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Africa powerpoint


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Africa powerpoint

  1. 1. chapter 6<br />pages 167-173<br />Africa<br />
  2. 2. Topography:<br /><ul><li>Much of Africa is a large plateau, but its mountains, deserts, grassy flatlands, and jungles give it beauty</li></ul>Geography:<br /><ul><li>Africa is the second largest continent
  3. 3. Covers nearly 1/5 of the earth’s land surface
  4. 4. Nearly 4 times the size of the US</li></ul>History:<br /><ul><li>The Egyptians established the earliest recorded civilization in Africa
  5. 5. Carthage built a thriving civilization in North Africa
  6. 6. After the collapse of Rome, Muslims brought the region under Islamic domination</li></li></ul><li>A. Ancient African Civilization<br />Earliest kingdom in northeastern Africa was Kush<br /> The capital of Kush was Meroë<br /> Kush grew in power and by 700 B.C. had overthrown Egyptian rule and conquered all of Egypt and established its own dynasty of pharaohs<br /> The Assyrians drove out the Kushites about 660 B.C., but the Kushite kingdom continued for almost 1000 years longer<br />2. Aksum eventually conquered Kush in 330 A.D. <br />a. Aksum embraced Christianity<br />b. The kingdom’s conversion to Christianity was the work of Frumentius who was a Syrian Christian<br />3. Askum became the center of the modern state of Ethiopia.<br />
  7. 7. B. Central and Western Africa<br />1. Knowledge of the civilizations in central and western Africa is a bit vague because histories were passed down orally instead of being written down<br />a. Oral tradition, archaeology, and some accounts written by non-Africans give some picture of these cultures<br />Kingdon of Kanem-Bornu thrived on the shores of Lake Chad<br />a. It had profit from the camel caravan trade and it built a strong military force<br />b. Kanem-Bornu lasted 1,000 years because of the trade and military<br />
  8. 8. There were 3 important kingdoms of western Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai (each was larger than the previous)<br />a. All 3 built prosperous societies whose wealth derived from the gold mines within their empires and the camel trade of gold, silver, and precious items<br />b. The Niger River provided a base for these empires because its waters drew travelers crossing the Sahara<br />Kingdom of Ghana was 1st in prominence-Its peak was from 700-1200 A.D. <br />a. Muslims attacked in the 11th century and weakened Ghana but were unable to conquer the region<br />b. The kingdom of Mali rose in Ghana’s place, dominating from 1200-1500<br />5. Most famous ruler was Mansa Musa<br />a. Musa was Muslim and in his pilgrimage to Mecca was great<br />b. He took, in his traveling group, 60,000+ men and 10,000lbs+ gold<br />c. Mansa’s capital, Timbuktu became the most important trade center<br />
  9. 9. d. People also paid a price for Musa’s leadership-the king was supposed to be superior to commoners and he was but he often spoke to his court behind a curtain and no one could watch him eat<br />e. This emphasis on perfection meant that if he fell ill or became infirm with age, he was expected to commit suicide or be smothered<br />6. In the 15th century, Songhai Empire overthrew Mali Empire<br />7. An invasion by the Moroccans in 1591 brought an end to Songhai and an end to the western African empires<br />
  10. 10. 1. Each independent city-state had its own trading port<br />2. The ports continued to flourish as outlets for gold, iron, ivory, and animal skins to Arabs and Persians<br />3. Kilwa was a prosperous city-state that received goods from the tribes and kingdoms in the interior and sold them to Arab sea traders<br />4. The city-states grew wealthy and cultured because of their seaside locations<br />5. City-states shared a common culture-a mixture of Arab, Persian, and African<br />a. Architecture was Arab and language of city-states was Swahili with elements of Arabic, Persian, and Indian<br />6. City-states enjoyed centuries of prosperity but after 1500, they were crushed by the Europeans<br />C. East African City-States<br />
  11. 11. D. Forest Kingdoms<br />The kingdoms provided the goods for the eastern city-states to sell<br />The best known kingdoms are those with which the Europeans came into contact with after the Middle Ages<br />Kingdom of Benin was important<br />a. It appeared around 1300 and lasted until the 19th century<br />b. Benin was more than a trade center-it produced fine statues and relief sculptures in bronze and had great artistic accomplishments in metalworking<br />
  12. 12. E. African Culture<br />Daily life was focused on smaller social organizations<br />Family was the most basic<br />a. Polygamy was common so families were larger and more complex than European ones<br />b. Several families could trace their decent back to a common ancestor and they formed a clan from this knowledge (2 or more clans formed a tribe)<br />c. The tribe may have been the most important cultural organization<br />d. Many African kingdoms were dominated by one ethnic group<br />
  13. 13. 3. Religious beliefs in Africa were diverse<br />a. African churches declined into superstition and formalism<br />b. Islam had a great number of followers<br />c. The majority of the people kept to traditional tribal religions<br />d. The tribal religions taught that there was a high god who created the universe and there were lesser gods and ancestor’s spirits below<br />e. People offered sacrifices to these gods to fend off illnesses and increase crop yields (sometimes, even humans were sacrificed<br />Most Africans relied on farming or herding to provide for their families, but trade was the basis of the kingdoms<br />Slave trade became big because the demand increased much after the Middle Ages<br />a. The main point of contact for African-European relations after 1500 was slave trade<br />b. This traffic of human lives led to suffering and exploitation for the Africans<br />
  14. 14. Kingdoms displayed a level of complexity and organization that compared well with the civilizations in Europe and Asia<br />Most Africans remained in spiritual darkness, like the Asians<br />
  15. 15. Game: Are you smarter than a 5th grader<br />Teams:???<br />Crossword Puzzle: who’s the fastest??<br />Food during crossword puzzle completion<br />