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Electronic Waste Management


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Electronic Waste Management

  2. 2. E waste Management Page 2 ABSTRACT- The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste Introduction,sources, generation of e waste, composition, environmental & health hazards ,methods of treatment, case study etc.
  3. 3. E waste Management Page 3 INDEX - Sr. no Description Page no 1 Abstract 2 2 Introduction 4 3 Sources 6 4 Categories 8 5 Generation 9 6 Composition 11 7 Hazards 12 8 Methods of treatment & Disposal 15 9 Recycling of E waste 16 10 Reuse of E waste 17 11 Case study 19 12 Conclusion 27 13 References 28
  4. 4. E waste Management Page 4 INTRODUCTION– "Electronic waste" may be defined as discarded computers, office electronic equipment, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, television sets and refrigerators. Because loads of surplus electronics are frequently commingled (good, recyclable, and non-recyclable), several public policy advocates apply the term "e-waste" broadly to all surplus electronics. Management of solid waste has become a critical issue for almost all the major cities in India. Increase in population coupled with the rapid urbanization of Indian cities, has lead to new consumption patterns, which typically affect the waste stream through the successive addition of new kinds of waste. Over the last two decades, spectacular advances in technology and the changing lifestyle of people has lead to an increasing rate of consumption of electronic products. A trend today is dependence on information technology. The fast rate of technological change has lead to the rapid obsolescence rate of IT products added to the huge import of junk computers from abroad creating dramatic scenario for solid waste management. E-Waste is a collective name for discarded electronic devices that enter the waste stream from various sources. It includes electronics appliances such as televisions, personal computers, telephones, air conditioners, cell phones, electronic toys, etc. The list of e-waste items is very large and can be further widened if we include other electronic waste emanating from electrical appliances such as lifts, refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, and kitchen utilities or even airplanes, etc. Faster technological innovation and consequently a high obsolete rate poses a direct challenge for its proper disposal or recycling. This problem has assumed a global dimension, of which India is an integral and affected part. Electronic products contain hazardous and toxic material that poses environmental risk if they are landfilled or incinerated. Television and computer monitors use cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which contain significant amounts of lead. Printed circuit boards contain primarily plastic, copper, small amounts of chromium, lead solder, nickel and zinc. In addition, many electronic products have batteries that often contain nickel, cadmium and other heavy metals. These toxic materials can contaminate soil, groundwater and air, as well as affect the workers of the unit and the community living around it. Moreover, the workers in e-waste recycling operations may face dangerous health and environmental problems. Hence there is a clear reason to be concerned about the trade, the technology in practice and the existing poor disposal practices of e-waste in India.
  5. 5. E waste Management Page 5 WEEE has been defined as any equipment that is dependent on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly, including equipment for the generation, transfer, and measurement of current.
  6. 6. E waste Management Page 6 SOURCES OF E-WASTE- Electronic waste especially computer waste is growing exponentially in volume because of increasing demand of information technology and its application in the national growth process. Various government departments, public as well as private sectors are fast feeding old electronic appliances such as computers, telephones, etc, into the waste stream.  Individual household and small business  Large business, Institutions, government houses and Foreign Embassies  PC manufacturers and retailers  E waste from imports  Secondary market of old PCs E-waste from Individual Households- As far as PCs emanating from individual households are concerned, it is difficult to know the exact quantity. Individual households are not major contributors in India. They account for 22% of total computers in India. The rest of the share, that is 78%, comes from the business sector. E-waste form Business Sectors- The business sectors (government departments, public or private sector, MNC offices, etc) were the earliest users of electronic products; today they account for 78 per cent of total installed PCs . Hence, they are the major producers of obsolete technology in India. It is observed that the total number of obsolete PCs emanating from business as well as form individual households will be around 1.38 million. E-waste from Manufacturers & Retailers- PC manufacturer and retailers are next on the list of contributors to the e-waste segment in India. The waste form this sector comprises defective IC chips, motherboards, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and other peripheral items produced
  7. 7. E waste Management Page 7 during the production process. It also includes defective PCs under guarantee procured from consumers as replacement items. It is estimated that around 1050 tonnes per year of waste comes form this sector. E-waste from imports- The biggest sources of PC scrap are imports. Huge quantities of e-waste such as monitors, printers, keyboards, CPUs, typewriters, projectors, mobile phones, PVC Wires, etc are imported. The computers thus imported are of all ranges, models and sizes, and are functional as well as junk materials. Secondary market- These are the waste coming from the secondary markets. It includes TV, computers, mobiles, electric boards etc.
  8. 8. E waste Management Page 8 CATEGORIES OF E-WASTE- The electrical and electronic equipment can be broadly categorized into following categories.  Large household appliances (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, cooking appliances, etc.)  Small household appliances (vacuum cleaners, watches, grinders, etc.)  IT and telecommunication equipment (PCs, printers, telephones, telephones,etc.)  Consumer equipment (TV, radio, video camera, amplifiers, etc.)  Lighting equipment (CFL, high intensity sodium lamp, etc.)  Electrical and electronic tools (drills, saws, sewing machine, etc.)  Toys, leisure, and sport equipment (computer/ video games, electric trains, etc.)  Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products radiotherapy equipment, cardiology, dialysis, nuclear medicine, etc.)  Monitoring and control instruments (smoke detector, heating regulators, thermostat, etc.)  Automatic dispensers (for hot drinks, money,hot and cold bottles, etc.)
  9. 9. E waste Management Page 9 GENERATION OF E-WASTE- International scenario- In Europe, the production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing business sectors .In Europe the expected growth rate of WEEE is at least 3 to 5% per year. In USA, it accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation. Indian scenario- The preliminary estimates suggest that total WEEE generation in India is approximately 1, 46,180 tonnes/year which is expected to exceed 800,000 tonnes by 2012. In India to date, e-waste generation is estimated to be around 0.1–0.2%, of municipal waste. State scenario- The top states, in order of highest contribution to WEEE, include Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, Karnataka, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Punjab. The city-wise ranking of largest WEEE generators is Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Surat, and Nagpur. This is due to the presence of a large number of Info Tech Parks & electronic products manufacturing companies situated in these areas, which plays the main role in e-waste generation.
  10. 10. E waste Management Page 10 WEEE WASTE GENERATION IN STATES IN INDIA IN 2005
  11. 11. E waste Management Page 11 COMPOSITION OF E-WASTE- Major Hazardous components in WEEE- Mercury Thermostats, sensors, relays in switches and discharge lamps, batteries, LCD Lead Soldering of printed circuit boards, cathode ray tubes and light bulbs, batteries, LCD Cadmium Switches, spings, connectors, housings and printed circuit boards,batteries. Hexavalent chromium Metal coatings for corrosion protection and wear resistance. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) Flame retardants in printed circuit boards, connectors and plastic covers.
  12. 12. E waste Management Page 12 HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH E-WASTE- WEEE should not be combined with unsorted municipal waste destined for landfills because electronic waste can contain more than 1000 different substances, many of which are toxic, such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, and hexavalent chromium. Some of the toxic effects of the heavy metals are given below. Lead- Lead causes damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood systems, kidney and reproductive system in humans. The main applications of lead in computers are: glass panels and gasket (frit) in computer monitors , and solder in printed circuit boards and other components. Cadmium- Cadmium compounds are toxic, they can bioaccumulate, and they pose a risk of irreversible effects on human health. Cadmium occurs in certain components such as surface mount devices (SMD) chip resistors, infra-red detectors, and semiconductor chips. Mercury- Mercury can cause damage to various organs including the brain and kidneys. Most importantly, the developing fetus is highly susceptible through maternal exposure to mercury . Mercury is used in thermostats, sensors, relays, switches (e.g. on printed circuit boards and in measuring equipment), medical equipment, lamps, mobile phones and in batteries. Hexavalent chromium/chromium VI- Chromium VI is still used for corrosion protection of untreated and galvanized steel plates and as a decorative or hardener for steel housings. It easily passes through cell membranes and is then absorbed— producing various toxic effects in contaminated cells.
  13. 13. E waste Management Page 13 Plastic including PVC- It is used in the cabling & computer housing. It contains dioxins. Reproductive and developmental problems, Immune system damage, Interfere with regulatory hormones. Environmental hazards- Hazards due to Incineration- The incineration of brominated flame-retardants at a low temperature of 600–800 °C may lead to the generation of extremely toxic polybrominated dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated furans (PBDfs) . Significant quantity of PVC is contained in e waste, which makes the flue gas residues and air emissions particularly dangerous. Hazards due to Landfilling- It has become common knowledge that all landfills leak. Even the best “state-of- the-art” landfills are not completely tight throughout their lifetimes and a certain amount of chemical and metal leaching will occur. The situation is worse for older or less stringent dump sites. Mercury will leach when certain electronic devices, such as circuit breakers are destroyed. The same is true for PCBs from a condenser. When brominated flame retarded plastics or cadmium containing plastics are landfilled, both PBDE and the cadmium may leach into the soil and groundwater. It has been found that significant amounts of lead ions are dissolved from broken lead containing glass, such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes, when mixed with acid waters which commonly occur in landfills. Hazards due to Recycling- Recycling of hazardous products has little environmental benefit. It simply moves the hazard into secondary products that will have to be disposed of eventually. Unless the goal is to redesign the product to use non-hazardous materials, such recycling is an ineffective solution. Halogenated substances contained in e-waste, in particular brominated flame-retardants are also of concern during the extrusion of plastics, which is a part of plastic recycling. Environmental problems during the recycling of e-waste are not only linked to halogenated substances. A hazardous emission into the air also results from recycling of e-waste containing heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. These emissions could be significantly reduced by means of pretreatment operation. Another problem with heavy metals and
  14. 14. E waste Management Page 14 halogenated substances in untreated e-waste occurs during the shredding process. Since most of e-wastes are shredded without proper disassembly, hazardous substances, such as PCB containing in capacitors, may be dispersed into the recovered metals and the shredder waste.
  15. 15. E waste Management Page 15 METHODS OF TREATMENT & DISPOSAL -  Landfilling  Inceneraton  Pyrolysis  Recycle & Reuse E WASTE EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA-  Plastic waste- Products made from plastics such as like casing, front panel, rear panel. Miscellaneous parts encased in plastics. Management practice- The shredding & melting.  Printed circuit board waste- Used in the fire inhibitors & in some electronic parts. Management practice - Desoldering & open burning to remove metals.  Miscellaneous waste- Chips, electronic wires, broken glass waste, copper containing waste. Management practice - Chemical stripping & open burning & some of the waste is mixed with the municipal solid waste.  Liquid waste- It contains internal chemicals, general waste, acid stripping waste. Management practice- Sewerage system.
  16. 16. E waste Management Page 16 RECYCLING OF E-WASTE- WEEE recycling is in its infancy, and consumer recognition of the need for recycling is a critical factor in the further expansion of this industry. More than 90% of WEEE is land filled, and in other countries a large fraction of WEEE waste from households ends up in waste incinerators. Many consumers do not immediately discard or recycle unused electronics, since they think that the products retain value. More than 70% of retired CEDs are kept in storage for 3–5 years. However, with the rapid development of electronic technologies, the residual value of outdated electronic devices decreases rapidly; both the recovery value of parts and the machine resale value drop rapidly as machines and devices age. Consumers also need to be educated about the effects of such waste on the environment and health, and learn the significance of the recycling symbol that must appear on the packaging of such equipment. Recycling of WEEE can be divided into three major stages.  Disassembly/dismantling- Disassembly is the systematic removal of components, parts, a group of parts or a subassembly from a product (i.e., partial disassembly) or the complete disassembly of a product for a given purpose. This is often necessary to isolate hazardous or valuable materials. Upgrading- WEEE can be regarded as a resource of metals, such as copper, aluminum and gold, and non-metals. Upgrading typically includes two stages: comminution and separation of materials using mechanical/physical and/or metallurgical processing to prepare the materials for refining processes. Precious metaloriented recovery techniques, such as hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, are becoming less popular whereas mechanical/ physical separations of WEEE, which are easier to operate and more environmentally sound, are becoming more prevalent. Other methods to recover materials include incineration and refining, in which metal can be recovered after the more combustible material has been incinerated; and chemical recycling, in which chemical processes are used to remove precious metals such as gold and silver from printed circuit boards. A mechanical process is ideal for upgrading recycling WEEE because it can yield full material recovery including plastics. Sometimes products will be dismantled to
  17. 17. E waste Management Page 17 remove the hazardous components and then the remaining material will be granulating and shredded in order to remove the recyclable raw materials such as plastic and ferrous metal. Shredding is often used to produce small even fine-sized particles; usually below 10 mm. Many of the traditional recycling separation processes, such as screening, shape separation and magnetic separation can be used for particle separation. Materials recovery- The major materials in TV and computer are metals, plastics, and glass , and the rate at which these materials can be recovered at a given materials recycling facility (MRF) will depend on various parameters such as the size of the facility and the target electronic products . PRODUCT REUSE- Reuse is the environmentally preferable option for managing older electronics equipment. By extending the useful life of old products, reuse conserves the energy and raw materials needed to manufacture new products and doing so reduces the pollution associated with energy use and manufacturing. Reuse also gives people who cannot afford new products access to electronic equipment at reduced or at low cost. Almost all domestic and part of imported e-waste are reused in following ways:  Direct second-hand use  Use after repair or slight modification  Use of some parts like monitor cabinet, main board for making new appliances
  19. 19. E waste Management Page 19 CASE STUDY- A COMPARISON OF ELECTRONIC WASTE RECYCLING IN SWITZERLAND & INDIA Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices. Electronic waste recycling is gaining currency around the world as larger quantities of electronics are coming into the waste stream. Managing the increasing volumes of e-waste effectively and efficiently–in cost and environmental impact–is a complex task. Firstly, special logistic requirements are necessary for collecting the e-waste. Secondly, e-waste contains many hazardous substances which are extremely dangerous to human health and the environment, and therefore disposal requires special treatment to prevent the leakage and dissipation of toxics into the environment. At the same time, it is a rich source of metals such as gold, silver and copper, which can be recovered and brought back into the production cycle. This particular characteristic of e-waste has made e-waste recycling a lucrative business in both developed as well as developing countries. While some countries have organised systems for the collection, recycling, disposal and monitoring, other countries are still to find a solution that ensures jobs while minimizing the negative environmental impacts of e-waste recycling. Switzerland was chosen because it was the first country to implement an industry- wide organised system for the collection and recycling of electronic waste. India was chosen as the other country for study because it is not only among the fastest growing markets for the consumption of electronic appliances, but also because it has a large recycling industry and has emerged as a major market for old and junked computers .
  20. 20. E waste Management Page 20 E-waste recycling in Switzerland- Background- Switzerland, with one of the highest per capita incomes in the world,2 is also among its most technologically advanced countries. The total installed PC base in Switzerland is 3.15 million PCs, which translates into one PC for almost every two persons , over 99% of the households have refrigerators and over 96% have TVs. Even though market penetration of electrical and electronic goods is high, the market for new appliances remains strong, with annual per capita spending on ICT products topping US$3600, the highest in the world. Switzerland also ranks among the top countries in the world regarding environment protection.Ranked 7th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index. Switzerland is the first country in the world to have established a formal system to manage e-waste. Even though the 68,000 tonnes of e-waste collected in Switzerland in 2003. Legislation on e-waste management was introduced into Switzerland only in 1998.
  21. 21. E waste Management Page 21 SYSTEM OVERVIEW- The collection and recycling of e-waste in Switzerland is an intentionally developed and organised system. As mentioned before, the Swiss system is based on EPR—both legally and operationally. This places both the physical as well as the financial responsibility of an environmentally sound disposal of end-of-life electronics with the manufacturers and importers of these products. The entire operative responsibility is however with the two PROs–SWICO and S.EN.S–who manage and operate the system on behalf of their member producers. One of the pillars of the system is secured financing of the collection and recycling by way of the Advance Recycling Fee (ARF) charged on all new appliances. The ARF is used to pay for the collection, the transport and the recycling of the disposed appliances. The ARF can range from a minimum CHF (Swiss franc) 1 on small items, such as hair dryers and electric shavers, to up to CHF 20 for TVs or CHF 40 for refrigerators. The total ARF collected in 2003 was CHF 71.66 million.
  22. 22. E waste Management Page 22 Another key feature of the system is its comprehensive scope and nationwide acceptance. SWICO and S.EN.S had 500 official collection points (in 2003) around Switzerland in addition to the thousands of retail locations which have to take back old equipment free of charge, irrespective of the brand or year of manufacture, thereby making it easier for consumers to dispose of their e-waste at appropriate locations. One of the pillars that facilitates the smooth functioning of the system is the multiple levels of independent controls which are able to check free riding and pilferage as well as to ensure that the recyclers maintain quality and environmental standards. Both material and financial flows are controlled at every stage. The independent controls not only deter free riders, but also give credibility to the entire system, thereby also ensuring the participation of retailers and consumers. E waste recycling in India- Background- India, with over 1 billion people, is the second most populous country in the world. Although the penetration of India’s market for consumer durables is substantially lower than that of developed countries, the size of India’s market in absolute terms is larger than that of many high-income countries. Moreover, India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world and the domestic demand for consumer durables in India has been skyrocketing. From 1998 to 2002, there was a 53.1% increase in the sales of domestic household appliances, both large and small . The growth in PC ownership per capita in India between 1993 and 2000 was 604% compared to a world average of 181%.
  23. 23. E waste Management Page 23 Unfortunately, economic growth and environmental protection indicators are at odds with one another. India ranks an abysmal 101th on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index. A report by a New Delhi based NGO, Toxics Link, on computer waste, estimated that in India business and individual households make approximately 1.38 million personal computers obsolete every year. In addition to post-consumer e-waste, there is also a large quantity of e-waste from manufacturing in the form of defective printed wiring boards, IC chips and other components discarded in the production process. SYSTEM OVERVIEW-
  24. 24. E waste Management Page 24 In contrast to Switzerland, where consumers pay a recycling fee, in India it is the waste collectors who pay consumers a positive price for their obsolete appliances, as can be seen in Fig.. The small collectors in turn sell their collections to traders who aggregate and sort different kinds of waste and then sell it to recyclers, who recover the metals. The entire industry is based on a network existing among collectors, traders and recyclers, each adding value, and creating jobs, at every point in the chain. As the volume of e-waste has grown, a noticeable degree of specialisation has emerged, with some waste processors focussing only on e-waste. Given the low level of initial investment required to start a collection, dismantling, sorting or recovery business, it is attractive for small entrepreneurs to join the industry. This recycling network is substantiated by similar results of fieldwork by on solid waste management in Chennai, India, which found a series of private–private relationships among waste pickers, itinerant buyers, dealers, wholesalers and recycling enterprises. The main incentive for the players is financial profit, not environmental or social awareness. Nevertheless, these trade and recycling alliances provide employment to many groups of people . E-waste recycling has become a profitable business, flourishing as an unorganised sector, mainly as backyard workshops . For Delhi, study estimates the number of unskilled workers in recycling and recovering operations to be at least 10,000 people . The biggest drawback of the current Indian system is the uncontrolled emission of hazardous toxics that are going into the air, water and soil. The health hazards from fumes, ashes and harmful chemicals affect not only the workers who come into contact with the e-waste, but also the environment. Comparison of the two systems - From the two case studies above, it is clear that the e-waste management systems in the two countries are very different. Based on observations of both systems, a qualitative comparison is done using four criteria:  E-waste per capita  Employment Potential  Occupational Hazards  Emissions of Toxics
  25. 25. E waste Management Page 25 A higher value in either factor leads to a higher annual accrual of e-waste per capita. Compared to India, Switzerland shows a higher value for per capita waste with its more widespread use of appliances and shorter product service lives, given the lower rate of repair and reuse. Switzerland has a much higher annual accrual of e-waste per capita. In the year 2003, more than 9 kg of e-waste per resident were taken back in Switzerland by the SWICO and S.EN.S recycling Using the Employment Potential offered by the system as one criterion to judge the social impact of the system, it can be seen that the Indian system generates far more jobs than the Swiss system per tonne of e-waste processed. Collection, dismantling, sorting and segregation and even metal recovery are done manually in India. Therefore, the ewaste recycling sector, albeit informal, employs many unskilled or semi-skilled workers. Study show that at least 10,000 people are involved in the recycling and recovery operations in Delhi alone. The figure would be much higher if the entire value chain of collectors, transporters and traders were included. Comparatively, e-waste management in Switzerland is highly mechanised, and employs far fewer people. For example, the S.EN.S recycling system, which manages discarded household appliances totalling over 34,000 tonnes (for all of Switzerland), engages 470 persons in all-including collection, transportation, recycling, administration and controlling . The main reason for this large difference in the number of people employed, is the availability of cheap manpower in India as compared to the high labour costs in Switzerland.
  26. 26. E waste Management Page 26 However, when considered from the perspective of Occupational Hazard, e-waste handlers in India are at a much higher risk than in Switzerland. One reason for this is the low level of awareness among workers regarding the hazards of the chemicals and process they are exposed to and the minimum protection and safety measures they are obliged to take. The other reason is the lack of formal guidelines as well as a lax enforcement of existing environmental laws. The Emissions of Toxics into the environment is another aspect to consider. Due to the manual processes used for materials recovery, the level of toxics such as dioxins and acids released has been found to be much higher in India than in Switzerland. Culpable for the high levels of these externalities are backyard processing techniques such as open burning of cables, which is conducted in the open without any controls or precautions. The material flow in and out of the system is totally unmonitored at present. In contrast, the Swiss system imposes high safety and emission standards and emphasises the implementation of regular controls and monitoring at every stage of the material and financial flow through the system. External auditors mandated by the PRO’s carry out at least one annual audit at each recycler, and unless standards are complied with, the recycler’s licence is revoked. This monitoring has the effect that the e-waste recyclers stay within the strict Swiss emission limits.
  27. 27. E waste Management Page 27 CONCLUSION- Electronic equipment is one of the largest known sources of heavy metals and organic pollutants in the waste stream. Without effective collection, reuse, and recycling systems, highly toxic chemicals are found in electronic appliances like, lead, beryllium, mercury, cadmium, chromium, brominated flame retardant, etc will continue to contaminate soil and groundwater as well as pollute the air, posing a threat to wildlife and people. In India, domestic generation and imports are the two main sources of e-waste. It is impossible to determine how much e-waste is generated in India and how much is imported. But the growing quantities at a disastrous proportion and uncontrolled disposal practices are alarming the situation from an environmental point of view. Reuse and recycling of electronic equipment is a beneficial alternative than disposal as it reduces the amount of toxic and hazardous substances that may enter the environment through disposal. Thus, it is opined that e-waste management is a new challenge for waste management in India and for its proper management, various measures for improvement in product design by using safe and environmently friendly raw materials and most emerging technologies have been suggested. Adoption of all those measures will minimize the environmental pollution due to toxic constituents present in electronic products and help in achieving a clean environment. REFERENCES-
  28. 28. E waste Management Page 28  A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India Deepali Sinha-Khetriwal, Philipp Kraeuchi, Markus Schwaninger. Received 17 March 2005, Acepted 22 April 2005 Journal of Environmental impact assessment.  E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications. Sushant B. Wath · P. S. Dutt · T. Chakrabarti Received: 25 May 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 Journal of Environmental monitoring assessment.  E-waste: A new challenge for waste management in India. M. N. Mundada, Sunil Kumar and A. V. Shekdar Available online: 26 Jan 2007 Journal of Environmental studies  Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem. Balakrishnan Ramesh Babu ,Anand Kuber Parande,Chiya Ahmed Basha Received 3 March 2006; accepted in revised form 17 December 2006 Journal of waste management.
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