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Review of policies and regulatory incentives/disincentives for development and adoption of innovations for industrial effluent management in Tanzania

  1. Review of policies and regulatory incentives/disincentives for development and adoption of innovations for industrial effluent management in Tanzania Pantaleon Casmir Chuwa University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1 Bio-innovate Regional Experts Workshop on Industrial Effluents Management in East Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 19-20 May 2014
  2. 2 Outline 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Methodology 3.0 Findings from the frameworks 4.0 Lessons 5.0 Recommendations
  3. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Effluent: Fluid material discharged from domestic or industrial wastes systems affecting their natural state (NESC, 2005) Effluent treatment plant/system: detoxicating or stabilizing biodegradable organic impurities (EMA, 2007). Industrial effluent management: processes used to prevent or treat waters - anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment. 3
  4. Background cont. BOD: mass concentration of dissolved O2 consumed by biological oxidation of organic/ inorganic matter COD: Mass conc O2 equiv dichromate consumed by effluent treated with that oxidant Compliance plan: Environmental Compliance Order issued containing a set of conditions for observance or fulfillment by any person violating the regulations 4
  5. 1.2 Existing situation •Food/beverage industries - generate effluents BOD high values (UNEP, 2009) •Fish waste - Lipids and proteins (bioresource) (Mbatia et al., 2010; Gumizinza, 2009) Fish processing industrial effluent •Primary treatment - Undersized stabilization ponds •Local Gov Authorities - supplying water & effluents disposal • Dependent on external donors: WB and EU •1,663,090 m3/day untreated domestic and industrial waste – Dar city 5
  6. Plate 1.a: Sewer overflows in the City centre 1.b: Discharged untreated wastewater in a stream 6
  7. Introduction cont. •1998: Constructed wetlands (CWs) into TZ success (Njau et al., 2007; Njau & Katima, 2003). •Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Research and Development Group – UDSM • Water Policy and regulatory frameworks - - Supply & Sanitation - Dev Vision 2025 , NSGPR, NWSDS 2006-2015 - No emphasis on industrial effluents treatment 7
  8. Introduction cont. •VPO - Division of Environment, NEMC and the PMO Regional Administration and Local Government enforcement, setting standards and issuing permits for the discharge. •Environmental policy (1997) -Regulations are related to industrial effluent management •Reg & international laws, regulations -Basel and Bamako Conventions – categories - East African Community Treaty (2006); environment and natural resources management 8
  9. 1.3 Rationale •Untreated effluents -Lack of cost-effective and efficient sanitary infrastructure or integrated technologies OR partly - weaknesses in enforcing existing /regulations •Enabling national policies and regulations with incentives is inevitable -adoption and diffusion of emerging integrated technologies and innovations by industry partners. •The review process: determined incentives & provide policy recommendations stimulate adoption of innovations 9
  10. 1.4 Objectives •Key partners/actors & regulatory instruments including incentives/disincentives determined •Recommended policy options for effectiveness and efficiency of frameworks in adoption of emerging innovations 10
  11. 2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Identification and collection of relevant documents - Work-plan -Environmental policies, regulations, standards and other related Report. 2.2 Interviewing the regulators and industrial partners - Concerns and shortlisted gaps -Questionnaire - compliance & enforcement dimensions- BIL and NEMC, respectively. 11
  12. Methodology cont. 2.3 Site visits Urafiki Textile Ltd & Vingunguti major City abattoir DSM 2.4 A case study within the Bio-innovate programme public-private partnership pilot-onsite demonstration of CWT- BIL, Arusha (questionnaire) 2.5 Compilation & report writing 12
  13. 3.0 FINDINGS 3.1 Characterization of industrial effluents and codes -3 groups - domestic, municipal and industrial (Chinamo, 2012). -- Volume 683,717 m3 per day in Tanzania -Codes (Reg 8 (1) Basel and Bamako Conventions/under List B: Non hazardous waste: EMA (Hazardous Waste Control) Reg. Act of 2008: Table 1 Technologies •Waste Stabilization Ponds •Constructed Wetlands •UASB 13
  14. Table 1: Types of industries with codes and waste in effluent SN Type of industry Code number Raw materials Examples 1 Agro-processing industries B3060 Wine lees, vegetable waste, fish waste, husks, bones and horns. Ben-winnery, Kibuku, BIL - Arusha Fish processing B3060 Fish waste 2 Sisal decorticating B3030 Sisal waste Katani Ltd - Tanga and Alavi estate - Kibaha Cooking fats and oil B3065 3 Abattoirs B3060 Blood and dung Vingunguti -DSM 4 Tanneries B3100 Hair, chemicals Morogoro 5 Textile Mills B3030 wool, animal hair, animal waste, fiber Urafiki, Mbagala 6 Sugar Factories/ B3060 Bagase Kilombero, Mtibwa14
  15. 3.2 Regulatory agencies,regulations and instruments The Constitution URT (2005) – basis Article 14: persons are entitled to a healthy environment Article 9: Impose legislations on natural resources are preserved Article 47: The Vice President of Tanzania - environment management Division of Environment (policy &coordination) - NEP(1997) EIA; Env legislations; Econ instruments; Env standards and indicators; & Precautionary approach. Enforcement & incentives α Monitoring instruments 15
  16. Findings cont. Planning Commission -Coordinates economic dev - integration of env concerns in dev plans with mutual support among interested groups e.g NGO. NEMC an advisory body •Enforcement, compliance, review and monitoring of EIA (EMA No. 20 of 2004, EIA& and Audit Regulations (2005), NEAP (2008) &The Environmental Management (Water Quality Standards) Regulations (2007) of National Environmental Standards by TBS). - water quality standards, including permissible water pollutant discharge limits and permits, compliance with enforcement plans, offences and penalties. - Inspection and decision is done by NEMC: -Offence fine of not exceeding equivalent to US $ 6,250.00) or to imprisonment five years or to both. 16
  17. Regulatory bodies & instruments cont. Ministry of Water & Irrigation •NWP (2002): Based on NSGPR Industries to pre-treat of effluents & advice adoption of CPT. •The regulatory frameworks don’t have enough emphasis on industrial effluents Instead:-concentrate on water bills and connections for supply •EWURA regulates quality of wastewater after treatment (TBS stds/MITM/NESC) & finance: tariffs •Water Sector Environmental Action Plan (2011) DANIDA& CIDA USD 15,748,387,097.00. Env challenges - measures e.g Inventory awareness rising on EIA,CPT - •National Water Sector Development Programme (WSDP) of 2006-2025 - Commercial service provision 17
  18. Regulatory bodies & instruments cont The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW):NHP (1997) •Management of Industrial and consumer chemicals. (Consumer Chemicals (Management and Control) Act No. 3 of 2003 National regulations are not well articulated Regionally, East African Cooperation (EAC) Treaty of 2006 •Standards for effluents and receiving waters - proposed for harmonization: - Water quality, Discharge of effluent, and Hazardous substances and materials. (definition of terms, scope, field of specifications and limits for each standard) 18
  19. Regulatory bodies & instruments cont Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) •MDG 7; - Ensure environmental sustainability. Crosscutting in nature CBD and UNFCCC CBD - National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) in 1998. program;- to “Assess and inspect industrial effluent treatment and engagement of CPS” & “Design and implement a reliable system for monitoring effluents Achievement of the frameworks during implementation are negatively affected (disincentives) by: Inadequate environmental management awareness (Tech & incentives) and insufficient resources 19
  20. Regulatory bodies & instruments cont Other challenges Reluctance of institutions to collaborate Reluctance to allow research - bad practices Lack of a maintenance culture Lack of awareness on CPT Use inappropriate technologies Lack of investment &innovative capability Low priority on environ issues in some sectors Inadequate dissemination & acceptance of environ research results to improve policy decisions 20
  21. National and sectorial strategies, plans and incentives for adoption of tech. National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of 2008 -Provides a unifying set of principles and objectives for an integrated and multi-sectoral approach to address the totality of the environment -Promotes research and technology initiative -Integrates the environmental policy and strategies into the planning process. -All sectors and interested groups (NGOs) are articulated in implementation plans. - Planning Commission under the President’s Office coordinates the actors. The incentives offered through policy or legal instruments include financial subsidies, awards, premiums, fiscal incentives, and lending facilities (URT, 1996) – S&TP 21
  22. Role of private sector in promoting cleaner production and constraints 100 NGOs are involved in implementation programmes ander coordination of Planning Comm •Among them include AGENDA for Environment and Responsible Development (1994) Among its six programmes: -Environmental Consultancy Services for Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Audit, Projects Monitoring and Evaluation and environmental management trainings.  Industries assessed under CPT program are strong promoters of industrial effluents treatment. In CPT 22
  23. 4.0 LESSONS ON INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGE MANAGEMENT NWP (2002): Role on reviewing legislations for industries to pre-treat their effluents, strengthening enforcement mechanism and advising adapt CPT but infrastructure & appropriate Tech is lacking No restrictive and enabling regulations which stimulate the stakeholders to participate effectively in wastewater/industrial effluent treatment projects. ONLY incentives offered in NSTP (1996) include financial subsidies, awards, premiums, fiscal incentives, and lending facilities. CWT not yet recognized and receive support for adoption in local industries 23
  24. Lessons Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Research and Development Group in Tanzania Lack of incentives which lead to the overall challenges that include poor cooperation by some stakeholders or industrial partners. Other disincentives are lack of awareness on cleaner production technologies and inadequate capacity for activities that could contribute to improved relevant environmental decisions EAC harmonization initiatives to t common reg. 24
  25. 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Effluents from agro-proc industries as a bio- resource Establish sub-companies managing value added products Tax exemption for importation of the required plant and equipments Inventory of existing/emerging treatment technologies for effluents Prioritize technologies and set incentives •Effective dialogues with key messages with evidenced success from onsite pilot projects • Engagement of efficient and popular media groups 25
  26. END ASANTENI SANA (Thank you) 26