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34a. the world_of_the_1920s

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34a. the world_of_the_1920s

  2. 2. OVERVIEW Interwar period of the 1920sInterwar period of the 1920s – Saw revolutionary and authoritarian regimesSaw revolutionary and authoritarian regimes – False sense of security for democracies, westFalse sense of security for democracies, west – Resistance to European imperialismResistance to European imperialism – Golden Age for European, Western ElitesGolden Age for European, Western Elites Western EuropeWestern Europe – Recovery from World War I was incompleteRecovery from World War I was incomplete – War followed by economic disruptions, new bordersWar followed by economic disruptions, new borders – Age of artistic creativity, materialism, scientific progressAge of artistic creativity, materialism, scientific progress – Age of Pessimism, worries for some sectors of societyAge of Pessimism, worries for some sectors of society The United States and JapanThe United States and Japan – Increased their industrial strengthIncreased their industrial strength – Internal problems threatened governmentsInternal problems threatened governments Other Parts of the WorldOther Parts of the World – New revolutionary governments appeared in China, MexicoNew revolutionary governments appeared in China, Mexico – Russian Revolution in 1917 and Civil War spread around globeRussian Revolution in 1917 and Civil War spread around globe Balance SheetBalance Sheet – Parliamentary democracy spread even as new challenges arose against itParliamentary democracy spread even as new challenges arose against it – USA’s economic vitality as well as Japan's challenged Western EuropeUSA’s economic vitality as well as Japan's challenged Western Europe
  3. 3. THE ROARING 20s Period of apparent peace in early 1920s – Reduced internal political tensions in Europe – Extremist groups on the right and left • Appeared in the aftermath of World War I • Seemed to lose popularity by middle years of decade Industrialization and Consumerism – Boomed on back of growing consumer demand – Development of assembly line factories – Wages increased purchasing power – Power of middle class, middle class values rose – Facilitated rise of consumerism – Age of technological marvels: radio, airplane, auto Cultural creativity during the 1920s – Resulted in new artistic styles • These often conveyed some of the tensions of modern life • Art: Dadaism, Surrealism, Bauhaus, Cubism • Literature dealt with realism, often pessimism – Important new scientific discoveries appeared Gender Issues – Women across Europe, United States gained right to vote – Suffrage brought other social liberties.
  4. 4. LEAGUE OF NATIONSLEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations created to maintain world peaceThe League of Nations created to maintain world peace – Forty-two members, twenty-six of them outside EuropeForty-two members, twenty-six of them outside Europe – Dominated by UK, FranceDominated by UK, France – League used to isolate GermanyLeague used to isolate Germany – The league had no power to enforce its decisionsThe league had no power to enforce its decisions – League could make suggestions, impose sanctionsLeague could make suggestions, impose sanctions – Collective security depended on all major powersCollective security depended on all major powers – Powers Left OutPowers Left Out • United States never joinedUnited States never joined • USSR ignored; colonies not includedUSSR ignored; colonies not included • Germany not invited for some timeGermany not invited for some time The mandate systemThe mandate system – United States opposed direct colonizationUnited States opposed direct colonization – Allies proposed system of trusteeshipsAllies proposed system of trusteeships – France, United Kingdom benefited mostFrance, United Kingdom benefited most – Created from German colonies, Ottoman territories in S.W. AsiaCreated from German colonies, Ottoman territories in S.W. Asia Idealistic Attempts during the 1920sIdealistic Attempts during the 1920s – Attempts to disarm nations led to naval reduction treatiesAttempts to disarm nations led to naval reduction treaties – Attempt to outlaw war led to Kellogg-Briand treatyAttempt to outlaw war led to Kellogg-Briand treaty – Many nations reduced their militaries to minimal levelsMany nations reduced their militaries to minimal levels
  6. 6. FASCISM IN ITALY Authoritarianism – Use of the state’s power or authority to make changes, solve problems – Rule centralized and often arbitrary, frequently dominated by military Fascism as Ideology – Stemmed from disenchantment with liberal democracy – Rich, middle class worried by social conflict – State threatened by labor unrest, government stagnation – Nationalist resentments stemming from World War I – Goal was to seize power forcefully Italian Fascists arose in 1920s – During social protests, right-wing gangs battled communists – Some nationalists tried to seize control of Fiume – Feared rise of socialism, communism in industrial north March on Rome 1922 – Fascists under leadership of Benito Mussolini – Advocated nationalist corporate state – Wanted to end both socialism and capitalism – Marched on Rome demanding power – King gave in and named Mussolini prime minister – Mussolini began to reform Italian state, rearm
  7. 7. THE NEW NATIONS OF EASTERN EUROPE Eastern European nations – Arose out of Versailles Treaty at end of World War I – Created out of Germany, Austria, Russia – often by force – Each state was a kaleidoscope of different ethnic groups – Different legal systems, rail gauges State Building – Tried to emulate Western Europe without wealth, stability – Also had to build new nations almost from scratch – All were hostile to Communist regime in the Soviet Union – Bitter rivalries broke out over territorial disputes – Little industry, mostly agrarian – Few cities, small middle classes or intellectuals Authoritarian Temptation – Parliamentary democracy damaged by competing parties – Often major parties could not form a majority, rule by coalition – Unable to solve social problems such as land reform, ethnic strife – Most reverted to authoritarian or monarchical regimes – Only Czechoslovakia remained a democracy throughout period
  8. 8. GOVERNMENTS IN 1937
  10. 10. THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH Dominions – White-dominated colonies granted self-government – Foreign policy, defense policy, trade policies shared South Africa was first dominion in 1910 Ireland – Had revolted in 1916 during World War I – British, Irish soldiers increasingly attack civilians – Eventually British agree to partition of Ireland into South, North – North: largely Protestant was to remain within UK – South was to be called Irish Free State and become a self-governing dominion – Irish Republican Army resented compromise, switched to largely terrorist role Canada, Australia, and New Zealand – Granted dominion status after the war for roles in war – Canada • Rapid economic growth, large-scale immigration, increasingly friendly with USA – Australia • Emphasized labor legislation, economic planning; rapid immigration until 1930s Treaty of Westminster, 1931 – Britain and its dominions formed a permanent, political alliance – Britain granted self-governing dominions equality of legislation – Other dominions included Irish Free State, Newfoundland
  11. 11. RISE OF THE UNITED STATES World War IWorld War I – Put the United State into a position of leadershipPut the United State into a position of leadership – Became largest industrialized nation, largest center of bankingBecame largest industrialized nation, largest center of banking – Loaned Allies trillionsLoaned Allies trillions – Left war with 2Left war with 2ndnd largest navy in world, largest armylargest navy in world, largest army Treaty of Versailles RejectedTreaty of Versailles Rejected – Wilson and Republican Senate quarreled: Senate rejected treatyWilson and Republican Senate quarreled: Senate rejected treaty – US refused to join League of Nation, retreats into IsolationUS refused to join League of Nation, retreats into Isolation – Only in Latin America did USA remained actively interventionistOnly in Latin America did USA remained actively interventionist The Red ScareThe Red Scare – 1919 – 1920s: US Government saw communists under every rock1919 – 1920s: US Government saw communists under every rock – Ignored law and used CID (future FBI) to arrest communists (Palmer Raids)Ignored law and used CID (future FBI) to arrest communists (Palmer Raids) The Roaring 1920sThe Roaring 1920s – U.S. leadership in world economic and cultural affairs acceleratedU.S. leadership in world economic and cultural affairs accelerated – New consumerism developedNew consumerism developed • American middle class became able to afford household luxuriesAmerican middle class became able to afford household luxuries • Mass production reduced prices of most items: people began buying on creditMass production reduced prices of most items: people began buying on credit – U.S. corporations were innovators in technology and production techniquesU.S. corporations were innovators in technology and production techniques • Mass Production of appliances and automobilesMass Production of appliances and automobiles • Credit, Credit Cards, CatalogsCredit, Credit Cards, Catalogs – Greatest mark came in popular cultureGreatest mark came in popular culture • Movies and Hollywood became world-wide symbolsMovies and Hollywood became world-wide symbols • Rise of competitive, team sports and radioRise of competitive, team sports and radio • The Age of Jazz and American musicals by Gershwin were models for the worldThe Age of Jazz and American musicals by Gershwin were models for the world – Many areas of economy like agriculture, banking very shaky with hidden problemsMany areas of economy like agriculture, banking very shaky with hidden problems
  12. 12. JAPAN AND ITS EMPIRE Disappointments at Paris – Japan had wanted Germany’s Asian colonies – During war decided to pick on China – Allies had blocked Japan in its Chinese adventures Japan turned increasingly hostile – Favored authoritarian government – Began to plan for war, conquest in the interwar period An Economic Revolution led to many changes – In early 20th century, agricultural and industrial production improved – Great industrial combines (zaibatsus) launched expansion of heavy industry – Government and industry cooperated – Japanese standards of living began to improve – By 1925, the state initiated compulsory primary-school education – Japan relied heavily on import of raw materials, trade Problems for Japan Lead to Dictatorship – Japan remained vulnerable to external economic conditions – Population growth restricted advances in standards of living – Social problems increased in crowded cities – Military leaders took on a greater role in the 1920s • They resented what they saw as the selfishness and pandering of the political parties • Disliked democracy, liberalism as much as socialism, communism • Hated reduction in military spending – 1928: Tanaka Memorial – Japanese military draw up plans for Pacific War
  13. 13. REVOLUTIONS! New revolutionsNew revolutions – Challenged Western dominanceChallenged Western dominance – Offered alternatives to the Western modelOffered alternatives to the Western model Revolutions through 1939Revolutions through 1939 – Iran 1905Iran 1905 – Young Turks 1908Young Turks 1908 – Mexico 1910Mexico 1910 – China 1912China 1912 – Russia 1917 (two)Russia 1917 (two) – Wafd Revolution, Egypt 1919Wafd Revolution, Egypt 1919 – Turkey 1920sTurkey 1920s – India 1920sIndia 1920s – China 1928 – 1949China 1928 – 1949
  14. 14. MEXICO’S UPHEAVELS The Porfirato as a Cause Response to authoritarian modernization of Porfirio Diaz Economic prosperity for Mexico but at the cost of turning much of Mexico's economy over to foreigners Díaz government ruthlessly suppressed opposition: peasants, Indians, workers did not share prosperity Opposition began, in 1910 Francisco Madero decided to run against Daiz Díaz arrested his opponents, rigged election Mexico Rises in Revolt – the Revolution Begins In the north, Pancho Villa organized resistance In Morelos, Zapata rallied Indians, peasants behind the banner of land reform The rebels drove Díaz from power and replaced him with Madero The Course of the Revolution Madero's moderate program of reform proved inadequate Too much concern for elite interests, foreign concerns, Mexico City at expense of other parts of Mexico In 1913 a military coup removed Madero, who was assassinated. General Victoriano Huerta attempted to restore the dictatorship, but Villa and Zapata again rebelled Huerta fell from power in 1914 Remaining revolutionaries continued to fight among themselves over the nature of the new government Obregón was elected president in 1920 and attempted to resuscitate Mexico's economy Under Cárdenas (1934-1940) promised land reform took place as did beginning of public education The Mexican Constitution of 1917 Promised land and educational reform, limited foreign ownership of Mexican industry and resources Guaranteed rights of workers Limited the Church's ownership of land
  15. 15. THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION By Diego Rivera Mexico 1810 Fr. Hidalgo Morelos 1910: Zapata and Modern Revolutionary Leaders1910: Zapata and Modern Revolutionary Leaders Aztec Calendar Peasant Soldiers of the Revolution Peasant And Indian Obregon, Calles Yucatan, Indian Communist Leaders La Reforma Juarez Porfirato’s Modernity 1910: Zapata and Modern Revolutionary Leaders Rivera’s Marxist Ideology
  16. 16. POST-REVOLUTIONARY MEXICO Rediscovering Their Indian Heritage Primary emphasis in post-revolutionary culture was Indian heritage Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco decorated public buildings with murals Mexican Muralism heavily influenced by Cubism, European art movements Glorified the Indian past of Mexico Popular literature and music celebrated the heroes of the revolution Some revolutionary changes met with opposition The Church opposed increasing secularism within Mexican society Cristero movement of 1920s combined conservative peasants, politicians, Church Goal was to halt secularization Education became they most volatile issue and led to revolts, guerrilla movements The US and Mexico During Revolution, US supported stability and protection of American property US bombarded Veracruz for failure of Mexico to salute US Flag After Pancho Villa attacked banks in US, US sent army into Northern Mexico More important to U.S. interests was President Cárdenas's nationalization of oil companies in 1934 Despite tensions, agreements were worked out between the two nations The PRI Politically, the revolution resulted in a monopoly of power Eventually the Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (PRI) was formed Although technically a democracy, PRI dominated Mexican politics from the 1920s to the presen In the 1990s, many came to question the integrity and usefulness of the PRI. Cuauhtemoc Against the Myth
  17. 17. 1st RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Causes World War I Produced military disasters, social disruptions, economic hardships Riots began in March 1917 in St. Petersburg protesting poor conditions All groups demanded a new political regime The Rise of Soviets February 1917 Councils of workers or soviets took over the city Troops mutinied and also formed soldier and sailor soviets Unable to suppress the disorder, the tsar abdicated. The Liberal Revolution The first stage of the Russian Revolution was led by “liberals” Alexander Kerensky wanted to establish parliamentary government Government was a socialist, moderate coaltion Lack of a substantial middle class hindered democracy Unwillingness to enact land reform End World War I caused the liberal regime to lose support Allies convinced Russians to remain in the war War very unpopular with soldiers, sailors and peasants Rise of “White” Opposition: Monarchists, conservatives worked against revolution Socialists, communists organized paramilitary groups to counter white opposition
  18. 18. 2nd RUSSIAN REVOLUTION Bolshevik or Communist Revolution: November 1917 A 2nd revolution unseated the liberal government Brought Bolsheviks to power under Lenin’s leadership Lenin centralized his power in the soviets Marxism or Leninism? Marxism Society went through stages; could not skip a stage Capitalism and industrialization had to proceed socialism Rural economies and large peasant classes were not right for revolution Felt Russia was not likely to have a socialist revolution Lenin adapted Marxism to fit Russian situation Small worker, large peasants were radical to a degree Needed a small cadre of revolutionaries to formant revolution, lead masses The Communists, The Civil War, and International Politics The Bolsheviks withdrew Russia from World War I Surrendered most of Western Russia, Baltic, Finland to the Germans The Allies regarded the Bolshevik government as dangerous, Excluded them from the Versailles peace conference Carved new nations from formerly Russian lands The Civil War Follows Many Allies (UK, France, US, Japan, Poland) invaded Russia to overthrown Soviets Internally Whites (Conservatives), Greens (nationalists) fought Soviets for control Soviets won due to Red Army, Cheka (Secret Police), Red Terror, War Communism
  19. 19. THE SOVIET STATE Red Institutions The Bolshevik Party The formal name for the Communist Party Led by V. I. Lenin, organized into cells, bureaus Only members of party trusted From Red Guard to Red Army Organized under Leon Trotsky Created to further spread of revolution Later protected revolution from “white” opponents Cheka Soviet secret police Used terror, executions to reduce internal opposition War Communism Soviets forcibly requisition food, supplies to support Red Army Demanded all people support revolution under threat of death The Soviet State First elections held returned a parliament The Social Revolutionary party not the Bolsheviks held a majority Lenin shut down the parliament and replaced it with a Congress of Soviets Established a Bolshevik monopoly on political action The Communist party controlled Soviet politics until 1989 The Communist party dominated all political, intellectual, social organs Membership in party was criterion for advancement
  20. 20. STABILIZATION OF THE REGIME The Russian Civil War Officially lasted from 1918 to 1923 Russia’s neighbors invaded at one time or another Enemies largely defeated by weather, bad morale Soviets were better organization of Reds, used terror New Economic Policy (NEP) War Communism unpopular, cost production and support for Soviets 1921 Lenin abandoned war communism and moved to NEP NEP restored some capitalism for small farmer, small businesses Reduced resistance to Communist rule and increased food supplies the New Economic Policy reduced resistance to Communist rule. The New Constitution In 1923, a new constitution established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Ethnic republics had local self-rule but this was largely a sham National state dominated by ethnic Russians; national state strongly centralized Communist Party of USSR (CPSU) dominated by ethnic Russians CPSU dominates republics and USSR Universal suffrage elected the Supreme Soviet But only Communist party members were allowed to stand for office The parliament simply ratified decisions reached in the party's executive committees
  21. 21. SOVIET EXPERIMENTATION New Institutions – CPSU encouraged associations to create a “Soviet” society – Many Soviet citizens gained a voice in new organizations – The rapid spread of literacy fostered creativity – Artist, Literary Societies flourished – Gave government tools for reshaping culture A Power Struggle – Lenin died in 1924: power struggle ensued for control • Lenin preferred Trotsky – But as a “Jew” most Russians distrusted him – Many Russians distrusted influence of Red Army and a Red Napoleon • Joseph Stalin emerged as Lenin's successor – Stalin dominated Ministry of Nationalities, local communist parties – Became General Secretary of the Communist Party – Used divide and conquer tactics to discredit opposition – Socialism in One Country • Stalin devoted to national development as way for USSR to survive • International Communism was secondary to Soviet or Russian needs • In some ways Stalin was a Slavophile who rejected Westernization (Marxism) – Industrialization • Russia needed heavy industry to resist western encroachment • Problem: Russia was largely a peasant country • Stalin forcibly industrialized by destroying peasantry • Collectivized agriculture to free up labor, capital for industry
  22. 22. TOWARD REVOLUTION IN CHINA 1911 Revolution Revolutionaries were Western educated elite Revolutionaries were anti-Qing, modernizers, who idealized Japan First revolts were by military units which spread The abdication of the Qing emperor in 1912 began long struggle Each group had a different idea of what was the ideal government Warlords Initially, regional warlords dominated Chinese politics. Alliances of warlords called cliques Yuan Shikai wished to establish a new imperial dynasty Power of the warlords partially offset by merchants, bankers in Westernized cities University Students and Secret Societies Chinese universities provided the theoretical foundation for political reconstruction Secret societies plotted to restore the empire under a Chinese ruler The Foreign Situation The situation was complicated by foreign intervention in China Japan and European nations had divided China into imperial zones of influence From the 1890s to 1945, the most dangerous of the foreign interlopers was Japan Japan physically tried to annex parts of China during World War I
  24. 24. MAY 4TH MOVEMENT AS AFTERWARDSSun Yat-sen Educated in Hawaii as a Doctor Japanese example appealed to him Headed Revolutionary Alliance that overthrew Qing Claimed the right to establish a government, but lacked power to form one Elected president in 1911 but the warlords continued to dominate China In 1912 resigned presidency in favor of leading warlord, Yuan Shikai. Yuan tried to establish new dynasty: Sun Yat-sen called for second revolution Yuan Shikai's plans were interrupted by Japanese intervention in China 21 Demands Japan presented China with Twenty-One Demands: Yuan Shikai overthrown The Japanese seized much of northern China and warlords did little May 4 1919 Movement Massive demonstrations by students, nationalist politicians Public outrage was channeled into the May Fourth movement Purpose of which was to create a liberal democracy in China. Called for abandonment of Confucianism in favor of Western ideals. Links to Communism Failure of May 4, 1919 Movement Led to rise of the Communists Russian Revolution seemed to serve as a model for possible reform in China Marxist discussion groups founded in the universities and the coastal cities. CP China formed in 1921 in Shanghai
  25. 25. KMT OR NATIONALISTS SEIZE POWER Guomindang Sun Yat-sen attempted to revitalize reform movement Created the Nationalist Party of China (Guomindang) Nationalists militarized in order to drive out warlords Sun Yat-sen enunciated a broad program of reform Nationalists strongest among commercial groups in coastal cities. Also formed an alliance with the Communist party in 1924 Nationalists received advisors and material assistance from the USSR Rise of Chiang Kai-shek The Wampoa Military Academy turned out military, civilian elite Commandant was Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek became a close associate of Sun Yat-sen Took Sun’s place in 1925 when Sun died China Deteriorates Warlords divide China into spheres of influence In South: Nationalists were engaged in political, military organization Chaotic economic situation in the countryside worsened Failure to address peasant issues was severe setback for Nationalists
  26. 26. MAO AND THE PEASANT PROBLEM China and Marxism Marxism said A communist revolution had to occur after industrialization Marxism felt peasants were too anti-revolutionary to be useful China had no industry, too few modern cities, and too many peasants Russia had made revolution with weak industry led by elite party Enter Mao Zedong Came from a peasant background But soon joined the revolutionary and nationalist movement in China Heavily influenced by the Marxist thinkers in Beijing Began to see the peasants as the key to a successful revolution The Nationalist Campaign Chiang Kai-shek began to expand the territory controlled by the Nationalists He seized Shanghai in 1927; by 1928 captured Beijing Chiang Kai-shek was simply the most influential warlord Chiang ruthlessly eliminated his political rivals Chiang initiated brutal crackdown on Communists in 1928 with ok of USSR Long March Mao to lead 90,000 of his followers in a retreat known as the Long March Moved entire base of revolution to Yennan Province Created a state within a state
  28. 28. VOCABULARY Consumerism Cubism Dominions Fascism Authoritarianism Syndicalism Mexican Revolution Mexican Constitution of 1917 Mexican Muralism Cristeros P.R.I Russian Revolutions Red Army New Economic Policy (NEP) U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet Politburo Socialism in One Country COMINTERN Collectivization Warlords May 4th Movement Guomindang Whampoa Military Academy Long March Yennan Way
  29. 29. IDENTIFICATIONS Pablo Picasso Benito Mussolini Porfirio Diaz Francisco Madero Pancho Villa Victoriano Huerta Alvaro Obregon Diego Rivera Jose Clemente Orozco Alexander Kerensky V. I. Lenin Joseph Stalin Mao Tse Dung Li Dazhao Yuan Shi kai Sun Yat sen Chiang Kai-shek