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The VIA. The Virtual Irrigation Academy

Presentació realitzada per Richard Stirzaker (CSIRO; VIA.FARM) a la jornada Projectes internacionals de millora de la gestió del reg (28/06/2019)

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The VIA. The Virtual Irrigation Academy

  1. 1. The VIA The Virtual Irrigation Academy Barcelona 28 June 2019
  2. 2. Two questions Is irrigation management a SCIENCE or an ART? How do we (scientists) reach the majority of irrigators?
  3. 3. Did the promise come true?
  4. 4. The roots go deeper than I thought Soil looks dry but there is sufficient water below Too much water leaches the nutrients We don’t need to fight over water
  5. 5. The Chameleon 6 | Measures what the plant experiences (suction not soil water content) Gives output as colours (not numbers) Shows the soil water by patterns (not graphs)
  6. 6. When the soil is full, stop irrigation
  7. 7. Solute Monitoring Captures a soil water sample by converging the downwards movement of water, and indicating with a mechanical float Measuring soil salinity Measuring soil nitrate
  8. 8. The learning platform
  9. 9. Researcher Farmer Knowledge production Mode 1 Mode 2 Context Scientific problem Focus Expert centred Purpose Universal knowledge (Transferable) Organisation Planned Validation Peer review End point Journal article Where do new ideas come from?
  10. 10. Researcher Farmer Knowledge production Mode 1 Mode 2 Context Scientific problem Local problem Focus Expert centred User centred Purpose Universal knowledge (Transferable) Context specific knowledge (Useful) Organisation Planned Exploring Validation Peer review Experiential (it works) End point Journal article Changed behaviour Where do new ideas come from? Based on Gibbons et al 1994)
  11. 11. Irrigation as a Science Irrigation as a Art
  12. 12. Based on Ison et al 2011)
  13. 13. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Less than 1 ha 1 - 2 ha 2 - 5 ha 5 - 10 ha 10 to 20 ha 20 to 50 ha More than 50 ha Percentage Size of farm (ha) Sub-Saharan Africa Number of Farms Area of farms Based on Lowder et al 2016)
  14. 14. Country Crop Research Mode Increase in yield (%) Decrease in irrigation (%) Increase in Water Productivity (%) Zimbabwe Maize 2 36 61 350 Zimbabwe Maize 2 135 59 570 Mozambique Green Maize 2 239 53 710 Tanzania Green Maize 2 28 64 360 Malawi Maize 1 and 2 68 49 330 Malawi Beans 1 and 2 31 41 220 Malawi Maize 1 3 22 34 Water Productivity changes
  15. 15. Change in farmer practice Number of irrigations Total time irrigating (h) Start End Start End Tool in plot 33 20 207 74 Neighbour 32 26 164 85
  16. 16. “tensions arise at the interface between communities with different views of what constitutes reliable or useful knowledge… If an impermeable boundary emerges at the interface, no meaningful communication takes place across it.. if the boundary is too porous, personal opinions mix with validated facts, science gets mixed with politics, and the special value of research- based knowledge fails to materialize. Active boundary work is therefore required to construct and manage effectively the interfaces among various stakeholders engaged in harnessing knowledge to promote action” Knowledge co-creation Clarke et al 2016 PNAS 113, 4615
  17. 17. Science Driven Problem Driven Low HighUser participation Basic research Applied research Action research Social learning Focus From Research to Social Learning Based on Kirchhoff et al 2013)
  18. 18. 11 Test rigs 5 to 7 day test (0 to 65 kPa) 36 sensors per rig
  19. 19. Electrode Buffer Sensing material
  20. 20. Too dry Probably losing yield Wet May be losing nutrients Moist Adequate most of the time
  21. 21. Gibbons M, Limoges C, Nowotny H, Schwartzman S, Scott P, Trow M. The new production of knowledge: the dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage; 1994. Ison, Ray & Collins, Kevin & Colvin, John & Jiggins, J & Roggero, Pier Paolo & Seddaiu, Giovanna & Steyaert, Patrick & Marco, Toderi & Zanolla, Chiara. (2011). Sustainable Catchment Managing in a Climate Changing World: New Integrative Modalities for Connecting Policy Makers, Scientists and Other Stakeholders. Water Resources Management. 25. 3977-3992. Kirchhoff, C. J., Lemos, M. C., & Dessai, S. (2013). Actionable knowledge for environmental decision making: broadening the usability of climate science. Annual review of environment and resources, 38. Stirzaker RJ., I Mbakwe, Mziray NR. (2017) A soil water and solute learning system for small- scale irrigators in Africa. International journal of water resources development 33 (5), 788-803.
  22. 22. Database Farmer to farmer learning Farmer to expert Farmer to government Reports to authorities for management, marketing, equity, governance, investments, interventions Farmer learning Management Governance