Korteling 7558

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  • Korteling 7558

    1. 1. Exploring Issues of Water Sustainability in Island Communities 1 University of British Columbia, Lanarc Consultants Ltd. 2 University of Utah 3 Natural Resources Canada Brett Korteling 1 Craig Forster 2 Sonia Talwar 3 Murray Journeay 3
    2. 2. Water futures <ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Population increase </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation for Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Needs of the environment </li></ul>
    3. 3. Approach <ul><li>How can scientific knowledge of groundwater systems be integrated into community debate and policy making? </li></ul>How can communities make decisions to create or enhance livability? What are the natural resource implications?
    4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Systems Perspective of Island Hydrology </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Issues – Social, Political, Hydrologic </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Water Yield Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Transferability </li></ul>
    5. 5. Systems Perspective Geological Survey of Canada (2005) Well-bounded system for simulating alternative futures <ul><li>Island water supply is mostly groundwater – increasing demand </li></ul><ul><li>Salt water contamination potential is high </li></ul>
    6. 6. Gulf Islands, British Columbia <ul><li>Land use planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional District and private purveyors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water allocation, regulation and initial cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Province of BC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation for community systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vancouver Island </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Authority </li></ul></ul>No Groundwater Use Regulation! British Columbia
    7. 7. Seasonal Island Dynamics Sources: Environment Canada and B.C. Ferries Summertime population increases by 60% to 100% Season of low water availability
    8. 8. Situation <ul><li>Small rural communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300 to 10,000 full-time residents per island </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finite water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern about future water sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used to argue for growth restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policies to monitor water quality and quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-agency cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Raise community awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strategic priorities </li></ul>Not how many - but how!
    9. 9. Approach <ul><li>Groundwater Pathways Project - Natural Resources Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify issues (Community Engagement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic groundwater vulnerability (NRCan Mapping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable water yield model (Community Engagement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy development (NRCan Mapping & Community Engagement) </li></ul></ul>Collaborative Place-based Approach Science Policy Society Geo- Hazards Ground- water Vulner-ability Avail-ability Risk Potential Cost/ Benefit
    10. 10. Contributors Islands Trust - Island Communities Natural Resources Canada BC Water Land Air Protection Environment Canada BC Ferries Malaspina University College BCGWA - CWRA Identify Issues
    11. 11. Intrinsic Groundwater Vulnerability DRASTIC-Fm Framework DRASTIC-Fm Mapping South Gulf Islands Conventional DRASTIC methodology modified for fractured rock systems
    12. 12. Sustainable Water Yield Model <ul><li>Waterscapes Poster (workshop series with representatives of all islands) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The community ‘story’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water systems science preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation for model development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediated Systems Modeling Approach (island-specific workshop series) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared learning and collaborative model development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate science with environmental and sociological impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with global description then become more specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on dynamic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include feedback loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STELLA TM system dynamics software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sessions planned per island – 2 islands in progress </li></ul></ul>Deliberative Scoping of Water futures
    13. 13. Marine Island System Sea Floor Sea Level Groundwater Flow to Sea Streamflow to Sea Precipitation Evapotranspiration Agricultural Land Concentrated Community Distributed Community
    14. 14. Feedback Loops Personal Business Policy Decisions Water Balance Balance = Total Water Wanted – Total Water Available Total Water Wanted Total Water Available - +
    15. 15. Total Island Households Annual Household Water Use Net Change # Households Annual Agriculture Water Use Annual ‘ Other’ Water Use Per Hectare Agriculture Water Use Per Household Household Water Use Agriculture Area (Ha) Surface Runoff Precipitation Groundwater Recharge Aquifer Water Table Elevation Business Decision Policy Decision Policy Decision Total Water Use Aquifer Water Volume Total Water Use Total Water Available + - What can we do differently - naturally? Annual Precipitation Evapo- transpiration Policy Decision Personal Choice Policy Decision Personal Choice Captured Surface Runoff Policy Decision Well Pumping Policy Decision Personal Choice Policy Decision Personal Choice Business Decision Climate Total Water Available + + Septic Returns Groundwater Recharge Policy Decision + + + + + - + - + - + + - + + Agriculture Returns Groundwater Recharge Policy Decision Business Decision + + + + + - + - + + - + ‘ Other’ Returns Groundwater Recharge + Availability Minus Use - + -
    16. 16. Integrated Comprehensive Water Management Take less, reuse and mimic the natural system
    17. 17. Model Interface How do you save a failing system?
    18. 18. Sample Explorations What are the critical thresholds?
    19. 19. Sustainable Water Yield When are new water practices essential? 4 2 0 1 9 8 0 1 9 9 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 A n n u a l W a t e r F l o w s ( 1 0 6 m 3 p e r y e a r ) W a t e r W a n t e d A c t u a l W e l l P r o d u c t i o n A c t i v e A q u i f e r V o l u m e W a t e r U s e d R u n o f f C a p t u r e d 1 0 A c t i v e A q u i f e r V o l u m e ( % o f M a x i m u m ) 0 5 0 0 Water Deficit
    20. 20. Assessing Outcomes <ul><li>Workshop Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected regional planning officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local water managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial groundwater scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lay people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retired government, academic, corporate experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems modeling and hydroscience expert (University of Utah) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community engagement facilitators (Natural Resources Canada) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geoscience expert (Natural Resources Canada) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional planning agency representative (Islands Trust) </li></ul></ul>Creating a space for discussion 13 (2 days) 25 Salt Spring 15 20 Gabriola 2 nd Workshop 1 st Workshop Island Participation (most are repeat participants)
    21. 21. Assessing Outcomes Participant Comments “ As we progressed in our understanding of best water practices, the focus of our community changed from one of directionless concern to one of decision and purpose.” “ This is one of the best examples of science based input into community facilitated action that I have ever experienced.” Jenny MacLeod, President Gabriola Groundwater Management Society Survey Results – Value of Sustainable Water Yield Modeling? “ See effect of decisions” “ provide frame of reference for thinking” “ if public is brought to the process, greater conservation should result” “ to help determine a sustainable population” “ determine future development” <ul><li>Policy Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Trust Committee (for each island) impacts Official Community Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on growing movement towards groundwater use regulation </li></ul></ul>Science approachable to society
    22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Developing a community ‘water story’ through the Waterscapes poster helps build water systems science knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘water story’ forms a strong foundation for a mediated model development process </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated modeling can integrate scientific knowledge of groundwater systems into community debate and policy making </li></ul><ul><li>This approach should work in other small, onshore communities/watersheds </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing community/watershed size, a different participant group is required </li></ul><ul><li>A successful project team includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A representative of the regional planning organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain experts in system modeling, geoscience and hydrology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced facilitator </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Acknowledgements

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