One Reason Comes FromAfrican-American Historian Dr. John Henrik Clarke.
Dr. Clarke on Cultural History:• "History is a clock people use to tell their Historical Culture and Political Time of the Day…A Compass people use to find themselves on the Map of Human Geography. [It] tells them where they have been, where they are and what they are…Most importantly History tells a people where they still must go and what they still must be."
Another Reason Comes From El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
Malcolm X on Geo-History:• “Of All Our Studies History is best able to Reward Our Research...History is a People’s Memory... Without a memory Man is demoted to the Lower Animals.”
Why Study African-Arabian Geo-History?• 1. It is in the Region of East Africa that the “Cradle of Humanity” can be found.• 2. It was in Northeast Africa that the World High Culture [Civilization] began.• 3. It was in North Africa & Arabia that the World’s three Dominant Faiths began.• 4. It is in the North Africa & Arabia that the major World Energy Resource [Oil] is found.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 1. The Sahara, the largest desert in the world, is located in Northern Africa. It is used by Geographers to divide the continent of Africa into North Africa [the area North of the Sahara] and sub-Saharan Africa [the area South of the Sahara].
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 2. People have lived in present-day Algeria for over 40,000 years.• 3. Most of the people in North Africa live along the Mediterranean coast.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 4. The Nile River, the longest river in the world, is located in Africa and flows from the south to the north.• 5. North Africa and Southwest Asia have 130 million more people than the United States.
GEOGRAPHY MATH PROBLEM • 1. How many people live in North Africa and Southwest Asia, if there are 300 million people in the United States and North Africa and Southwest Asia has 130 million more people than the United States?
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 6. The Dead Sea is the earth’s saltiest body of water-about nine times saltier than oceans. It is also the lowest point on the earth’s surface 400 m below sea level.• 7. The Arabian Peninsula supplies the world with one third of all oil produced in the world.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA • 8. Saudi Arabia leads the world in producing freshwater from salt water. Its 22 desalinization plants produce 30 percent of all desalinated water in the world.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA • 9. Most of the usable water in Southwest Asia and North Africa comes from aquifers and from three river basins: the Jordan, the Tigris-Euphrates, and the Nile. Drought, industrialization, irrigation needs, and population increases-all strain the limited water supply.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 10. The country of Mali in West Africa was home to three great Medieval Commercial Empires: Ghana, Mali and Songhai, that existed from 500 C.E. to 1617 C.E.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 11A. African Americans are the descendants of over 100 West African ethnic groups who were enslaved during the European Slave Trade from 1444 C.E. to 1888 C.E.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 12. Liberia is Africa’s oldest republic. It was settled by African Americans freed from slavery in the 1820s.• 13. In Sudan, African blacks are a majority and live in the south; Arab Muslims are a minority and live in the north and central region.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA • 14. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous nation. Pop. 130 million. • 15. Africa south of the Sahara has about 355 million more people than the United States.
GEOGRAPHY MATH PROBLEM• 1. How many people live in sub-Saharan Africa, if there are 300 million people in the United States and sub- Saharan Africa has 355 million more people than the United States?
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 16. 90% of Africa lies within the Tropics, giving Africa the largest tropical area of any other continent.• 17. Lesotho is called the “Switzerland of southern Africa” because of the majestic scenery in the Drakensberg and Maloti mountains.
FACTS ABOUT AFRICA & ARABIA• 18. The Natural Resources of Africa and Arabia include: Diamonds, Gold, Copper, Uranium, Manganese, Cobalt, Zinc, Natural Gas, Iron Ore, Lead, Petroleum, and Phosphate.
Humanity: African Origins• All members of the human family come from sub-Saharan Africa. Primarily from the region of the Sudan, Ethiopia, Eastern and Southern Africa. Thus, Africa was known in ancient times as Al-Kebu- Lan or Af-Rui-Ka [Birthplace, Birth of the Spirit, Place of Beginnings.]
Humanity: African Origins• Therefore, the first man & woman [womb-man or man with a womb] were Africans. Today, they would be called Black Africans, Negro or simply Black. [Ivan Van Sertima, Blacks in Science Ancient & Modern]
Humanity: African Origins• Oldest specimens of Humanity found in the following African Countries: • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania • South Africa • Kenya • Ethiopia • Algeria
How Do We Know This?• Facts about the African Origin of Humanity were obtained by European, Asian and American, African-American and African Scientists who were experts in the Sciences of Archaeology, Paleontology and Physical/Cultural Anthropology.
What is Archaeology?• Archaeology: the study of extinct human societies using the material remains of their behavior. The objectives of archaeology are to construct culture history, reconstruct past ways of life, and study cultural change over time.
What is Physical Anthropology?• Physical Anthropology: the study of the biological nature and evolution of humanity. Also called, Biological Anthropology. [Anthropology: the study of the biological and cultural characteristics of all people in all periods of time and all areas.]
What is Cultural Anthropology?• Cultural Anthropology: the study of human behavior that is learned and is typical of a particular human group.
What is Paleontology?• Paleontology: the scientific study of fossils. Fossils found by paleontologists are used by paleoanthropologists. [Paleoanthropology is the study of fossils and artifacts in the context in which they are found.]
Humanity: African Origins• The European Paleontologists who made the discoveries across the continent of Africa from 1924 to 1992 were: • Dr. Raymond Dart • Dr. Robert Broom • Dr. Louis & Mary Leakey • Dr. Donald Johnson
Humanity: African Origins• In the Tuesday, October 30, 1984 Science Section of the New York Times newspaper, John Wilford states that Dr. Louis & Mary Leakey by unearthing the oldest human remains anywhere in the world, in Tanzania proved beyond doubt the AFRICAN ORIGINS OF MANKIND.
Historian, Sir Godfrey Higgins on Humanities Origins:• “Man was originally a Negro…and he traveled Westwards, gradually changing from the jet black of India, through all the intermediate shades of Syria, Italy, France to the fair white and red of the maid of Holland and Britain.”
Dr. Leonard Jeffries, Jr. on Humanities Origins:• “Humanity born at the latitude of the Great Lakes near the Equator is by necessity pigmented and African. This is substantiated by Gloger’s Law which states that warm-blooded animals are pigmented in hot and humid climates.”
What is theLatitude/Longitude of the Great Lakes Region of Africa? [10 Points]
J.A. Rogers, U.S. Historian on Humanities Origins:• “Herodotus [Ancient Greek Historian] said in 447 B.C. that the people of all that region of Mesopotamia and India were Black. He called them Ethiopians. Moreover, tropical man is never white. He is most often black or dark brown, with flat nose, frizzy or woolly hair, and protruding jaws.”
Herodotus on Humanities Origins:• Herodotus, a Greek Historian, writing in 447 B.C. stated that the “PEOPLE OF ALL THE REGION OF MESOPOTAMIA [ARABIA, SOUTHWEST ASIA], INDIA & EGYPT [AFRICA] WERE BLACK.” The Greek word that he used to describe them was Aethiops: ethiopians, or black skinned.
J.A. Rogers, U.S. Historian on Humanities Origins:• “ Thus, when the Christians chose Adam as their ancestor, they really chose a dark-skinned progenitor for the human race, even though the early Christians of Europe knowing no better represented Adam in their paintings as white.” [What They Never Told You In History Class]
Dr. Ashely Montagu on Humanities Origins:• “ All races are issued [born from or fathered by] from the African race by direct relationships [an example would be the relationship of a child to it’s parents], and other continents were peopled [settled by people] from Africa.” [Man:His First Two Million Years: A Brief Introduction to Anthropology]
Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop, Seneglese Scholar, on Humanities Origins:• “ If mankind originated in Africa, it was necessarily Negroid [Black] before becoming white through mutation and adaptation at the end of the last glaciation [Ice Age] in Europe…it is now more understandable why the Grimaldi Negroid first occupied Europe for 10,000 years before Cro-Magnon man- The prototype of the white race—appeared (around 2000 B.C. to 1500 B.C.)”
Griffith Taylor on Humanities Origins: • Writing in 1936 on early man in Europe, Griffith Taylor stated that Blacks were the first in Europe and introduced their culture all over the world. [Environment and Nation]
Professor John G. Jackson, on Humanities Origins:• “Since there is overwhelming evidence that the human race originated in Africa, then all mankind has an African ancestry. Hence, all men must be Negroes [Blacks or Africans].”
Paul, The Apostle of the Christian Faith on Humanities Origins:• “And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;” [Acts 17:26 KJV - Book of Acts Chapter 17, Verse 26, King James Version]
Mono-genesis: One common Origin [Types of Early Humanity]• Australopithecus: “Southern Man or Man from the South.” Australopithecus lived in the humid forests of eastern and southern Africa, 4.4 million years ago.
Mono-genesis: One common Origin [Types of Early Humanity]• Homo Habilis: “Man with ability”. Homo Habilis lived in Africa about 1.5 million years ago.• Homo Erectus: “Man who walks upright”. Homo Erectus lived in Africa about 300,000 years ago.
Mono-genesis: One common Origin [Types of Early Humanity]• Homo Sapiens: “Man who thinks”. Homo Sapiens lived in Africa about 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. The first Homo Sapiens were the Neanderthals. The Neanderthals migrated from Africa into Europe about 100,000 years ago.
Mono-genesis: One common Origin [Types of Early Humanity]• Homo Sapiens Sapiens: “Man who thinks deeply”. Homo Sapiens Sapiens originated in Africa about 50,000 years ago. They Migrated from Africa into Europe, where they are called Cro-Magnon man, and into Russia, China, Southeast Asia, and the Americas.
Human Progenitors• Earliest Ancestor: Dinqesh- (Lucy) 3.2 million-year-old hominid ancestor of humanity found in Olduvai Gorge in Kenya in East Africa.• Earliest Human Ancestor: Homo Sapien African Eve- lived between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago.
Methods of Proof• DNA [DeoxyRibonucleic Acid]- Human Genetic Code [the data for human development is located in DNA] that contains cellular information [for building proteins] and controls heredity [inherited characteristics].
Methods of Proof• Radiocarbon Dating: Scientific method for telling the age of once living material by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon remaining in it. Because radiocarbon decays at a known rate, archaeologists can measure how much the radioactive carbon has decayed in organic remains and figure out when plants and animals died.
How Did Mankind Change?• Genetic Differentiation: Changes occurring in human genes, by mutation and or adaptation to the climate of the human living environment.
How Did Mankind Change?• Mutation is the act or process of changing, sometimes a sudden departure from the parent type [original], as when and individual or race differs in one or more characteristics, caused by a change in genes or chromosomes.
How Did Mankind Change?• Following the migration of Homo Sapien Sapien from Africa to Europe and Asia, the climates of Europe and Asia changed as a result of the glaciation of Europe. This change in climate led to changes the genetic make up of the early man in this region. An example is the Grimaldi of Europe.
How Did Mankind Change?• The Grimalidi, an African or Black people, who first settled in Europe about 30,000 years ago and named after the place in France where their fossil remains are located, adapted to the cooler climate of Europe brought about by the last Ice Age. Which resulted in a decrease in the amount of pigment in their skins.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 1. The continent of Africa is home to several of the worlds oldest culture hearths and civilizations. A culture hearth is the source area or place of origin of a major culture.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 2. The physical geography of Africa is dominated by the continent’s plateau character, variable rainfall, soils of low fertility, and persistent environmental problems in farming.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 3. The majority of Africa’s peoples remain dependent on farming for their livelihood. Urbanization is accelerating, but most countries’ populations remain below 40 % urban.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 4. The people of Africa continue to face a high incidence of disease, including AIDS, diphtheria, malaria, sleeping sickness, and river blindness.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 5. Most of Africa’s political boundaries were drawn during the colonial period without regard for the human and physical geography of the areas they divided. This has caused numerous problems.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 6. Considerable economic development has occurred in many scattered areas of Africa, but much of the realm’s population continues to have little access to the goods and services of the world economy.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 7. The realm is rich in raw materials vital to industrialized countries. Examples are Colombo-Tantalite, Oil, Gold, and Diamonds.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 8. Patterns of raw-material exploitation and export routes set up during the colonial period still prevail in most of sub- Saharan Africa. Interregional connections are poor.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 9. Africa has increasingly been drawn into the competition and conflict between the world’s major powers. The continent contains about one-third of the world’s refugee population.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 10. Africa’s population growth rate is by far the highest of any continents in spite of a difficult agricultural environment, numerous hazards and diseases, and periodic food shortages. Some of the best land is used to produce such cash crops as coffee, tea, cocoa, and cotton for sale overseas.
ELEVEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF AFRICA• 11. Even though post- independence dislocations, civil wars, and massive losses of life have plagued some parts of Africa, other areas have shown relative stability, cohesion, and economic growth.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 1. Arabia and the rest of Southwest Asia contains several of the world’s great ancient culture hearths and civilizations.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 2. This realm along with Africa is the source of several world religions, including Islam, Christianity and Judaism.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 3. Arabia, Southwest Asia and North Africa is predominantly Muslim. That faith pervades cultures from Morocco in the west to Afghanistan in the east.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 4. North Africa, Southwest Asia and Arabia is also known as the “Arab World” but significant populations there are not of Arab ancestry.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 5. The population of North Africa, Arabia and Southwest Asia is widely dispersed in discontinuous clusters.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 6. Natural environments in this area are dominated by drought and unreliable precipitation. Population concentrations occur where the water supply is adequate to marginal.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 7. The realm is a pivotal area in the “Middle East,” where Arabian, North African and Asian regions intersect.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 8. North Africa/Southwest Asia and Arabia is a realm of intense discord and bitter conflict, reflected by frequent territorial disputes and boundary frictions.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 9. The collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union: 1917 - 1991) and the revival of Islam in Turkestan have extended the Arab realm into central Asia.
TEN MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF ARABIA• 10. Enormous reserves of petroleum lie beneath certain portions of the realm, bringing wealth to those favored places. But overall, oil revenues have raised the living standards of only a small minority of the total population.
VIITHE GOLDEN AGE OFAFRICAN & ARABIAN HIGH CULTURE36, 525 B.C.E. - 332 C.E.
8000 B.C.E. - 4000 B.C.E.• The Nubian Civilization begins. Africans develop agriculture and construction techniques and technology, weapons of war and pottery. Nubians develop the concept of monarchy. Monarchy is a form of government whereby one person is chosen to rule. In the African context he rules with the aid of a Council of Elders.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• The Egyptians called themselves Khemetiu or descendants of Khem [Hebrew: Cham/Ham]. They called their country Kemet, the “Black Land” referring to the soil and “Land of the Blacks” referring to the people.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• According to the Holy Bible and the Koran, Khem was one of three sons of the Ante-Diluvian Patriarch Noah. Kham’s sons were: • Kush: Nubia, Ethiopia • Mizraim: Egypt • Phut: Libya, Cyrenacia • Kanaan: Canaanites, Phoencians
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Sons of Japheth: • Gomer: Cimmerians • Magog: Europeans • Madai: Medians • Javan: Grecians • Tubal/Meschech: Russians • Tiras: Thracians • Ashkenaz: Germans
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Son’s of Shem: • Elam: Persians • Asshur: Assyrians • Lud: Lydians • Aram: Syrians
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• The Greek Historian Herodotus, the Roman Historian Tacitus, Sir Arthur Keith, M. Fishberg, Gerald Massey wrote that due to centuries of miscegenation [ethnic group intermarriage]the descendants of Kham and Shem became ONE PEOPLE.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• The Khemetiu Priests wrote The Old Chronicle, a history of their nation, which contained 113 Dynasties covering 36,525 years. It contained three Dynastic Periods: • 1. Auri-tae • 2. Mestraean • 3. Egyptian
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• 1. Auri-Tae • They were the Primordial Race, the first men, the Africans, the Joudhour (Root) & first Divine Rulers of the Egyptians. • They were from the “Mountain of the Moon”-Kilimanjaro. • They discoursed [talked] with the Son’s of God.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• 2. Mestreans • They were the people of the Asswan, the Nubian of Khartoum in the modern Sudan. They were the founders of the next Khemetic Dynasty. Considered to be Semi-Divine Rulers.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• 3. Egyptians • They were the indigenous Khemetiu. They established self- government and in 10,000 B.C. limited Asian invasions to the Nile Delta area. Under the leadership of the Southern Egyptian Aha-Menes the Line of the Pharoahs in Kemet began.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• The Civilization of Ancient Egypt began far to the South of Egypt in Nubia. The founders of the Ancient Kushite Empire to the South of Egypt for thousands of years dominated the Egyptians, the Akkadians, the Babylonians and the Assyrians.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• These people known to the Ancients as “The Blameless Ethiopians” were held by the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians as “The Most Ancient of Men” and Kush was viewed as “The Ancestral Seat of Egypt”.
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Diodorus Siculus [Greek Historian writing in 100 B.C.]: “The Ethiopians consider themselves as the most ancient people of the earth, and assert that they began philosophy, science & religion.”
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Herodotus [Greek Historian]: “The Ethiopians are said to be the Tallest, Handsomest, and Longest lived of all Humanity.” [Histories: Book III]
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Isaiah, Israeli Prophet [734 B.C.]: “…The Land of Ethiopia...at the headwaters of the Nile…The time will come when the Lord Almighty will receive gifts from this land… from this Tall, Smooth-Skinned People, who are FEARED FAR AND WIDE FOR THEIR CONQUESTS AND DESTRUCTION.” [Isaiah 18]
ANCIENT EGYPT [KEMET]• Count C.F. Volney [Ruins of Empire, 1789]: “A people now forgotten discovered science and art, while others slept. A race of men now rejected for their BLACK SKIN AND WOOLY HAIR, founded the laws of nature, religious & civil systems which still govern the universe.”
EGYPT & RELIGION• The Gods of Antiquity from Greece to Mexico were MEN & WOMEN OF EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA. Examples: • Zeus of Greece • Apollo of Greece • Buddha & Krishna of India • Quetzalcoatl of Mexico • Zaha of Japan
EGYPT & RELIGION• Godfrey Higgins : “…All the gods and goddesses of Greece were [African men and women]…Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Apollo, Ammon ...Venus, Isis, Hecati, Juno, Metis, Ceres, Cybele were [Africans] …[worshiped] in Rome.”
EGYPT & RELIGION• J.A. Rogers : “Blacks were first worshipped in Greece & Rome. White masses bowed down to Black Deities…They appear as gods in Greek mythology. The chief title of Zeus…was Ethiops, that is the Black.” [Nature Knows No Color Line]
EGYPT & RELIGION• Dr. Martin Bernal : “The Greeks & Romans believed that their religion came from Egypt, and they turned to Egyptian religion up until about 100 A.D.” [Black Athena]
THREE PILLARS OF JUDAISM• 1. ONE WAS BORN OF THE SEED OF ABRAHAM BY THROUGH HIS FIRST BORN SON ISAAC.
THREE PILLARS OF JUDAISM• 2. ONE WAS CIRCUMCISED ACCORDING TO THE LAW OF YAHWEH.
THREE PILLARS OF JUDAISM• 3. ONE OBSERVES THE COMMANDMENTS OF GOD AS CONTAINED IN THE LAW OF MOSES.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Judaism is a religion associated with the people of Israel, which dates back nearly 3000 years.• Other names of Israel: Judah, Judean, Hebrew, Jew, Jewish.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Abraham & The Covenant with God: After a visit from God, Abraham leaves his home in Ur of the Chaldees in Mesopotamia and journeys to Canaan.• Birth of Ishmael and Isaac: Ishmael’s mother was Hagar the Egyptian. Isaac’s mother was Abraham’s half-sister, Sarah.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Isaac & the Abrahamic Covenant: Isaac marries his cousin Rebbeca and fathers two fraternal twin sons: Esau and Jacob.• In Isaac’s old age, Jacob tricks Esau out of the firstborn’s Birthright and then out of the firstborn’s Blessing.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Jacob is sent by Rebecca to live with his Uncle Laban. On his way there, he is visited by God and told that he will be protected. Jacob then covenants with God to give him a tenth of all he receives in answer to his blessing.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• When Jacob reaches Labans place, he meets and becomes enamored with Rachel. He contracts with Laban to work for seven years to receive Rachel’s hand in marriage.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Laban, however, at the end of the seven years give him his older daughter Leah instead, since it is the custom that the younger daughter cannot marry before the older.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Jacob then contracts to work another seven years to receive Rachel as his wife [She must have been some woman.] At the end of the seven years he and Rachel are married.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Eventually, Jacob leaves and returns to Canaan to make peace with Esau and to see his parents. The night before he is to meet Esau, he wrestles until dawn with a man until the man agrees to bless him.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• The man tells him that his name shall no more be Jacob, but he shall now be Israel: “for as a prince have you power with God and with men, and have prevailed.” Jacob then asks him what is his name and the man does not answer. It is then that Jacob realizes that he has just seen God face to face and lived.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Jacob/Israel then makes peace with Esau and sees Isaac before he dies. In time he fathers twelve sons of his own. His favorite is his ninth son Joseph.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• Joseph’s brothers out of jealously sell him into slavery in Egypt. In a matter of years he goes from being a slave and prison trustee to Prime Minister of Egypt. Following his rise he sees his family again makes peace with his brothers and they all move to Egypt.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• 400 years later, the descendants of Joseph and his eleven brothers are enslaved in Egypt. God raises up Moses, a Hebrew who has been raised in Pharaohs house, to lead them to freedom.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• After leading Hebrews out of Egypt, Moses gives them the Law of God. The central part of the Law of God is the Ten Commandments, which bear a striking resemblance to the Egyptian 42 Negative Confessions.
ORIGINS OF JUDAISM• The Law of God contains the social, political and religious duties by which the new nation of Israel is to be governed. Religion is a way of life and shapes all aspects of ones social, economic and political existence.
GREAT COMMANDMENT OF JUDAISM• “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD: And thou shalt love the LORD thy GOD with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” [Deuteronomy 6:4-6]
GREAT COMMANDMENT OF JUDAISM• The people of Israel were instructed to teach there children diligently all of the law and to tell them that they keep the law in remembrance of their deliverance by God from bondage in Egypt. The recounting of their history was very important as it is to all people- past, present and future.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Sabbath: Begins Friday at sundown and ends Saturday at sundown. Each Sabbath no work could be done.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Passover/Feast of Unleaven Bread: Held for seven days during which time no bread with a leavening agent could be eaten. Used to remind them of their deliverance from Egypt and to signal the coming of Christ who would become the sacrifice for mankind’s sins.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Yom Habikkurim/First-fruits: A Harvest offering was made to God the first day following the end of Passover. Symbolized the day upon which Christ would be resurrected.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Shavout/Feast of Weeks: A Harvest offering was made to God fifty days after Passover. This is the Feast of Pentecost. The fields were not to be picked clean but food was to be left for the poor and needy. This is the day upon which the Holy Spirit was given.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Yom Kippur/Day of Atonement: On the tenth day of the seventh month of each year, the High Priest of Israel would offer a sacrifice for the nation. Today, it is held by observing one day of fasting and attendance at synagogue. It symbolized the future day of atonement presided over by Christ the High Priest.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Rosh Hashanah/Feast of Trumpets: Signaled the beginning the New Year. During the seventh month, first day of the month the Shofar, a Ram’s Horn Trumpet was blown to proclaim a gathering for worship. Symbolizes blowing of the trumpets at the return of Christ and the resurrection of the Blessed Dead.
ISRAELI HOLIDAYS• Sukkot/Feast of Tabernacles- Booths: Held on the fifteenth day of the seventh month to remind Israel of the wilderness wandering of 40 years. Symbolizes the ushering in of the Kingdom of God after the return of Christ.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• Many parallels can be drawn between Judaism and African Religions.• Both religious groups have a primary creator, initiation rites, a focus on the community and family, a respect for nature and the story of a great flood.• These similarities evidence that the origin of these two groups are somehow interconnected.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• Monotheism was first brought into existence by the Kushites. It later reemerged during the reign of Amenhotep or Akhenaton IV. Under his rule, religion was changed from polytheism to monotheism by the worship of the deity Amen-Ra or Aten.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• Moses was a great Egyptian Israelite leader who was responsible for bringing the Ten Commandments to the Israelites. He was versed in all of the knowledge and wisdom of the Egyptians, having grown up in the house of the Pharoah.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The similarities between the Negative Confessions of the Egyptian Pert-Em-Hru, [Book of Coming Forth By Day] and the Ten Commandments suggest that the moral standards of the Israelites were used in Egypt and Ethiopia before Moses’ birth.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• While Moses introduced the worship of Yahweh to his Hebrew followers, it’s etymology lies with the Egyptian moon god Yah, other wise known as Ausar.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• Judaism was practiced extensively in Egypt following the collapse of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C.E.• Today a Hebrew Temple exists in Cairo, Egypt.• Documents in synagogue archives in Cairo show the names of old Jewish communities south of the Atlas Mountains in Western Africa.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• There is also an Ethiopian Synagogue in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.• King Solomon married the Queen of Sheba [Ethiopia] and fathered Menelik I.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The Queen of Sheba & Menelik I, returned to Ethiopia with several Israeli Priests and a replica of the Ark of the Covenant. Ethiopia converted to Judaism.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• King Solomon’s Temple, also called the First Temple of Israel, was designed according to the ground plan of an Egyptian Temple, by Hiram, a Phoenician Architect/Master-Builder.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• King Solomon built the First Temple for the worship of the One True God.• When Jerusalem was conquered by the Babylonians in 586 BCE, the First Temple was destroyed and this caused many Israelite exiles to emigrate throughout Africa.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• There is evidence of an African Jewish presence from the records of Portuguese an other Europeans who visited Africa in the 14th & 15th Centuries.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The existence of Falashas- Ethiopian Jews, have been traced back to the time of th creation of the First Temple.• The founders of the Falashas are believed to be either descendants of King Solomon or the Israeli Tribe of Dan.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• Falasha: means “moved” or “gone into exile.”• The Ethiopian Jews, a small minority in Northwest Ethiopia, have been known by this name since the European Middle Ages.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The Lemba are the Jews of Southern Africa, who inhabit the Venda territory and part of southern Zimbabwe.• Some 40,000 Lember have Jewish roots.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The Lemba, keep Kosher, circumcise, and have strict purity and funeral laws.• The tribal symbol of the Lemba is the Star of David with an elephant inside.
JUDAISM & AFRICAN RELIGIONS• The Lemba and the Falashas are the only known tribes to have a bush piano. Both groups are also artisans who are carpenters, potters, and in earlier times, metal workers. These similarities indicate common origins.
THE DECLINE OF JUDAISM IN AFRICA• Due to the disapearance of many Jewish communities, the only Jews in Africa one hears about today are the Falashas in Ethiopia. Although intermarriage spread Jewish influence for a while, eventually it caused Judaism to dissipate.
THE DECLINE OF JUDAISM IN AFRICA• The existence of Judaism was further decreased by Christian missionaries. Also, Jews were viewed as a threat by Muslim rulers and consequently faced either conversion or death.
THE DECLINE OF JUDAISM IN AFRICA• The remainder of Africans who chose to continue practicing Judaism fled to North Africa, Egypt, Sudan, Southern Africa, Cameron and other parts of West Africa.
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY• St. Augustine [Early Christian Writer]: “…The Christian religion has existed among the Ancients [Egypt & Ethiopia] and was not absent from the beginning of the human race until Christ came in the flesh.” [Retract I, 13]
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY• The Ancient Egyptians were the principal contributors to the African Origins of Christianity.• The Egyptian idea of “The Neter” was the origin of Monotheism.• Pharaoh Akhenaten (1400 B.C.E.) built upon this idea with the single deity Ra, symbolized by the sun.
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY• The Creation Stories of Ausar and Auset are the origin of the ideas of: • Resurrection • Dual conflicts between good and evil • God’s sacrifice for humanity
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY• The Eucharist of Roman Catholicism originates with the African Nilotics of the Sudan, who believed humans became whatever they ate.• The idea of the After-life being based on ethical behavior in this life is found throughout the “Pert-Em-Hru”, The Book of Coming Forth By Day.
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY• Amenhotep IV, 10th Pharaoh of the XVIII Dynasty, changed his name to Akhenaten.• He began worshipping Aten around 1400 B.C.E. • Aten was the Sun God and was made the Supreme God of Egypt.
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY: THE MYSTERY SYSTEM• Ausar raised from the dead by his wife Auset.• Ausar arises on the physical plain in the form of his son, Horus and battles his murderer, his brother Set.
EGYPT & CHRISTIANITY: THE MYSTERY SYSTEM• Dual struggles between Good & Evil, Light & Darkness, God & Devil.• Contributions: Divine sacrifice-Gods give a physical part of themselves so that Humanity may survive.
THE IMPERIAL CONTEXT OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY• Following the assassination of Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE), “Dictator for Life,” Rome becomes an empire ruled by Augustus Octavian (63 BCE- 14 CE) and his successors.
THE IMPERIAL CONTEXT OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY• As Augustus (Revered One), Octavian is regarded as the “Son of God (Apollo).”• Under the early emperors, Pax Romana (Roman Peace) quiets conflicts, brings prosperity, and expands Roman power throughout the world.
LIFE UNDER THE EMPERORS• Unlike the Republican era, women enjoy many economic freedoms, but are forbidden to hold office, can be killed by their husbands if adulterous, and usually do not receive an education.
LIFE UNDER THE EMPERORS• Politicians are exiled or executed at the whim of emperors, leading to a decline of interest in public service.• Slaves work at all levels of society and represent approximately 1/3 of Roman subjects.• Dominant value: pietas (dutiful performance of social and spiritual obligations).
ROMAN RELIGION• Polytheistic – Greek and Roman deities seen as interchangeable; amalgamated into one pantheon.• Pluralistic – religious diversity generally tolerated, unless seen as threat to stability of state.
ROMAN RELIGION• Patriotic – religious activity intended to secure blessings of gods for the state.• Patriarchal – organized around male authorities (pontiff, priest; paterfamilias, male head of household).
NEW RELIGIONS IN AN OLD WORLD• As empire grows less stable after 200 C.E., more Romans question traditional religion. “Mystery Religions” become popular.
MYSTERY RELIGION BELIEFS• Feature Miracle-Performing Founders.• Offer secret knowledge.• Promise individual salvation and eternal life.
MYSTERY RELIGION BELIEFS• Develop religious activities independent of family and state.• Focus on savior deities who die and come back to life.• Often connected with “exotic” cultures of Near East.
JESUS OF NAZARETH (4 B.C.E.-29 C.E.?)• Jesus was born poor in Roman- occupied Palestine.• He becomes a wandering rabbi who healed the sick and taught the Hebrew scriptures.
JESUS OF NAZARETH (4 B.C.E.-29 C.E.?)• His teachings included the necessity of moral perfection, casual attitude toward ritual purity, “blessedness” of society’s outcasts, and nonviolence as best means of resolving social conflicts.
JESUS OF NAZARETH (4 B.C.E.-29 C.E.?)• He was executed by the Romans for being a potential threat to economic and political stability in Palestine.• He was identified as the resurrected Messiah (Greek translation: Christos) by his followers in accordance with the Hebrew Scriptures and in fulfillment of Prophecy.
WHO IS JESUS?• … God’s “suffering servant” who bears the sins of Israel (Isaiah 55:6) …• … God himself, incarnated “in the form of a slave” (Philippians 2:6-7) …
WHO IS JESUS?• … “Raised from the dead” (1 Corinthians 15:20) and “ascended” to God (John 20:17) …• These images of Jesus gradually become known as “orthodox” (right-believing).
WHO IS JESUS?• Other early Christians hold different views of Jesus as…• … Teacher of secret knowledge (Greek gnosis) that only the initiated can understand (Gospel of Thomas 70).
WHO IS JESUS?• … The new god who has come to sweep away Jewish tradition, including the Hebrew Bible and the Jewish God who made this corrupt material world (Gospel of Marcion 6:17-42).
WHO IS JESUS?• Such“heterodox” (differently- believing) views compete with “orthodox” views for several centuries.
THE GROWTH OFCHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• Within three hundred years of Jesus’ execution, Christianity’s status changes from obscure Jewish sect to persecuted Gentile faith to official Roman religion.
THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• 313: Emperor Constantine (274?- 337) ends persecution of Christianity and embraces faith.• 395: Emperor Theodosius I (346- 395) establishes orthodox Christianity as empire’s sole faith.
THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• Christian institutions model themselves on imperial structures, complete with Pontifex Maximus (High Priest) based in Rome.
THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• The collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 leaves Western Europe sparsely populated, poor, and vulnerable to invasions.
THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, ruled from Constantinople (modern Istanbul), endures in spite of territorial losses to Islamic forces..
THE GROWTH OFCHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS• “Christendom” (Christian West) loosely unified by rule of Germanic kings and increasingly powerful Pope (Bishop of Rome).
WHY DID CHRISTIANITY SUCCEED?• Roman persecution was sporadic, allowing Christianity to become publicly acceptable in some areas.• Unlike paganism, Christianity encouraged prosyletization and conversion, and seemed simpler and more unified.
WHY DID CHRISTIANITY SUCCEED?• Christianity offered strong, egalitarian, humane community in a mass society driven by class distinctions and peppered with cruelty and violence.
AFRICA & CHRISTIANITY• Today the oldest Christian institutions are found in Ethiopia, which converted from Judaism to Christianity in 34 A.D. The Coptic Church the result of the evangelism of Mark is all that remains of many Christian institutions of Egypt & the Sudan.
CHRISTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH• Copt: is derived from the Greek word Aigyptos [Egyptian: Hikuptah - House of the Ka of Ptah]• Coptic Christianity is based on the teachings of St. Mark and is over nineteen centuries old.
CHRISTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH• The Copt St. Athanasius: wrote the Nicene Creed, which is recited many churches throughout the world.• Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest school in the world.
CHRISTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH• Monasticism [Monks and Monasteries]: first formed in Egypt. Shaped Priests character of submission and humbleness.
CHRISTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH• Many African peoples contributed to the creation and development of Christianity, primarily the Egyptians, who gave Monotheism, Nicene Creed, and the Eucharist sacraments.
CHRISTIAN COPTIC ORTHODOX CHURCH• African churches and religious leaders have continued to influence the Christian faith for the last 2000 years.
THE PRE-ISLAMIC WEST• By 600 C.E., the Roman Empire, once unified and in control of entire Mediterranean region,was since 300s C.E., now divided into the eastern empire [centered at Constantinople- modern day Istanbul, Turkey] and the western empire [centered at Rome, Italy] and was increasingly incapable of ruling this vast multiethnic territory.
THE PRE-ISLAMIC WEST• Christianity, now identified with Roman power, was widespread throughout western Asia, northern Africa, and southern Europe.
THE PRE-ISLAMIC WEST• The Arabian peninsula was on the periphery of the Roman Christian world, but was at the center of the trade routes and commercial interests of the Eastern and Western empires.
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD• Muhammad was born in 570 C.E. in the Arabian city of Mecca, which was home to the diverse religious influences of Christianity, Judaism, and local Arabic polytheism.• In 610 C.E. he experienced revelations from Allah (name of one Arab deity) beginning with “Night of Power.” This event was later transcribed in Quran.
THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD• Muhammad sees himself as the final messenger of the one God revealed in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament.• His persecution by local Arab leaders (Quaraishites: Arab Priests) leads to his escape (Hijra) from Mecca to Medina and Abyssinia in 622 C.E., from which his followers conquer Mecca in 630 C.E.
ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA• By 647 C.E., North Africa is religiously unstable. In theory it is controlled by the Pope of the Roman Empire. In reality it is ruled by the House of Heraclius.• The political an religious uncertainty leave North Africa ripe for Islamic conquest.
ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA• Due to the efforts of Uqabah ibn Nafi and the Community at Kairawan by 670 C.E., the Islamic conquest had reached the Atlantic Ocean and Africa was declared and Islamic continent.
ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA• In 711 C.E., Tarik-bin-Ziad, and African led the North African army which invaded and conquered Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is named for him [Jebel-u-Tarik: The Mountain of Tarik]. His exploits are commemorated in the Turkish classic Tarik-bin-Zaid.
ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA• By 732 C.E. the Islamic Empire was larger than Rome had been at it’s zenith.
ISLAM IN WEST AFRICA• Islam spread into West Africa due to the trans-Saharan trade routes.• During the 11th Century the Kings of the Empire of Ghana, employed Muslim interpreters, ministers, and treasurers. This was important for international relations.
ISLAM IN WEST AFRICA• It was common for the rulers of the Ghana, Mali and Songhay Empires to bring Islam back to their people. Although many people did not convert. Some rulers only feigned conversion for the sake of trade relations.
ISLAM & TRADITIONAL AFRICAN RELIGION• Islam appealed to Africans because they could integrate it with traditional religion.• Islam also had religious intermediaries similar to healers and fetishists of traditional religion.
ISLAM & TRADITIONAL AFRICAN RELIGION• Islam, like traditional religion also had a sense of community and spirituality that was integral to everyday life. It was more than just a “religion”.
ISLAMIC & EUROPEAN SLAVERY• European/American Slavery: • Resulted from Kidnapping & Straight Purchase • Was linked to Race & Color. • Social stigma remains after many generations.
ISLAMIC & EUROPEAN SLAVERY• Islamic Slavery • Resulted from Prisoners of War who refused to convert and from Raids on settled communities for the sake of obtaining slaves.
ISLAMIC & EUROPEAN SLAVERY • Was linked to unbelievers. • Generally, once freed became a full member of society; however, Racial stigma persisted.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• Many Muslims became enslaved in America during the 1700s because: • African Wars: rebellions against Muslim leaders. The captives were sold as slaves to Europeans.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• Kidnapping of Africans by Europeans: mostly Muslims because of their mobility. They often traveled to spread Islam and gain knowledge.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• Muslim slaves looked down on the Christian slaveholders, because they used forced conversion to justify slavery.• Christians considered African Muslim slaves superior to non- Muslim slaves. Justified superiority by saying they are Arab not African.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• African Muslims came from a Literate culture, while other Africans came from predominantly Oral cultures.• Under slavery, learning to read and write was punishable by death.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• Muslims used their literacy to gain freedom, by writing letters to family so they could buy their freedom.• They wrote autobiographies, which since they could read would not be changed by others.• They helped spread plans of rebellions.
MUSLIMS SLAVES IN AMERICA• Legislation was passed which prohibited the importation of Muslim slaves due to their role in revolts.
WHO IS A MUSLIM?• Muslim: derived from Arabic Islam, which means “Submission to the One God.”• A Muslim is “one who submits” to Allah (God) through the revelation (Quran) given to humanity through His Prophet and final messenger, Muhammad.
WHO IS A MUSLIM?• A Muslim is anyone who can say and believe the Shahada, or “Profession of Faith”: • There is no God, but Allah. • Muhammad is Allah’s Prophet.
THE “FIVE PILLARS” OF ISLAM• Shahada: profession of faith in Allah as sole deity and Muhammad as final messenger. The culmination of Hebrew Bible and New Testament prophecy.
THE “FIVE PILLARS” OF ISLAM• Salat: ritual prayer five times daily (morning, noon, afternoon, sunset, dusk) while prostrated in direction of Mecca – customarily solitary, but communal on Fridays at noon in masjid (mosque).
THE “FIVE PILLARS” OF ISLAM• Zakat: charity – a “loan to God” representing 2.5% of one’s income, donated by those 16 years and older who can afford it.
THE “FIVE PILLARS” OF ISLAM• Ramadan (Sawm): abstinence from food, drink, sex, stimulants during daylight hours of ninth lunar month in commemoration of the Prophet’s “Night of Power.”
THE “FIVE PILLARS” OF ISLAM• Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca to be made by every Muslim at least once in a lifetime.
MUSLIM LIFESTYLE• Dress Code: covered themselves completely. Women wore the Hijab and showed no aspect of their body. Enslaved Muslims in America, recreated same clothes worn in Africa.
MUSLIM LIFESTYLE• Names: In North & West Africa, African converts would take on Arabic Names and learn to read and write Arabic so as to read the Quran in its original language. Enslaved Africans in America, despite having European nicknames, kept their own name to preserve their identity.
MUSLIM LIFESTYLE• Muslims cannot drink alcohol nor eat pork.• When a Muslim slaughters and animal, he must say “Bismillah” (In the name of Allah).
THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS• After the Prophet’s death, power struggles between his Caliphs (deputies) lead to deaths of fourth Caliph, Ali (600-661), Muhammad’s cousin, and Husayn (626-680), Muhammad’s grandson.
THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS• Sunni (“traditional”) Muslims: revere first four caliphs and emphasize Islamic unity through Shari’a (law).
THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS• Shi’a (“factional”) Muslims: honor Ali and Husayn as martyrs and emphasize authority of various Imams (religious leaders).
THE ISLAMICIZATION OF THE WEST• 634: Army of the caliph conquers Mesopotamia and Palestine.• 635: Damascus, capital of Syria, conquered.• 644: Egypt and Persia conquered.
THE ISLAMICIZATION OF THE WEST• 700s: Most of northern Africa, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and India conquered by Abbasid Empire, based in Baghdad (756-1055).• Within a century of Muhammad’s death, much of the formerly Roman Christian world is under Islamic rule.
THE ISLAMICIZATION OF THE WEST• Gradually, most formerly Christian and pagan communities become Islamic.• Islamic scholars translated and preserved Greek philosophy and science, while Europe was steeped in superstition.
THE ISLAMICIZATION OF THE WEST• Christians and Jews were tolerated as Ahl al-kitāb (“People of the Book”) and therefore dhimmī (protected peoples).• A tax (jizya) levied on non- Muslims under Islamic rule.
THE ISLAMICIZATION OF THE WEST• Slavery was restricted to non- Muslims and children of existing slaves. Converts to Islam were emancipated. The Islamic Conquests also began the 1000 year Trans-Saharan Slave Trade.
WHY DID ISLAM SUCCEED?• Culture: Islamic rulers encouraged literature, philosophy, and science.• Politics: power vacuum due to decline of Persian and Byzantine empires provided atmosphere that allowed the Islamic Conquests.
WHY DID ISLAM SUCCEED?• Religion: Christian doctrine was too complex. Christian disputes were too bitter to retain the allegiance of many Christians. Many Christian “heretics” converted to Islam.
WHY DID ISLAM SUCCEED?• Society: in most cases, Islamic rulers were less oppressive and more humane than Byzantine or Persian rulers.
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. -1291 C.E.• By the 11th century, the Byzantine Empire faced increasing challenges from the Seljuk (Muslim) Empire, and requested help from the West.
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. -1291 C.E.• 1095: Pope Urban II urges Western Christians to attack and invade Muslim held territories in Southwest Asia in order to recapture them for Christendom, offering “immediate remission of sins” to those who die in battle.
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. - 1291 C.E.• 1099: An army of mostly Frankish (French) Christians massacres the population of Jerusalem and establishes independent Crusader states in Southwest Asia, undermining Byzantine and Muslim power in the region.
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. - 1291 C.E.• 1144: Edessa (in modern Turkey) overthrows Crusader rule and returns to Muslim control, prompting second Crusade.• 1187: Jerusalem recaptured by Muslim forces, triggering third Crusade led by kings of England, France, and Germany.
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. -1291 C.E.• 1204: Western Christian forces capture Constantinople and establish short-lived Latin Empire in East (1204-1261).
THE AGE OF CRUSADES 1095 C.E. - 1291 C.E.• 1291: Acre, last stronghold of Crusaders in Southwest Asia, recaptured by Muslim forces.• Christian persecution of Jews, heretics, and homosexuals increases during Crusades.
RISE OF THE SUFI TRADITION • Soon after Prophet’s death, some Muslims become critical of what they see as worldliness and the corruption of the Caliphs.
RISE OF THE SUFI TRADITION• Wearing plain blue wool (Sūf) clothing, these Sufis preach: Tawakkul (absolute trust in Allah)… which arises from Tawhid (absolute oneness of Allah)…expressed through Faqr (“poverty,” both material and spiritual)… which leads to Fanā (“annihilation” of self in the presence of almighty Allah).
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• As Sufism expands throughout the Muslim world, it encounters criticism from other Muslims.
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• In response, Abu Hamid al- Ghazali (1058-1111), most famous Sufi theologian, defines 4 major points of Sufism.
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• 1. islām (“surrender, submission” to God in all aspects of life).• 2. īmān (“faith” in God and his Prophet, Muhammad).• 3. ihsān (“serving God as if one were seeing Him” at all times).
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• 4. ishrāq (“illumination” of the soul, leading it from dark materiality to light spirituality).
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• Sufi teachers (Shaikhs) and their disciples (Tarīqa) devoted to Dhikr (“remembrance”) of Allah through chanting, dancing, fasting, music, poetry, and prayer.
THEMES IN SUFI THOUGHT• The poetry of Sufi writer Jalal Al-Din Rūmī (1207-1273) is known as “the Quran in Persian.”• Rūmī’s basic theme: love, not fear, should define relationship between humanity and God.
EGYPT & PHILOSOPY• Greek Philosophy is nothing more than Egyptian Philosophy. All of the Greek Scholars were taught by the Savants of Egypt and Ethiopia. When Egypt was conquered by Greece in 332 B.C. the Greeks were only then allowed total access to the wisdom of Egypt.
EGYPT & PHILOSOPY• Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle are a few of the many Greeks who studied in Ancient Egypt being instructed by the learned African Priests. Socrates was executed for corrupting the Athenian youth with the foreign teachings from Africa.
ANCIENT EGYPT: TODAY• Why is this not widely known today? – The Conquest, Enslavement & Colonization of Africa by Europe and Arabia led to the denial of the accomplishments of the Ancient Ethiopians & to the Ancient Egyptians being “changed” from Black to White in Textbooks and Movies.
ANCIENT EGYPT: TODAY• Many Europeans, Asians, and Africans have written books on this topic, but their work is not widely used in Western Education. Since the 1500’s there has been a systematic European usurpation of African contributions to World Civilization.
ANCIENT EGYPT: TODAY• Today if one states that Ancient Egypt was a Black Civilization & that Philosophy, Science, Art & Religion began in Ethiopia, they will be met with ridicule & denial from All Races of Men. This is caused by the Eurocentric focus of education today.
ANCIENT EGYPT: TODAY• For those that accept the truth of the African Origins of Civilization in Ethiopia, Egypt & the World, one question arises: • How have Africans who erected the Pyramids, invented writing & established philosophy, religion & civilization fallen so far?
XIARABIAN & EUROPEANCONQUEST OF AFRICA 640 C.E. - 1994 C.E. C.E
THE PROBLEM OF THE COLOR LINE• In 1903 Dr. W.E.B. DuBois, African- American sociologist, historian, author, and activist, wrote his famous book, The Souls of Black Folks. In this book he declared that the problem of the 20th Century was the problem of race relations.
THE PROBLEM OF THE COLOR LINE• Dr. DuBois: “THE PROBLEM OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY is the problem of the color-line,-the relation of the darker and lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea.”
THE PROBLEM OF THE COLOR LINE• This problem of the 20th and 21rst Century began to rear its head in 630 C.E. with Islamic conquest of North Africa from 640 C.E. to 711 C.E.
THE PROBLEM OF THE COLOR LINE• The Islamic conquest of northern Africa ushered in a 1000 year period of Trans- Saharan slave trading. The Islamic conquest was followed by European encroachments.
THE EUROPEAN SLAVE TRADE• The Slave trade began as early as the 15th century. The Portuguese were the first major European slave traders, followed by the Spanish, Dutch, French and British.• West African peoples were sold or captured for “export” to the Americas and other colonies.
THE “SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA• During the 19th century, France, Britain and other European colonial powers fought for the acquisition of African territory. This feverish wave of interest in the African continent and its resources came to be known as the “Scramble for Africa.” It marked the second wave of European colonization which began in the Americas in the 15th century.
BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884-1885 • France, Britain, and Germany were the three main Imperialist Powers in Africa during the late eighteen hundreds. In February 1885, the main European powers signed the Berlin Act, which formalized the process of the partitioning of Africa. The Act included the guidelines of how each country was to define its territories.
FRENCH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• The French negotiated treaties with several African leaders from a powerful military position. France focused on the military direction of the expansion by going fort to fort and taking over control.
FRENCH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• By using military means of obtaining territory, they were securing themselves economically. The French, harsh in their administration and attempts to increase their economic footholds, used forced labour and imprisonment of Africans to maintain and expand their interests.
FRENCH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• Whenever the French were able they fostered production of groundnuts and cotton and imposed taxation on the native inhabitants.
BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• Britain’s imperialistic activities in Africa from 1869 to 1912 had several motives. The public motive was to “convert the Natives to Christianity. Really, Britain wanted to colonize, find new markets and materials, and spread the English style of government. They also wanted to protect their land holdings from German or French invasion.
BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• The Suez Canal: The British wanted to protect the Suez Canal in East Africa along with the route to the east. Control over the Suez Canal provided financial dominance and comfort since it guarded trade routes and colonies to the East.
BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• At the same time, British colonists in South Africa were interested in extending their possessions northwards, particularly since gold and diamonds had been found in the interior of the region. One colonial leader, Cecil Rhodes, dreamt of building a railway right across Africa, from Cairo in the north to the Cape in the south.
BRITISH IMPERIAL EXPANSION• Any obstacles, such as the tough Boer settlers who did not like British rule, would have to be brushed out of the way. The Boers were descendants of Dutch colonists who had arrived in the Cape long before the British. It took the British two difficult wars, in 1895 and 1899-1902, to defeat them.
ANTI-IMPERIALISM• The “White Man’s Burden” and the accompanying “civilizing mission” illustrate that European Imperialism was as much a militaristic operation as an ideological system. All ideological systems have their supporters and detractors. Here is an excerpt from one such group who denounced both U.S. and European forms of Imperialism:
ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 1901Let us not be misled by names.Imperialism is not a question ofcrowns and scepters, of names andtitles. It is a system of government.Where a man or body ofmen...claims the absolute right torule a people….
ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 1901…To compel the submission of thatpeople by brute force, to decide whatrights they shall have, what taxes theyshall pay, what judges shalladminister their laws, what men shallgovern them,--all withoutresponsibility to the people thusgoverned--this is imperialism, theantithesis of free government".
PROCESS OF DECOLONIZATION• The process of de-colonization (the rejection and dismantling of the colonial infrastructure) has, from the perspective of colonized peoples, been an ongoing struggle from the inception of colonial rule.
PROCESS OF DECOLONIZATION• Historians and Theorists contend that the process of colonization and imperial rule was not simply a militaristic venture but also an ideological one. Any attempt to resist European rule has necessarily also been both physical and ideological
WHAT DID COLONIZATION SEEK TO MAINTAIN?• A) A racial hierarchy of white superiority and racial segregation (Apartheid).
WHAT DID COLONIZATION SEEK TO MAINTAIN?• B) A system of economic domination and exploitation that benefited the few and oppressed the majority through taxation; forced acquisition of lands and the subsequent dispossession of the native inhabitants from their own lands; the refusal of access and recourse to the very legal structure under which one has come to be governed; the denial of basic human rights.
WHAT DID COLONIZATION SEEK TO MAINTAIN?• C) An indoctrination of cultural superiority through the imposition of European languages and, upon its implementation, an education system, at the expense and belittlement of indigenous languages, cultures and knowledge systems.
• According to Fanon, the African has been taught to regard white skin as the symbol of a superior culture and civilization. To see the human race in this way is to see the world only “through European eyes.” Ironically, this “Eurocentric” perspective includes the way the African is perceived (as a social subordinate, or worse, as a “savage” to be “civilized”). Thus, the African internalizes and accepts as normal the European’s view of him/herself (the African).
• This, in turn, produces a form of self- loathing and the desire to efface all that constitutes African identity in preference for European identity. However, by virtue of his/her obvious blackness, the African is denied full and equal participation in white society no matter how proficiently he imitates white society or rejects his own society. In other words, the African is made to desire something he/she can never fully attain.
• For Fanon, therefore, the African can never be free unless he/she is able to reject the “white mask” (the symbol for seeing the world from a Eurocentric perspective). He/She can only be free once he/she reclaims Black identity not as a symbol of shame but as a symbol of empowerment, of selfhood and consciousness.
• Moreover, Fanon states that the white man is as much “enslaved” by this perspective as the black man, for the white man can only exist in his “negation” of the black man. The white man’s sense of self- worth is dependent on maintaining the perception of the black man as the inferior “other.”
• In other words, neither can share a “common humanity” that unites their consciousness. At the end of his study, Fanon states, “I want the world to recognize, with me, the open door of every consciousness.”
EGYPT: TODAY• The Priests of Ancient Egypt & the Prophets of Ancient Israel wrote that the Denial of the One True God, a Belief in the Supremacy of Man, Lasciviousness, and a Desire for material gratification led to the Divine debasement of the Egyptians & their Descendants.
EGYPT: TODAY• Scholars today state that the present state of Africans resulted from centuries of conquest, enslavement, colonization & exploitation beginning in 341 B.C.E.
REBIRTHWHAT ISNEEDED NOWIS ARENAISSANCEOR REBIRTHLED BY THEPRESENTGENERATION.
DR. FRANTZ FANON• “EACH GENERATION MUST FIND OUT ITS HISTORICAL MISSION AND EITHER FULFILL IT OR BETRAY IT.”
BIBLIOGRAPHY• What They Never Told You In History Class  Indus K. Kush.• Africa: Mother of Western Civilization  Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan.• Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization  Anthony T. Browder.• Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.  Dr. Chancellor Williams.