Atlantic Slave Trade• The Atlantic slave trade began in the 1500s – At first, Europe traded with the Northern kingdoms of Ghana and Mali for gold and salt – After the 1500s, the relationship changed • Started as trade between equals • It turned into enslavement and forced migration (movement)
Atlantic Slave Trade• The slave trade ended in the 1800s, but Europe remained in Africa until recently – Wanted their resources – Divided up the continent
European Desire• Portuguese explorers began exploring Africa in the 1400’s – Trade directly with Africa – Technology in sailing
Power Shift• At first they traded as equals – Gold, ivory, metal, pepper, c opper, brass, and clothing – Spread Christianity• Soon the trade balance shifted – Portuguese sailors sailed around the tip of Africa to East Africa and seized the city-states – Controlled the trade along the East African coast
The Rest of Europe Joins• The Dutch, French, and English soon followed; set up trading posts along the coasts – Settlers moved in – Spread out by force – Poor relations with Africans
Slavery in Africa• Atlantic Slave Trade – Slavery occurred in Africa before the slave trade, but under much different circumstances • All civilizations had slavery • Africans would enslave those they defeated in battle • Most slaves were freed
A New Kind of Slavery• Europeans developed a new type of slavery – Treated slaves like property – Race-based slavery – Took them away from their homeland – No freedom
Slavery Grows• Demand for slavery increased as European countries set up colonies in North and South America – Needed workers on plantations – Hard to escape when you don’t know where you are – 78,000 each year
Tragedy• Horrors of slavery – Captured Africans were branded with hot irons – Laid side by side, stacked in ships with little food or water • Many died during this voyage, the Middle Passage• Effects of Slavery – Loss of an entire generation from West Africa – Halted progress • Lost youngest, healthiest people • Skilled workers
End of Slavery• After the slave trade ended, the horror didn’t stop for Africa – Europe raided Africa for its resources – Built empires – Used force and weapons to take over Africa
Problems for Africa• European countries met and decided how they would divide up Africa, or colonize it, settle an area and take over the government – Europe gained power by encouraging African groups to fight with each other – Took the best land to farm for themselves – Drew new political boundaries which divided ethnic groups and forced differing groups together • Caused conflict later
Slave NarrativePrimary account of Middle Passage by Olaudah Equiano.
Exit CardWhat were some of the effects of slavery?
Timeline– In pairs, make a timeline of African history to this point– Use notes– No dates required, just put events in chronological order