● Early Africans were Hunter-Gatherers.
o They moved from place to place to hunt and gather
● Began to herd livestock.
● As African climate became drier the people migrated
South to more fertile areas.
● Around 3000 BC a people called the Bantu
began a migration south and west.
○ Migration from what is modern day Nigeria.
○ Lasted several thousand years.
● Bantu shared a common language, culture, & technology.
● Millions of Africans: SOTS still speak Bantu languages
● Developed in 800 BCE along the Nile in present
● Grew wealthy from trade and ironworking
● Traded as far away as Egypt and Southwest Asia
o Iron products
● 1100 years after its rise Kush fell to the neighboring kingdom of Axum
● Lies in what is now Ethiopia
● Was prosperous from trade within Africa and
● In 300 CE King Ezna Made Christianity the official
religion of Axum
● Though Arab muslims gained control of the area
in the 600s Axum remained the center of Christianity
*It is claimed by Orthodox Christians of Ethiopia that the Ark of the
Covenant lies within a chapel in the city of Aksum
● West African trading empire
● Flourished between 800 BCE - 1000 BCE
● Controlled trade between the Sahara & West Africa
o Salt & Cloth traded for Gold & Ivory
● Ghana became very wealthy by taxing the trade
● Collapsed in the 1000s when invaders from the North
● Mali Empire included Timbuktu, Ghana and Mali.
● Mansa Musa was ruler of Mali Empire.
o Gained his wealth through Mali’s supply of salt and gold,
which was the main source for most of the world during
o Educated his countries during his rule, which helped
them to maintain sufficiency beyond his years.
o Devout Muslim
o Timbuktu was center of trade, education and Islamic culture
● Mali fell to the Songhai in the 1400s
*In 2012 it was found that Mansa
Musa was the richest man of all time
with a net worth of $400 Billion dollars
● In the 1400s and 1500s Europeans began trading
● The arrival of Europeans in Africa: SOTS drastically
changed the region.
● The Portuguese set up trading posts along the West coast of Africa
● In 1518, English traders began sailing south along the Atlantic coast of Africa,
seeking gold, ivory, camwood, pepper and wax.
● The French arrived along Africa's Atlantic coast not long after the English,
hoping to trade textiles, alcoholic drink and metal goods for pepper, hides,
palm oil, gold and ivory.
● Europeans did not introduce slavery to Africa but
benefited from it.
● African rulers enslaved and traded prisoners
● Arab traders brought slaves to the Islamic world
in the 800s.
● Slave trading greatly increased when Europeans started shipping slaves to the
o Between 1500 and 1800 nearly 12 million Africans were shipped to the
o By 1800 many Europeans turned against slavery, thus the slave trade
eventually died out.
● Though the slave trade may have ceased the Europeans
kept a foothold in Africa: SOTS.
● In the late 1800s France, Germany, and Britain staked
● claims to region to extract its natural resources.
o These countries created colonies.
o By 1914 nearly the whole region fell under European control
● On the positive side railroads were built, farming was
improved, and some Africans received education and medical care.
● On the negative side the region remained mainly underdeveloped and
Africans had fewer rights and economic opportunities than the Europeans
living in Africa.
● In the early 1900s those Africans who had been
educated began to exhibit a desire for African
Nationalism. (A people’s desire to rule themselves)
● This feeling spread throughout the continent especially
● During WWII the European powers weakened as a result
of the war.
● As a result independence movements flourished.
● In the period from the early 1950s through the late 1960s most African
territories became independent.
*After independence many countries kept their old colonial borders which led to
violence and many of these new countries suffered civil wars. Rwanda, Sudan,
Nigeria and the DRC are just a few of these countries.
● In South Africa, white South Africans strengthened their rule
through a system known as apartheid.
● Apartheid a.k.a. “apartness” was designed to separate ethnic
groups and restrict the rights of black people.
o They were forced to live in areas called homelands
o Did not have the right to vote
● Many black leaders such as Nelson Mandela were jailed for speaking out.
● The United Nations condemned Apartheid.
● Many countries cut off trade with South Africa.
o The pressure from within and outside of South Africa ended apartheid
in the early 1990s and Nelson Mandela was released from prison.
● In 1994 the country held its first election in which all people could vote and
Mandela was elected the country's first black president.