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Development and deployment of industrial effluent treatment systems in sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and challenges

  1. Opportunities and challenges Development and deployment of industrial effluent treatment systems in sub-Saharan Africa Karoli Njau, University of Dar es Salaam/ Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science & Technology Bio-innovate Regional Experts Workshop on Industrial Effluents Management in East Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 19-20 May 2014
  2. Introduction  One of the most critical problems of developing countries is improper management of vast amount of wastes generated by various anthropogenic activities  More challenging is the unsafe disposal of these wastes into the ambient
  3. Introduction  Industrial effluents are characterized by their abnormal turbidity, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total hardness.  These industrial discharge may also contain toxic substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, poly- aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petrochemicals, phenolic compounds and microorganisms etc.
  4. Introduction  River systems are the primary means for disposal of industrial waste.  Industrial effluent greatly influences the physical, chemical and biological nature of the receiving water body  High levels of pollutants in river water systems causes an increase in BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, toxic metals such as Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb and fecal coliform and hence make such water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation and aquatic life
  5. TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS Various technologies are available for the treatment of industrial wastewaters based on Physical, Chemical and Biological Treatment methods For the biological methods  Aerated systems: Activated Sludge, SBR, Trickling Filter, Three phase fluidized bed bio-reactor, aerated lagoons, Moving bed biofilm reactor, etc.  Anaerobic systems: UASB, Stirred Tank Bio-rector, etc.
  6. Trickling FilterTrickling Filter Activated Sludge UASB CSTR Bioreactor
  7. Technologies continues  Despite availability of various WWT technologies, adoption by Industries in SSA is low. So few industries have proper wastewater treatment system in place  A study done in Nigeria gives some insights into the perception of industries regarding adoption of technology either for pollution abatement or pollution preventionJOHN OLATUNJI ADEOTI(2001). Technology Investment In Pollution Control in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigerian Manufacturing The Developing Economies, XXXIX-4 (December 2001): 395–431
  8. TPA Adoption Reason % Respondent Firms Important Most Import. Prevent Environmental Accidents 91.31 34.82 Environmental Policy 78.32 41.31 International Norm of Parent Company 51.6 6.54 Improve Environmental Image 71.73 13.03 Product Acceptance in Int. Markets 6.5 0 Pacify Local Community 54.34 4.3 Adoption of Technologies for Pollution Abatement (TPA)
  9. Technology Adoption for Pollution Prevention Type of Technology for Pollution Prevention % of TPP Adoption due to Cost Reductio n Environment al Regulation Water and Wastewater Recycling 852 701 Raw materials reuse/recycling 921 303 Changes in raw material inputs 38 29 Integrated physical devices 713 332 Average 72 41
  10. Obstacles to Adoption No. of Respondent Firms in Sectors Food & Beverages Textiles Lack of information about EBTs 7 3 High cost of installing and operating TPA 44 19 Lack of technical capability to use TPA 1 0 High cost of TPP 1 0 Lack of capability to implement TPP 0 0 Low technical feasibility of TPP 0 0 Uncertain impact of ETs on competitiveness 3 0
  12. General Layout of the Integrated Agro Wastewater Treatment Scheme Advantages : •Recovery of energy and nutrients, incentive to treat •Better quality of final effluent SLUDGE PROCESSING BIO- REACTO R CONSTRUCTED WETLAND Pre- treatment Re-Use of Water and Nutrients Modification of characteristics Final Polishing Bio gas
  14. Constructed Wetland @BIL
  15. OPPORTUNITIES  Most industries in the SSA are NOT treating their wastewater adequately. The numbers that need sustainable WWT technologies is HIGH  Many are agro-based with wastewaters containing high levels of BOD/COD. This is excellent potential for energy recovery option  Energy costs are high in SSA. Replacement of fossil fuels by biogas is a great incentive for industries to adopt  In many SSA countries Policy and accompanying Law exists
  16. CHALLENGES  Enforcement of existing laws is weak in many countries in the SSA region ◦ “ One of the greatest challenges of an enforcement department in a developing country comes in form of threats from powerful individuals and groups. When such individuals and/or groups own industries which in turn form themselves into associations, they become extremely formidable”
  17. CHALLENGES  Lack of serious incentive schemes to encourage industries to comply- carrot and stick approach  Perception of Industries that taking care of environment is costly  Investment Cost for establishing proper ETP vs sizes of the companies in the region (small and medium scale)
  18. CHALLENGES  Lack of financing mechanism to finance waste treatment systems  Low knowledge among industries on the technological possibilities available
  19. “The costs of compliance with environmental regulations are determined, in part, by the cost and availability of alternative production and abatement technologies, and regulations themselves can affect the nature and rate of technological change”.
  20. THE COST BURDEN The cost burden can be in the form of  Capital Investment  Running costs  Capital costs depend on technologies of choice – cheap is not always the best option  Running Costs depend on the complexity of the process and the inputs needed
  21. WAYS TO REDUCE THE COST BURDEN  Availability of low interest funding mechanisms for environmental technologies  Tax relief on such investments  Monetary Incentives for compliance and disincentives for non compliance  Planning industrial system as an ecological system where waste from one industry can be a raw material for another –(reduces the waste to be treated)
  22. WAYS TO REDUCE THE COST BURDEN cont..  The waste management “value chain”, which includes the collection, treatment, reuse, disposal and recycling of various waste streams, provides economic incentives that allow for the private sector to be an effective partner in environmental management.  Create a new venture within the waste treatment where the resource recovery step can be handled by a separate investor (e.g. energy production). This will divide the costs between two investors with very different ultimate aim.
  23. WAYS TO INCREASE ADOPTION  Improve enforcement of existing laws  Introduce financial or non-financial incentives for compliance to environmental law  Introduce disincentives for non- compliance  Provide enabling environment for private sector investment in the waste management value chain  Awareness building among industries on available possibilities
  24. CONCLUSIONS  Mechanism to ease the investment cost for environmental technologies is key to adoption. Unless this is resolved local companies in the SSA countries will continue to find it difficult to implement sound technologies for wastewater treatment  Industries in SSA are likely to adopt if value is created along the chain. Designers of ET systems need to innovate systems which create a value along the treatment chain. If this created value can directly influence general costs of the firm the adoption is more likely  Policy and policy environment influences
  25. END
  26.  Industries are the major sources of pollution in all environments. Based on the type of industry, various levels of pollutants can be discharged into the environment directly or indirectly  through public sewer lines. Wastewater from industries includes employees’ sanitary waste, process wastes from manufacturing, wash waters and relatively uncontaminated water from heating and cooling operations [7]. High levels of pollutants in river water systems causes an increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), toxic metals such as Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb and fecal  coliform and hence make such water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation and aquatic life. Industrial  wastewaters range from high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from biodegradable wastes  such as those from human sewage, pulp and paper industries, slaughter houses, tanneries and  chemical industry.
  27. Technology Response for Pollution Abatement (TPA) JOHN OLATUNJI ADEOTI(2001). Technology Investment In Pollution Control in Sub- saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigerian Manufacturing The Developing Economies, XXXIX-4 (December 2001): 395–431