Feedback: Taking comments from customers for measuring satisfaction is a responsibility of the managerial level.Operational facts: Trackingsales, processing orders and customer support etc.Sales staff analysis is important to see how much of the sales portion has been contributed by each of the employees.Sales performance analysis is required to monitor how to enhance sales and address related issues.Market analysis based on customer behaviourDesigning new sales products and identifying new sales opportunities.
Analyst understand the user needs and problems has developed a viable solution to these problems, and then communicate the solution. Say verbally
It helped tracking the markets and also monitor overall Project’s activities. It should be sasid verbally
Table of Content<br />Marketing Information System(MKIS)<br />Working Mechanism of MKIS<br />SDLC<br />Feasibility Study<br />Requirement Analysis and Specification<br />Structured Analysis Tools<br />Design Phase<br />Coding<br />System Testing<br />Maintenance<br />Case Study<br />
BASIC CONCEPTS OF MARKET, MARKETING AND MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM<br />
MarketDefinition-The term market refers to group of consumers who are interested in the product, have the resources to purchase it and it is permitted by law to purchase the product. <br /><ul><li>Potential market
Marketing Information System(MKIS)<br />A system that analyzes and assesses marketing information, gathered continuously from sources inside and outside an organization and helps the decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation, and control.<br />
Other Marketing related Information System<br />Marketing Information System (MKIS)<br />Marketing Intelligence System<br />Analyzing Market Structure & Behavior<br />Executive Information System (EIS)<br />Marketing Research System<br />Researching & Selecting Market Opportunities<br />Marketing Decision Support System<br />Decision Support System (DSS)<br />Developing Market Strategies<br />Marketing Planning System<br />Marketing Information System (MIS)<br />Marketing Control System<br />Planning Market Tactics<br />Marketing Report System<br />Transaction Processing System (TPS)<br />Implementing & Controlling Marketing Efforts<br />Marketing & Sales Productivity & Support System<br />
System Identification<br />OBJECTIVES<br /><ul><li>Identify whether the request is feasible and valid
Do we need to improve or modify the existing system
Do we need to build altogether a new one</li></ul> Types<br /> 1. Preliminary Investigation<br /> 2. Feasibility Study <br />
Preliminary Investigation<br />Study existing Marketing Management System.<br />Conduct surveys in the open market.<br />Interviewing the customers.<br />Questionnaires.<br />Gather information.<br />Analyze the information looking for inconsistencies, ambiguities or unresolved issues.<br />
Feasibility Study<br />Implementation Function<br />A feasibility study looks at the viability of an idea that attempts to answer one main question: <br />“Should we proceed with the proposed project idea? Is it a viable business venture?”<br />
Need of Feasibility Study<br />Identify how, where, and to whom you intend to sell a service or product.<br />Give focus to the project and outline alternative.<br />Identify reasons NOT to proceed.<br />Enhance the probability of success.<br />Provide quality information.<br /> Increase investment in the company.<br />Provides documentation.<br />Help in securing funding from lending institutions and other monetary sources.<br />
SDLC in MKIS<br />Operational Feasibility<br />Measure how people interact with the system.<br />Questions that help to test operational feasibility:<br />What is the size and growth forecasts of market segment?<br />What are the industry sales and market trends the product is based on?<br /> Are current business methods are acceptable to users?<br />What training will users be given?<br />Technical Feasibility<br />Study of function performance and constraints.<br /> Questions that help to test the technical feasibility:<br />What are the target areas where the marketing is to be done?<br />What type of transportation and shipping facilities required for marketing?<br />What type of media is required for promoting the product?<br />
SDLC in MKIS<br />Economic Feasibility<br />Profits at less expenditure.<br />Questions that help to test the economic feasibility:<br />What is the required marketing budget?<br />What is expected rate of return on new product in the market?<br />Will the product be profitable when delivered to customer at target price?<br />Will consumers buy the new product<br />Marketing Feasibility Study<br />AIM: <br />1. Make sure there is true market for the product.<br />2. Estimate the market share of the project.<br />3. Includes the evaluation, development and full implementation of marketing plans.<br />4. Identify, quantify and evaluate opportunities within a market.<br />POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE:<br /><ul><li>Description of Industry
Sales projection</li></li></ul><li>How do we analyze the system ?<br />
System Analysis<br />ANALYSISBreaking problem into successively manageable parts for individual study.<br />SYSTEM ANALYSIS<br />The systems-analysis phase is the specification of what the system needs to do to meet the requirements of end users.<br />Gather sufficient information about the performance of your marketing strategy using specific statistical data. <br />
WHY IS IT DONE<br />We don’t start the coding directly first we need to collect the information about the project . Help programmers during system development ex-flowchart, use cases.<br />All the diagrams and process carried out before starting the project comes under system analysis<br />
SYSTEM ANALYST<br />The system analyst gives a system development project meaning and direction. <br />The analyst first task is to prepare a statements specifying the scope and objective of the problem in this only rough work is done an accurate study is done in the feasibility study. <br /> Qualities<br />Training<br /> Experience <br /> Common sense<br />
ACTIVITIES INVOLVED<br />NEED ANALYSIS The analyst sums up the requirements of the system from the user and the managers.<br />DATA GATHERING System analyst collects data about the system to be developed using techniques and methods such as:<br /> -written documents<br /> -interview<br /> -sampling<br />ANALYSIS REPORT Analysis report is prepared. It is done for review and approval of the project from the higher management. <br />
ANALYSIS REPORT<br />PART 1 It should explain how the current system works. <br />PART 2It explains the problems in the existing system.<br />PART 3It describes the requirements for the new system and make recommendations for the future.<br />
REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION<br />Analysis of data describing the system to determine how well it is performing, what requirements must be met, and strategies for fulfilling them. It has three interrelated parts.<br />Analysis of factual data<br />Identification of essential requirements<br />Selection of requirements fulfillment strategies. <br />
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM<br />Data Flow Diagram is a graphical representation of the logical flow of data . It helps in expressing the system’s requirements in a simple and understandable form. It is also known as Bubble Chart.<br />DFD serves the two purposes:<br /> ►To provide an indication of how data are transformed as they move through the system<br />►To depict the functions (sub functions)that transform the data flow.<br />
CONTEXT LEVEL DIAGRAM<br />The purpose of this is to conceptualize the general sources and sinks of data.<br />It contain only one process(process 0) that depict the function of the entire system in relationship to external entities.<br />
DATA DICTIONARY<br /> A data dictionary is a structured repository of data about data. It is a set of precise and accurate definitions of all DFD’s data elements and data structures<br />ADVANTAGES OF DATA DICTIONARY:-<br />● The most obvious is documentation; it is a valuable reference in any organization<br />● Improving analyst/user communication by establishing consistent definition of various elements, terms and procedures<br />● During implementation , it serves as a common base for programmers who are working on system<br />
DATA DICTIONARY ON PROCESS 0 <br />PROCESS: Marketing information process<br />DESCRIPTION: This process consists of sequence of all process like Marketing identification Process, product Auditing Process and planning process etc.<br />INCOMING DATA FLOW: Customer’s Requirements<br />OUTGOING DATA FLOW: Product Delivery<br />LOGICAL SUMMARY: <br />► Customer’s requirements are accepted<br /> ► They are checked for validations and feasibility <br /> ► Development function is performed as per requirements<br /> ► Product is delivered to customer <br />
DATA DICTIONARY ON DATA STORE<br />DATA STORE: Product Order’s File<br />DESCRIPTION: Includes all the details of all the orders of customers.<br />INBOUND FLOW: Marketing Information Process<br />OUTBOUND FLOW: Marketing Information Process<br />VOLUME: 1000<br />ACCESS: Sequentially processed<br /> DATA STRUCTURE: ●Product id<br /> ●Product code<br />●Units<br />
DATA DICTIONARY ON DATA FLOW<br />DATA FLOW NAME: Product Delivery<br />DESCRIPTION: Details regarding the delivery of product and carries the details to customer<br />FROM PROCESS: Marketing Information Process <br />TO PROCESS: Customer<br />DATA STRUCTURES: ●Product Size<br /> ●Volume <br /> ●Price<br />
Definition<br /> This phase is the first step in moving from problem domain to the solution domain. The purpose of the design phase is to plan a solution of the problem specified by the requirement document. The design activity of marketing information system is often divided into two separate phase-<br />Conceptual design <br />detailed design.<br />
Conceptual Design<br /> Conceptual design aims to identify the modules that should be in the marketing system, the specifications of these modules, and how they interact with each other to produce the desired results. That is why ,it is also known as logical desin ,high level design that becomes a basis for the detailed system design.<br />
Detailed System Design<br /> In conceptual design the attention is on what components are needed, while in detailed design how the components can be implemented in software is the issue. During detailed design the internal logic of each of the modules specified in system design is decided. The main objective of detailed design is to prepare a blue print of a system that meets the goals of conceptual design.<br />
System Design consist of three activities<br />USER INTERFACE<br /> DESIGN<br />DATA DESIGN<br />PROCESSDESIGN<br /><ul><li> SCREEN, FORM,</li></ul>REPORTS, AND DIALOG DESIGN <br /><ul><li> DATA ELEMENT STRUCTURE DESIGN
PROGRAM AND STRUCTURE DESIGN</li></li></ul><li>User Interface Design<br />Focuses on designing the interaction between end user and marketing information system.<br />Produces detailed specification for marketing information system so that it becomes easy for the user to interact with the system such as :<br />Display screens<br />Interactive user/computer dialogues<br />Audio responses<br /> Forms<br /> Documents and reports.<br />
Data Design<br /> It focuses on the design of the logical structure of databases and file to be used by a marketing information system. Data design frequently produces a data dictionary, which catalogs detailed description of:<br />The attributes .<br />The relationships.<br />The specific data elements <br />Database,files,records are maintained of consumer, salesman.<br />The integrity rules.<br />
Process Design<br /><ul><li>Activities involved in determining the workflows and implementations requirements for a particular process
Different process files will be designed to hold the coding for different processes
Process design, whether designing a new process or modernizing an existing process, require knowledge of the process equipments.</li></li></ul><li>Design Methods<br /><ul><li>Problem Partitioning:-Based on the principle of ‘Divide And Conquer'. the whole problem is divided into small manageable parts to be solved separately.
Structured Design:-produce a structure where the modules have minimum dependence on each other and high level of cohesion.
Top Down design:-A system may be termed as a hierarchy of sub systems, the highest level sub system corresponding to the total system.</li></li></ul><li>Design Verification<br />Like every other phase, the design phase ends with verification of the design . One way of doing this is thorough reviews. The Project Manager and System is Proponent conduct the critical design review and approve/disapprove the project into the Development Phase.<br />
Customer Options<br />1.Customer can Enable/Disable the Adevertisements by sending the following messege to 9870807070.<br />On <Channel Name> <br />Off <Channel Name><br />2.Customer Can Search any channel by sending the following messege to 9870807070.<br />Search <Channel Name><br />3.For subscription use.<br />Subscribe <Channel Name><br />And send it to 9870807070.<br />B.S Tracker Launched<br />
Customer Record SystemHow It Works<br />Final<br />Result<br />Main<br />Form<br />Add Customer<br />Display All Data<br />Customer<br />Database<br />
TESTING: Does the software behave as specified?<br />
Why we do Testing?<br /><ul><li> An error free information system gives marketing </li></ul>managers accurate, timely and relevant information.<br /><ul><li> An error free information system is a basis for decision</li></ul> making in specific responsibility areas of marketing management.<br /><ul><li>system development, generally firms conduct system testing, </li></ul>to verify andvalidate the system.<br /><ul><li>To assess whether the system meets the technical and commercial objectives at various levels in order to ascertain the system acceptability.
To make sure that the system developed is according to the specifications.
Identifies defects, flaws, or errorsin the system that must be fixed.</li></li></ul><li>V-Model of Testing in MKIS<br /><ul><li>System testing is too important to leave to the end of the project, so the V-Model of testing in Marketing Information System incorporates testing into the entire system development cycle.
Testing can and should start at the very beginning of the </li></ul> system development.<br /><ul><li> How each subsequent phase should verify and validate</li></ul> work done in the previous phase.<br />
The V-Model of Software Testing<br />Business Case and Statement of Work <br />Production Verification<br />System Specification<br />User Acceptance Testing<br />Architectural Design <br />System and Integration Testing<br />Technical Design and Coding<br />Unit Testing<br />Implementation<br />Testing Relationship<br />Work Flow<br />Validation and Verification<br />
Types of Tests<br /> The V-Model of testing in Marketing information System identifies four testing phases, each with a certain type of test associated with it. <br />
Unit Testing<br /><ul><li>Also known as Module Testing or Component Testing.
Individual modules and components are tested, ensuring that they function properly.
Done by the developers and not by end-users.</li></ul>Entry Criteria:<br />♦ System Requirements are at least 80% complete and have been approved to-date. <br />♦ Technical Design has been finalized and approved. <br />♦ Code development for the module is complete. <br />Exit Criteria:<br />♦ No major or critical defects prevents any modules from moving to Integration Testing. <br />♦ Project Manager approval has been received. <br />
Integration Testing<br /><ul><li>Tests all the components and modules that are integrated to form a sub-system.
Tests the interaction with between the modules.
When a defect is discovered, only those tests with a connection to the defect must be rerun.</li></ul>Entry Criteria:<br />♦ Unit testing has been completed and signed off. <br />Exit Criteria:<br />♦ All sub-systems meet the desired functionality and performance requirements. <br />♦ Outstanding defects have been identified, documented, and presented to the business sponsor. <br />
System Testing<br /><ul><li>Testing the system as a whole.
Evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
Checks for unexpected interaction between the units and modules.
When a defect is discovered, previously executed system tests must be rerun after the repair is made.
Requires many test runs, because it entails feature by feature validation of behavior using a wide range of both normal and erroneous test inputs and data. </li></li></ul><li>System Testing<br /><ul><li>Testing the system as a whole.
Evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
Checks for unexpected interaction between the units and modules.
When a defect is discovered, previously executed system tests must be rerun after the repair is made.
Requires many test runs, because it entails feature by feature validation of behavior using a wide range of both normal and erroneous test inputs and data.</li></ul>System Testing<br />Load <br />factor<br /> Recovery <br />testing<br /> Security<br />testing<br />Stress<br />testing<br />Performance<br />testing<br />
Entry Criteria:<br />♦ Integration Testing for each sub-system has been completed and <br /> approved.<br />Exit Criteria:<br />♦ Application meets all documented functional requirements.<br />♦ No known critical defects prevent moving to the User acceptance <br /> Testing. <br />♦ All appropriate parties have approved the completed tests.<br />
User Acceptance Testing<br /><ul><li>Final stage in the testing process before system is accepted for operational use.
Reveal requirement problems where system facilities do not really meet the users needs or system performance.</li></ul>Alpha Testing:<br /><ul><li>Done if the system is made for a single customer.
Testing the system with data supplied by the client.
Continues until the system developer and the client agrees that the delivered system is acceptable.</li></ul>Beta Testing:<br /><ul><li>When a system is to be marketed as a software product.
It involves delivering a system to potential customers.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>They report problems to the system developers.
After the feedback, the system is modified and either released for further beta testing or for general sale.</li></ul>Entry Criteria:<br />♦ Business requirements have been met.<br />♦ Security requirements have been documented and necessary user access obtained. <br />Exit Criteria:<br />♦ UAT has been completed and approved by the user community.<br />♦ Change Control Management is managing requested modifications and enhancements.<br />♦ Business sponsor agrees that known defects do not impact a production release. <br />
Production Verification Testing<br /><ul><li>Final opportunity to determine if the system is ready for release.
Purpose is for a period of time simulate real business activity.
As a sort of full dress rehearsal, it should identify anomalies or unexpected changes to existing processes.
Mock production runswill verify that the existing business process flows, interfaces, and batch processes continue to run correctly. </li></ul>Entry Criteria:<br />♦ Known defects have been documented.<br />♦ Migration package documentation has been completed, reviewed, and approved by the production systems manager. <br />
SYSTEM MAINTENANCE<br />Once a system is fully implemented and being operated by end users, the maintenance function begins. System maintenance is the monitoring, evaluating and modifying of operational information system to make desirable or necessary improvements. Regardless of how well designed, constructed and tested a system or application may be, there may be any need in order to conducting System Maintenance.<br />*Changing needs of dynamic and competitive market.<br /> *Negative feedback provided by the evaluation process.<br /> *Maintaining the marketing information system at the highest level of effectiveness<br /> and efficiency.<br /> *Removing existing errors in the information system.<br />. <br />REASONS TO CONDUCT SYSTEM MAINTENANCE<br />
FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES OF SYSTEM MAINTENANCE<br />To make predictable changes to existing programs to correct errors that were made during system design or implementation.<br />To preserve those aspects of the program that were correct and to avoid the possibility that “fixes” to programs cause other aspects of those programs to behave differently.<br />To avoid as much as possible degradation of system performance. Poor system maintenance can gradually erode system throughput and response time.<br />
Types of System Maintenance<br /><ul><li>Corrective maintenance:</li></ul> It aims to correct any remaining errors regardless of where they may arise – design, coding, testing, documentation etc.<br /><ul><li>Adaptive maintenance:</li></ul> It changes the system to react to the changes in which the system operates, e.g., porting to a new compiler, operating system or hardware.<br /><ul><li>Preventive maintenance:</li></ul> It involves the activities to update the software in anticipation of any future problems.<br /><ul><li>Perfective maintenance:</li></ul> Perfective maintenance is where the most of the maintenance time and money is spent. It improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the system.<br />
Validating the Problem<br />The first task of the system analyst or the programmer is to validate the problem. Working with the users, the team should attempt to validate the problem by reproducing it. <br />There could be following possible effects of bug:<br />One possible output is an unsubstantiated bug(means we r not sure dat it is a bug).<br />In some cases the analyst confirms the error but recognizes it as a simple misuse or mistaken use of the program.<br />
Benchmark Program<br /> This task can be performed by either system analyst and/or programmer. Users should also participate to ensure that the test is conducted as closely as possible under some circumstances that simulate a normal working environment.<br />
Study and debug the program<br />The programmer response to “bug-fix” requirements that establish the exception for fixing the problem. The programmer “debugs” (edits) a copy of the problem program. <br />Changes are not made in the production program. The result is corrected version of the program.(deleivery of software’s new version)<br />The purpose of program studies is to gain insight into how program works and doesn’t works. Program studies can also lead to better estimates of the time and resources that will be required to fix the error.<br />
Test the program<br />A candidate release of the program must be tested before it can be placed into operation as the next new version of the production program.<br />The following tests are essential :<br />Unit testing ensure that the stand-alone program fixes the bug without undesirable side effect to the program.<br />System testing ensures that entire application, of which the modified program was a part , still works.<br />Regression testing extrapolates the impact of the changes on program .<br />
CASE STUDY:Market Information System boosts incomes of Ukraine’s small& medium sized growers<br />
Abstract:<br />A Market Information System (MIS) was created by the Agricultural Marketing Project (AMP) jointly with its Ukrainian subcontractor APK-Inform <br />It helped boost sales and profits of small and medium sized growers, and attracted significant investments. <br />Resulted in about $20 in additional benefits to farmers for each $ spent and became self sufficient in 3 years from its launch.<br />
Problem statement<br />Lack of market infrastructure. <br />Growers did notknow where and how to sell fruits & vegetables and consumers paid relatively high pricesfor these products<br />Complete lack of market transparency.<br />Lack of widely recognized standards for thefruits & vegetables <br />Lack of Internet connection and cell phones. <br />A need to receive easy and fast access, to information about market and market forecasts.<br />
How AMP’s MIS is used in practice<br />A farmer who had a pessimistic approach towards the MIS. <br />One of the top processing companies procured a serious shortage of its raw material. The web portal helped.<br />One of our farmers decided to expand planting area under onions motivated by high prices for this crop in the past season. <br />
Ukraine became one of the largest exporters of onions on the region.<br />Farmers were made aware about new crops, niche products and new technologies to their advantage.<br />Supermarket chains managers start their day from checking daily wholesale prices in the web portal. <br />Most key supermarkets, wholesalers and processors assign specialists to check offers & bids, catalogue, analytics, prices and other parts of the web-portal on a regular basis.<br />
Impact<br />System has resulted in about $20 in additional benefits to farmers for each $ spent. <br />The web-portal presently attracts around 30,000 unique visitors every month.<br />The MIS helped lower the transaction costs to farmers (reduced by 100-200 times).<br />Allowed farmers to improve their technologies and develop a stronger negotiating position when talking to buyers, use several alternative marketing channels, making their sales more profitable. <br />
Price information from various regions within the country helped them improve their marketing decisions<br />Farmers managed to lower production costs, while boosting yields and quality of the final product produced. <br />Information on the web-portal attracted many foreign and domestic investors to Ukraine’s horticultural sector. <br />The number of fruit & vegetable processors increased from 15 in 2003 to about 125 in 2006. <br />
The number of full-service wholesale companies has increased from virtually zero to around 30 and many mid-size companies were created.<br />Thousands of on-farm and off-farm seasonal and permanent jobs were created.<br />Ukraine, which prior to AMP’s interventions imported fruits & vegetables from neighboring countries, in 2006 became a net exporter of many of these products. <br />
We all are THANKFUL!<br />Bikram<br />Dushyant<br />Dinesh<br />Aseem<br />Aarushie<br />Aman<br />Chandni<br />Parul<br />Deepika<br />Devika<br />