Early African History

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Early African History

  1. 1. Early African History
  2. 2. Early History <ul><li>Lived as hunters-gathers, people who moved from place to place to hunt & gather food </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually began to herd livestock & farm </li></ul><ul><li>3000 BC - Bantu migration began </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu – shared a common language, culture, & technology </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated from modern-day Nigeria to the west & south, spreading their farming, ironworking skills, & language </li></ul>
  3. 3. East Africa History
  4. 4. Kush <ul><li>800 BC – Kush developed along the Nile River in present day Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, ivory, & iron products were traded as far as Egypt & Southwest Asia </li></ul><ul><li>As wealth increased, rulers built monuments </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated by Axum during the AD 300s </li></ul>
  5. 5. Axum <ul><li>Located in present-day Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Prospered from trade – from Africa, the Mediterranean area, & East Asia (strategic location on the Red Sea which gave them access to trade with the Indian Ocean) </li></ul><ul><li>Location crucial in controlling trade between the interior of Africa & the Roman Empire & Southwest Asia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Christian Axum <ul><li>In the AD 300s, King Ezana converted to Christianity & made it the official religion </li></ul><ul><li>AD 600s Arab Muslims gained control of most of the surrounding region </li></ul><ul><li>Led to Axum becoming isolated from neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Axum remained a center of African Christianity (Ethiopian Christian Church) </li></ul>
  7. 7. “Great” Zimbabwe Civilization <ul><li>AD 1000 – 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied gold, silver, & ivory to the East African coast </li></ul>
  8. 8. Swahili <ul><li>Blend of Arab & African culture led to the rise of the Swahili culture </li></ul><ul><li>AD 1000 to AD 1500 </li></ul>
  9. 9. West Africa History
  10. 10. Ghana Kingdom <ul><li>400 to 1200 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled trade between the Sahara and West Africa’s rain forests </li></ul><ul><li>Salt Trade – Traders brought salt & cloth and traded for gold & ivory </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was taxed – made the empire very wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom collapsed when North African invaders disrupted trade </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mali Empire <ul><li>1200 to 1450 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Grew wealthy from control of gold & salt trade and farming </li></ul><ul><li>Mansa Musa – most well-known ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Timbuktu became center of trade, education, & Islamic culture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Songhai Empire <ul><li>1450 to 1600 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Also controlled the Salt Trade </li></ul>
  13. 13. European Trade <ul><li>Europeans began trading with African cities during the 1400s and 1500s </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal was the first European country to establish trade </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch East India Company </li></ul>

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