Early childood and disablity in sub saharan africa


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Early childood and disablity in sub saharan africa

  1. 1. Early Childhood & Disability in sub-Saharan Africa a Tirussew Teferra Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
  2. 2. Discussion Points1. What are the major early childhood disabling factors in sub-Saharan Africa ?2. What children’s do during early childhood period.4. Conflicting conceptions about early childhood development.5. Early intervention practices & consequences.6. Some reflections
  3. 3. Major disabling factors in sub-Saharan Africa Childhood infectious diseases & lack of immunization Under nutrition, personal & environmental hygiene Health condition of prospective mothers Lack of access to medical services during prenatal, natal & postal period Harmful disabling traditional practices & civil strife Genetic anomalies Note : Most of them are preventable
  4. 4. Profile & prevalence of disability in EthiopiaMO-42% VI-30 % HI-15 % ID-7%% BE-2% 2 % MU-4% 4 % Base Line Survey [ 1995]
  5. 5. What do CwoDs do in Early Childhood period during sub-Saharan Africa? Most children ( 3 & above) are at home and out-side home out in the field engaged in different tasks /gender based analysis/The girl child- Mainly engaged in domestic tasks such as house hold chores, errands, cooking ,cleaning and taking care of siblings- Fetching water & fire wood
  6. 6. Children in the range of 3-6looking after cattle in Ethiopia
  7. 7. What do CwoDs do in Early Childhood Period in sub-Saharan Africa? Cont… The boy Child  Boys are mainly engaged in out-side tasks such as herding cattle & assist in farming  In the urban areas boys and girls work as daily laborers, vendors (selling cigarettes, lottery, news papers, food items etc.) In pastoral areas children move from place to place with their parents & clans
  8. 8. What do CwoDs do during Early Childhood period in sub-Africa? Cont… Limited access to early childhood education – Community-based – Faith-based: Traditional & Modern preschools – Public -based: Zero classes attached with primary schools/Government owned KGs – Private : International/local Note : Almost all of them them are not accessible to children with disabilities
  9. 9. Zero Classes(preschools attached to primary schools – New beginning
  10. 10. What do CwDs do during Early Childhood Period in sub-Saharan Africa? The conditions of CwDs varies based on the nature & severity of the problem as well as the economic conditions of the family  Children with severe intellectual disabilities, multiple disabilities and cerebral palsy and other chronic health conditions stay at home idle
  11. 11. What do CwDs do during earlychildhood period in sub-Saharan Africa? Cont…– Blind children are engaged mainly in domestic house hold tasks– Children with language disorders, children with mild intellectual disability children with hearing impairment (deaf & hard of hearing) , & children with low vision are engaged in the domestic and out-side tasks like children with out disabilities.Note: presence of inclusion out-side school
  12. 12. What do CwDs do during earlychildhood period in sub-Saharan Africa? Cont…  CwDs are taken for treatment by their parents mainly by mothers to religious places as well to different traditional healers.  Several of them are engaged in begging around churches, mosques and on the street.
  13. 13. Conflicting Conceptions about Early Childhood in Ethiopia Metaphors conveying the importance of early care and intervention: “ Lejen be tut ehilen be tikiment” [ As the right time for harvest is on the month of October; the time for shaping the child’s behavior is during the period of breast feeding] “ Zaf belejenet yetarekal” [ As straightening a tree during its nursery stage is easy; it is easy to mold the child’s behavior
  14. 14. Conflicting conceptions of Early Childhood in Ethiopia cont…Metaphors related to discouraging interacting with children : “ Zemta Worke New ” (Remaining quite is highly appreciated ) “ Ke lej atchawet yewogahal benchet” [don’t play with the a child, if you do he will poke your eyes ; discouraging from playing or interacting with children ] “ Ke Le Yeg wle Lej Hone ” [ one who associates with child will be considered as a child ]
  15. 15. Conflicting conceptions of Early Childhood in EthiopiaMetaphors related to differentialtreatments: “ Le Lej shero le awake doro ” [give a child an ordinary food ; but a quality for an adult, discriminating the child from dining quality food like that of the adult] “ Lej ena fit ayeberdewum” ( it does not matter if the child does not properly dress, he/she does not feel cold like that of a human face)
  16. 16. Traditional practices of Early Childhood Care Useful Practices-Breast feeding( lactating), & strong emotional attachment/ frequent physical contact mainly with the mother-Communal up-bringing, that is, Involvement of the extended family, neighbors & the community in child care, character formation & protection from any from of abuse 
  17. 17. Traditional practices of Early Childhood Care Useful practices & resources cont…-“ Gudifecha” Adoption of abandoned children- Sibling take-caring (child to child)-Story-telling traditions , availability of different types of stories, games, playing materials etc.
  18. 18. Traditional practices of Early Childhood Care Harmful Practices Milk teeth extraction, tonsillectomy, female genital mutilation, mutilation of the skin in the forehead, eyebrow of their babies etc. Prevalence of corporal punishment at home and in schools Verbal abuse such as yelling, deploring, cursing, terrifying & chastising for shaping children’s behaviors Note: Prevalence of derogatory & dehumanizing terms addressing CwDs
  19. 19. Traditional practices of Early Childhood Care Harmful Practices cont…-Discouraging children from sitting & discussing with adults-Prevalence of early marriage, abduction & child labor-Limited role of fathers on early child care-Large family size & lack of family
  20. 20. Conceptions about disabling factors & CwDs Wrong deeds & being cursed Possessed by evil spirit {subject to neglect & rejection} Unable to learn/underestimation {subject to charity & dependency} Hopeless and incompetent {overprotection )Note: The negative attitudes have been recognized as more disabling than the disability per se !!
  21. 21. Early intervention practices to cureor offset the impact of disability Religious Intervention practices-Deep prayer and submitting to readings of different religious texts,-Sprinkling or drinking of holy water,-Swallowing blessed food and gelling blessed materials “eminet “on the body etc.
  22. 22. Early intervention practices to cure or offset the impact of disability cont… Secular Intervention practices  Herbal medicine  Amulet to hang on the Neck  Indigenous psychotherapy  Indigenous physiotherapy
  23. 23. Inclusive Education : Roadmap tothe Education of CwDs in Ethiopia
  24. 24. Inclusive Education : Roadmap tothe Education of CwDs in Ethiopia CwIDs  General Classroom
  25. 25. Reflections Develop and introduce cost effective inclusive ECCE programs that could accommodate the needs of diverse learners. Sensitize, parents, teachers, children & the community about useful and harmful childrearing practices. Educate parents & teachers about child development, disability and care.
  26. 26. Reflections Cont… Promote school-parent partnership in the prevention, detection, assessment & intervention of children with disabilities. Compile local children stories, methods of story-telling, children games & playing materials etc., & cross-fertilize in the preparation of ECCE programs as teaching -learning materials.
  27. 27. Benshangul –Gemuz /Pawe /Hot andremote Area in Ethiopia ,2011 Thank you !!