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DSD-INT 2019 - Plastics transport in rivers - what is below the water surface-Buschman

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Presentation by Frans Buschman, Deltares, at the Delft3D - User Days (Day 4: Water quality and ecology), during Delft Software Days - Edition 2019. Thursday, 14 November 2019, Delft.

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DSD-INT 2019 - Plastics transport in rivers - what is below the water surface-Buschman

  1. 1. Plastic transport in rivers: what is below the water surface? Frans Buschman Delft3D User Days 2019 14 November 2019
  2. 2. Contents 1. Problem of mismanaged plastic waste 2. Project aiming to develop a standardized monitoring strategy for microplastics in the Netherlands • From conceptual model to effect chain model • Modelling distribution 3. Paper on Riverine plastic emission from Jakarta into the ocean (Indonesia)
  3. 3. Plastic rivers Citarum river (Indonesia) and canal in India
  4. 4. An example from Haiti • Drainage channel or waste dump: • Plastic waiting to be transported to the river • Land reclamation!
  5. 5. Polymer types, densities and sizes Polymer type Density (tonnes/m3) PS-E 0.06 PUR 0.85 PP 0.91 PE-LD 0.92 PE-HD 0.94 PS 1.06 PA 1.14 PET 1.37 PVC 1.45 SBR 1.65 nano micro macro
  6. 6. Important processes river-coastal zone-ocean Lebreton, L. et al. Global mass budget for positively buoyant macroplastic debris in ocean. Nature Communications 9, 12922 (2019).
  7. 7. Scenarios of plastic transport towards the ocean • In 2050 5 times more plastic produced than in 2015 • Why? • Cheap • Light • highly resistant !
  8. 8. Sources, pathways, receptors
  9. 9. Threat for animals and ecosystems Photo: J.A. Van Franeker, IMARES Macroplastics: • Wounding • Suffocation • Starvation Microplastics: • Accumulation in food chain Effect on humans?
  10. 10. Project aim: to develop a standardized monitoring strategy • In collaboration with Rijkswaterstaat • Aim: Develop an applicable and standardized monitoring strategy for microplastic distribution in fresh water bodies • Optimization and standardization of sampling and analysis • Development of a distribution model for Rhine and Meuse • To select monitoring locations • To extrapolate (costly and scarce) observations Frans Buschman, Myra van der Meulen, Arjen Markus, Marc Weeber en Frank Kleissen (2018) Roadmap voor de modellering van verspreiding microplastics in Rijkswateren, Deltares report 11202218-003-ZKS-0002
  11. 11. From conceptual model to effect chain Which factors are relevant for the distribution of microplastics in rivers, estuaries, canals and lakes? Nutrients Waves/ Flow Light Temp. SPM Algea Bed Plankton Benthos Fish Fish at bed Concentration microplastics Density MPs Shellfish Bio-Fouling Atmospheric deposition Size MPs Microbes Salt concentration Plastic type MPs Discharge Roughness shoreMacroplastics Obstacles Nanoplastics Point sources Non-point sources Detritivorous Non-Indigenous Species Human health Birds
  12. 12. Effect chain for microplastics in a River Suspended sediment (mg/l) Tide Flow Turbulence Waves Hetero- Aggregation Concentration Microplastics watercolumn (g/m3) MP mobile sediment layer (g/m3) Deposition Resuspension MP immobile sediment layer (g/m3) Bioturbation and disturbance Reservoir MP in biota (g/indiv) Supply of microplastics from point and non-point sources Ingestion- Excretion Release after mortalitySediment transport (horizontal) Advection Resuspension sediment Density MP + Suspended Sediment (kg/m3) De- aggregation Concentration macroplastics (g/m3) Fragmen -tation Riparian vegetation (roughness/ collection surface) Importance process Uncertainty including current knowledge level Legend
  13. 13. Effect of wind in Noordzeekanaal around Amsterdam
  14. 14. Method for first rough simulation 1. Estimate the concentration of microplastics from 17 observations 1. Lobith: 0.56 mg/m3 2. Eijsden: 0.14 mg /m3 2. Use results of 2014 national flow model (LSM) 3. Modelling processes for 24 types of microplastics: 1. Advection 2. Aggregation (homo and hetero) 3. Deposition 4. Estimate pathways of microplastics from border to sea Annelotte van der Linden, Arjen Markus en Frans Buschman (2019) Riverine transport of microplastics from the Dutch border to the North sea, Deltares report 11203712-002-ZKS-0004
  15. 15. Results • Around 80% transported to sea • Deposition occurs in Haringvliet A B
  16. 16. Paper: Riverine MACROplastic emission from Jakarta • Aims of submitted paper (The Ocean Cleanup and Deltares): • Estimate macroplastic emission from rivers and canals that run through the city of Jakarta into the sea • Demonstrate how simple measurements, empirical relations and hydrodynamic model output can be used to estimate plastic transport across time and space Van Emmerik, Loozen, van Oeveren, Buschman and Prinsen (2019) Riverine plastic emission from Jakarta into the ocean, ERL-084033.
  17. 17. Method: monitoring • Visual counting from bridges (van Emmerik et al. 2018) • Trawling from bridges to sample debris to determine: • plastic composition • variation of plastic transport within the water column • ratio between plastic and non-plastic waste van Emmerik, Tim, et al. "A Methodology to Characterize Riverine Macroplastic Emission into the Ocean." Frontiers in Marine Science 5 (2018): 372.
  18. 18. Method: monitoring and modelling • Plastic content of the sampled debris was found to be between 37% and 54% • Numbers counted → plastic mass • Surface → cross section • Rainfall runoff model to • Obtain discharge in monitoring period • Obtain discharge in whole year
  19. 19. Results of floating plastics Variation in width in time
  20. 20. Discussion and conclusion • Observations carried out in May: end of wet season • Assuming the same plastic concentration throughout year • Total plastic transport towards ocean is 2100 tonnes/year • = 3% of the mismanaged plastic waste • Half is transported in Ciliwung river
  21. 21. To conclude • Transport of plastics in rivers is likely to increase, at least globally. • Do we know the main transport processes? • Is the large majority of plastics transported in the top layer of the water column? • How much micro- and macroplastic is accumulated in deposition areas like Haringvliet? • With this knowledge plastic removal can be optimized.
  22. 22. Questions?

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