Intro to the Cold War


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Intro to the Cold War

  1. 2. The Early Cold War 1945-1955
  2. 3. <ul><li>US (Truman) </li></ul><ul><li>No civilian casualties, 405,000 military casualties </li></ul><ul><li>US never bombed </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial mobilization helped economy </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – ½ of all goods/services in world were from US </li></ul><ul><li>AIMS: rebuild Europe, rebuild Germany, raw materials/markets in E Europe, containment of communism </li></ul>Motivations/Aims <ul><li>Soviet Union (Stalin) </li></ul><ul><li>Most casualties – 24 million (military/civilian) </li></ul><ul><li>Country in ruins from war </li></ul><ul><li>Factories targeted by German bombing raids </li></ul><ul><li>Fear, anger, resentment </li></ul><ul><li>AIMS: rebuilding, “buffer” from further attack (expansion – satellite nations) </li></ul>
  3. 4. The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  4. 5. The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [behind the “Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. <ul><li>METHODOLOGIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] </li></ul><ul><li>Arms Race [nuclear escalation] </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [ Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy ]  “proxy wars” (Korea, Vietnam, Middle East) </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-Polarization of Europe [ NATO vs. Warsaw Pact ] </li></ul>
  5. 7. YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin What were the terms of the agreement at Yalta?
  6. 8. POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
  7. 9. Actions/Reactions <ul><li>Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>No free elections! </li></ul><ul><li>install communist govts. throughout E. Europe for protection ( satellite nations ) </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Blockade </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact ‘55 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Containment policy (George Kennan) – prevent extension of communist rule to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Airlift </li></ul><ul><li>NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ‘49 </li></ul>
  8. 10. Truman Doctrine [1947] <ul><li>Civil War in Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. will support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Marshall Plan [1948] <ul><li>“ European Recovery Program” – WHY do we want European recovery? </li></ul><ul><li>The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. </li></ul>Secretary of State, George Marshall
  10. 12. What did Post-War Germany look like? West Berlin - like a capitalist island within communist East Germany
  11. 13. Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Berlin blockade - attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting to the communists Berlin Airlift - western powers’ airlift of food/supplies to W. Berlin (determination to use all resources to defend Berlin) Berlin could act as the trigger for war between capitalist and communist countries
  12. 14. Results of the Failed Blockade <ul><li>PR victory for W. Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Made Stalin look incompetent/cruel </li></ul><ul><li>Fueled passage of Truman Doctrine and creation of NATO </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” <ul><li>The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>Now there were two nuclear superpowers! </li></ul>
  14. 16. MAD ( mutually assured destruction ) deterrence doctrine Downloaded from
  15. 17. N orth A tlantic T reaty O rganization (1949) <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Luxemburg </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>1952: Greece & Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>1955: West Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1983: Spain </li></ul>Defensive military alliance by Western European countries and US
  16. 18. Warsaw Pact (1955) <ul><li>U. S. S. R. </li></ul><ul><li>Albania </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Rumania </li></ul>Military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and its satellite nations in response to Western Germany being allowed to rearm and join NATO
  17. 19. Pre Class <ul><li>How did WWII experiences and post-war sentiments lead to actions that sparked conflict between the superpowers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give 2 specific US or Soviet actions and reactions that followed </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you . -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
  19. 21. An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?