setting standards of performance- it involves what level of performance we need. Hence, standards are criteria against which result can be measured. These criteria can be quantitative or qualitative.
  68. 68. Measuring performance- once standards have been established it is necessary to measure performance against standards. The statement of measurement and of any difference is usually in form of personal observation type of report in oral or written form.
  69. 69. Deviation control- we know that measuring deviation first comparison of standards with actual performance is made. If deviation is found then correction is made by taking some course of action to achieve the targeted objectives.
  70. 70. Methods and techniques for correcting deviation can be described in terms of functions of management-
  71. 71. PLAN- recycle the management process, review the plan, modify the goal or change standards.
  72. 72. Organize- examine the organization in standard and make sure duties are well understood.
  73. 73. Staffing- improve selection of sub-ordinate, improve training, reassign duties.
  74. 74. Directing- provide better leaderhip, motivate the people, explain the job better.</li></ul>DIAGRAMS-<br /> UNIT-3<br /> DATA PROCESSING<br />Data processing is basically concerned with converting raw data into well ordered information, which serves the purpose of result processing. It essentially consist of facts relating to events and entities. In a business situation, a sale or purchase is sn event. While person, place, things etc are entities. Data processing consists of data input, data manipulation and outputting results of data manipulation. For the purpose of data processing data contained in source documents are fed into computer. Data manipulations consists of such operations as classification, sorting, calculations and summarizations, while output operations contains management of storage, retrieval, communications and reproduction of the result.<br />FLOW CHART<br />A flow chart is a diagrammatic or pictorial representation of the algorithm. It indicates solution of a problem. They are constructed by using special geometrical symbols. Each symbol represents an activity. The activity could be input/output of data, computation/processing of data, taking a decision, termination of solution etc. the symbols are joined by flow lines to obtain a complete flow chart.<br /><ul><li>TERMINAL SYMBOL:- The terminal symbol is used to indicate the point at which a flow chart begins and ends. It is accepted procedure to insert the word START and STOP with the terminal symbols.
  75. 75. INPUT/OUTPUT SYMBOL:- In a program i/p and o/p symbols identify the logical positioning of input and output operations. i/o symbol indicates to take input from user and o/p symbol is used to generate solution to the problem.
  76. 76. PROCESSING SYMBOL:- In this, data are automatically processed. We can define computations and after that data moves to storage area or output area.
  77. 77. DECISION SYMBOL:- It is also called logical symbol to solve Many business problems, many comparisons of data are made before selecting the best alternative. The two principal components of decision symbol are-
  78. 78. A question that defines the logical operation.
  79. 79. The result of the decision (i.e. yes/no)
  80. 80. Connector:- A flow chart becomes very long, the flow lines start crossing many places that causes confusions. In that case, it is useful to utilize the connector symbol as a substitute for flow lines. It is indicated by a circle and a letter or digit is placed within the circle.
  81. 81. Flow lines:- flow lines are used to indicate the flow of operation i.e. exact sequence in which the instructions are to be executed. The normal flow of flow-chart is from top to bottom and left to right.</li></ul>Advantages-<br /><ul><li>Flow- chart is good aid for communicating the logic of a system.
  82. 82. It helps to identify a relationship that exists among problem element.
  83. 83. It helps us in effective analysis by breaking down into detailed part of a study.
  84. 84. Flow –chart act as a guide or blue print during the system analysis program preparation phase.
  85. 85. The flow chart helps in debugging process i.e. it helps in detecting, locating and removing mistakes.</li></ul>Disadvantages-<br /><ul><li>When the program logic is complex the flowchart becomes complex.
  86. 86. If alterations are required, the flow chart may require re-drawing completely.
  87. 87. No uniform practice is followed for drawing flow-chart.
  88. 88. Sometimes it becomes difficult to establish the linkage between various conditions and actions.</li></ul>CONVERSION OF MANUAL SYSTEM INTO COMPUTERISED SYSTEM<br />Today is the world of information technology. In business lots of complexity and competition are there. In order to reduce this, we are using information technology in business. So, we are converting manual system to computerized system. The steps involved in conversion are:-<br /><ul><li>SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:- Is is usually prepared after preliminary investigation and definition of the problem. The description is essentially a statement of major input, output, processing operation and files needed.
  89. 89. INPUT DOCUMENT:- After the system description is completed. It is necessary to specify how the information will be put into the form that is acceptable to the computer. Volume of information, frequency, accuracy and verification requirement and the handling of the information are considered in the selection of input format.
  90. 90. OUTPUT DOCUMENT:- Outputs are subject to much the same considerations as input document but the output format should be treated with additional care because It represents the objective and purpose of entire operation. It is the output document with which the management is almost exclusively concerned and because of its critical nature care should be taken in its design.
  91. 91. FILE DESIGN:- The logic required to control the flow of data through the system is a part of system design and the flow is in turn dependent upon the design of data files. In this we consider the type of equipment, storage capacity, nput and output media and format.
  92. 92. PROGRAM LOGIC AND COMPUTER PROGRAM:- Although there are numerous means of thinking through and document programming logic, we will use flow-chart because they are easy to depict and understand. The program flow-chart is the program logic of step-by-step representation of how the computer program will accomplish the job. It’s the blue print of the program.
  93. 93. SYSTEM VERIFICATION:- After the program has been written and run through the compilation process. It’s placed memory in binary form and is ready to process the file on disk and print the required report. The verifications means to check the work is done according to the specifications or not. If not, what steps are to be taken to meet specifications?
  94. 94. DOCUMENTATION:- The documentation is a complete written format of whole activities. It is manual. It helps in understanding the system easily. When a person is new to the system and does not know how to use the system but by reading the documentation he can easily understand and use the system.</li></ul>SOFTWARE<br />Software is a set of computer program instructions that directs the operation of the hardware called software. A set of instruction for a specific task Is termed a routine. A complete set of instruction to execute a related set of task is a program.<br />Software is a language of computer science or technology which deals with the codes or coded instructions according to which computer is to operate the procedures with the help of the computer and the programs for various routine applications and utilitues are collectively called “software” and in order to match the word “hardware”.<br />Computer software is classified into two major types of programs<br /><ul><li>SYSTEM SOFTWARE:- A computer is highly complex machine and the role of the computer software is to make it run. We know that system software refers to all the programs which make the computer work easy and are commonly supplied by the manufacturers or computer vendor along with the hardware. It consists of number of specialized programs that help the computer to co-ordinate and control all activities relating to computer operations. System software can be grouped into three major functional categories-
  95. 95. System Management Programs- it manages the hardware, software and data resources of the computer system during its extension of the various information processing jobs of users. Major system management programs are operating system, database management system and telecommunication monitors.
  96. 96. System Support Programs:- programs that support the operations management and the user of a computer system by providing a variety of system services. Major support programs are system utilities, performance monitors and security monitors.
  97. 97. System Development Programs:- Programs that help user to develop information system programs and procedures and prepare user programs for computer processing. Major development programs are language translators, programming tools and case packages.
  98. 98. APPLICATION SOFTWARE:- It refers to the program which helps the computer to work effectively for specific applications. Application software,thus,refers to the program of instructions, tailored to cause the hardware to function in a desired way for processing an application, unique to the user. Application software, therefore is also often called user software.
  99. 99. General Purpose Program:- General applications programs are programs that perform common information processing job for end users.
  100. 100. Ex:- Word processing, spreadsheet , data base management programs, integrated packages and graph programs are popular with micro-computer uses for education, business, scientific and many other purposes.
  101. 101. Application Specific Program- Thousand of application software packages are available to support specific application of end users, major categories of such application specific program are as follow-
  102. 102. Business application program:- it is related to the business function or industry’s requirements, examples of such business function and this corresponding application are accounting, marketing, finance, manufacturing, operation management.
  103. 103. Scientific application program:- Programs that perform information processing task for natural, physical, social and behavioural science and for mathematics, engineering and all areas involved in scientific research, experiment and development.
  104. 104. Other application programs:- There are so many application area of computer such as computer application in education, entertainment, music, art, law enforcement, medicines and so on.</li></ul>MODEM<br />Modem are most common types of communication processor. They convert the digital signals into analog signals or transmission terminals at one end of the communication link into analog frequencies, which can be transmitted over ordinary telephone lines. A modem at another end of the communication converts the transmitted data back into digital form at receiving terminal. This process is known as modulation and demodulation and the word “MODEM” is a combined abbreviation of those two words. It comes in several forms, including small stand-alone unit, plug in circuit boards and microelectronic modem chip.<br />Modem is necessary because ordinary telephone lines were primarily designed to handle continous analog signal. We know that data transmission from computers are in digital form, devices are necessary to convert digital signals into appropriate analog transmission frequencies and vise-versa.<br />TELECOMMUNICATON<br />Telecommunication is sending of information in any form (i.e. voice data, text and images) from one place to another using electronic or light emitting media.<br />There are different types of communication network. However, from one end user point of view there are three basic types-<br /><ul><li>WIDE AREA NETWORK:- WAN is a very large network, which are used to transmit or receive information inter-countries, inter-continents etc. data is transmitted through satellite. It is a kind of internet. They are connected through public or private network.
  105. 105. METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK:- Network that covers a large city or metropolitan area can also be included in this category. Such large networks are becoming a necessity for carrying out the day to day activities of many business and government organization and their end users. They are used by manufacturing firms, banks, retailers, distributors, transportation companies, government agencies and many other organizations to transmit and receive information across cities.
  106. 106. LOCAL AREA NETWORK:- It connects information processing devices within a limited physical area, such as an office building, manufacturing plant or other workstations. They have become a major type of telecommunication network, since micro computers were introduced into offices, departments and other work groups. LAN uses a variety of telecommunication media and communication processors to interconnect computer terminals, personal computer work station other computer system and other types of computer peripherals devices.</li></ul>A telecommunication network consists of five categories of components-<br /><ul><li>Terminals
  107. 107. Telecommunication Processors
  108. 108. Telecommunication channels and Media
  109. 109. Computers
  110. 110. Telecommunication Control Software</li></ul>WIRED TELECOMMUNICATION<br />We know that, telecommunication is sending of information in any form (i.e. text, voice, data, images etc.) from one place to another using electronic or light or through physical wired.<br />The wired telecommunication is a type of communication in which information is sending or receiving from one place to another through physical medium. This medium may be coaxial cable, twisted wires, fiber optics etc.<br />The disadvantages of wired telecommunication devices is that, it can’t be moved anywhere as mobile phones and for long distances longer length cable is required.<br />WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION<br />For the mobile users, twisted pairs, coaxial cable and fibre optics are of no use. They need to get their bits of data for their laptop, notebooks, palmtop or wrist watch computer without being bothered to the terrestrial communication infrastructure, for these users, wireless communication is the answer.<br />It appears that future holds only two types of communication fiber and wireless. All fixed computers, telephones, faxes and so on will be by fiber and all mobile ones will be using wireless. The advantage is that, it is converting large distance and also communication is possible in plane, train, bus and car or even walking.<br /> UNIT-4<br /> DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM<br />The DSS is a interactive computer based system, which decision makers to utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The DSS is designes to facilitate the solutions of problem of structured than that of MIS and TPS which are less structured. The nature of decision taken by DSS is of non-routine and less structured. The DSS is a collection of data and data processing tools used to creatively manipulate data to answers unknown and often unexpected questions.<br />DSS aims at supporting the decision maker by providing the information with the aid of quantitative techniques.<br />COMPONENTS OF DSS-<br /><ul><li>HARDWARE RESOURCES- Executives work stations, are connected by telecommunication network, to other computers and devices in the organization, provided the primary hardware resources for a DSS.
  111. 111. SOFTWARE RESOURCES- DSS software packages are called DSS generators. They contain modules for database, model and dialogue management. A database management module provides for creation, interrogation and maintainance of DSS.
  112. 112. DATA RESOURCES- A DSS database contains data and information extracted from the databases of organization, external databases and a managers personnel databases.
  113. 113. MODEL RESOURCES- The model base includes a library of mathematical models and analytical techniques stored in a variety of program modules and files.
  114. 114. PEOPLE RESOURCES- DSS can be used by managers or their staff specialist to explore decision alternatives. However the development of large or complex decision support system and DSS software packages is typically assigned to information system specialists.</li></ul>APPLICATIONS OF DSS<br />DSS are used for a variety of applications in both business and government. When DSS are developed to solve large and complex problem that are continually faced by an organization they are called institutional DSS.<br /><ul><li>An AIRLINE DSS- An analytical information management system is a decision support system used in airlines industry, it was developed by AMERICAN AIRLINES bit is used by other airlines, aircraft manufacturers and airlines financial analysis consultants and associations. It supports a variety of airlines decisions by studying factors such as aircraft utilization, seating capacity and utilization traffic and profitability result.
  115. 115. A MARKETING DSS- BRAND AID is used for marketing planning, especially in the packaged good industries. It helps brand managers to make pricing, sales efforts, promotion, advertising and budgeting decisions for products, product lines and brand of products
  116. 116. GOVERNMENT DSS- GADS (GEODATA ANALYSIS AND DISPLAY SYSTEM) was developed by IBM. It constructs and display maps and other graphics display that supports decisions affecting the geographic distribution people and other resources.
  117. 117. A BANKING DSS- MAPP (Managerial Analysis for profit Planning) is a DSS developed by CITI-BANK. It was designed to support decisions involved in the financial planning, budgeting costing and pricing of bank products.</li></ul>CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS-<br /><ul><li>Ability to support the solution of complex problems.
  118. 118. Fast response to unexpected situations.
  119. 119. DSS is particularly designed for an individual or group of decision makers.
  120. 120. A DSS is best conceptualized as a process instead of product.
  121. 121. Cost saving
  122. 122. Improving managerial effectiveness.
  123. 123. Improve the effectiveness of decisions.
  124. 124. Flexible and adaptable to change in the external environment.

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