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Nature and Theories of Early Childhood Education Development

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Nature and Theories of Early Childhood Education Development

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This is a PowerPoint presentation that shows the nature and theories of early childhood education development.

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Nature and Theories of Early Childhood Education Development

  1. 1. Nature and Theories of Early Childhood Education Development Presenter: Mr. Juanito Q. Pineda MASE 422-Early Intervention Program for Children with Developmental Delay August 2017 Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Presented to: Dr. Flordeliza R. Magday University of Perpetual Help Dalta (UPHD) Las Piñas City, Philippines
  2. 2. Content Outline: • Objectives • Areas & Principles of Development • Theories of Early Childhood Education Development • Normal Developmental Patterns from Birth to 8 Years Old • Atypical Development Among Infants and Toddlers
  3. 3. Objectives: At the end of the presentation, you are expected to: • Describe the areas and principles of development. • Compare and contrast the developmental theories of Erikson, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Gardner. • Identify the normal development patterns from birth to 8 years old. • Recognize atypical development among infants and toddlers.
  4. 4. “No Two Children Are Alike”
  5. 5. Physical Cognitive Social- Emotional Areas of Development
  6. 6. Physical • Relatively stable, predictable sequence • Orderly not random • Includes: • Changes in bone thickness, vision, hearing, muscle, size and weight • Results: • Gross-Motor Development • Running, skipping, bike riding • Fine-motor Development • Grasping, holding, cutting, drawing
  7. 7. Cognitive • Called intellectual development • Processes people use to gain knowledge • Includes: • Reasoning & imagination • Results: • Language & thought • Needed for: • Planning • Remembering • Problem Solving
  8. 8. Social- Emotional • Learning to relate to others • Involves feelings & expression of feelings • Includes: • Emotional traits (trust, fear, confidence, pride, friendship, humor, timidity, interest & pleasure) • Person’s self-concept & self-esteem • Results: • Confidence flourishes • Leads to healthy self-concept & sense of worth
  9. 9. (From the head downward) The child gains control of the head, then the arms, then the legs. (From the center of the body outward) The spinal cord develops before other parts of the body. (Sequence of biological changes in children) It gives children new abilities & assists them to improve their thinking abilities and motor skills. Principles of Development Cephalocaudal Principle Proximodistal Principle Maturation Each part of the body develops at different rate even though the human being develops as a unified whole.
  10. 10. “Nature or Nurture” Brain Development Human development depends on the interaction between nature and nurture, often called heredity and environment.
  11. 11. Brain Development The parts of the brain develop at different times and different rates. specific span of time
  12. 12. Brain Development
  13. 13. Theories of Development A theory is a principle that is proposed, researched, and generally accepted as an explanation.
  14. 14. Four Major Developmental Theories Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory Multiple Intelligences Theory Howard Gardner
  15. 15. Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory Erikson believed that development occurs throughout the life span. His theory provided new insights into the formation of a healthy personality.
  16. 16. Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory Piaget believed that thinking was different during each stage of development. His theory focuses on predictable cognitive (thinking) stages.
  17. 17. Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky believed that children build knowledge through experiences/ exploration with hands-on activities. His theory assumed that children learn through social and cultural experiences.
  18. 18. Multiple Intelligences Theory Howard Gardner Gardner believes that intelligence is the result of complex interactions between children’s heredity and experiences. His theory focuses on how cultures shape human potential.
  19. 19. Patterns of Development Development, which essentially means change, is the result of the complex interactions between many processes- biological, social, and cognitive.
  20. 20. Characteristics of Development in Period of the New Born (Birth to 1 year old) • Motor Milestones: An infant • pushes up on arms, lifts and holds head up while lying on tummy • is able to move fists from closed to open and bring hands to mouth • moves legs and arms off of surface when excited • uses hands to support self while sitting • rolls from back to tummy and tummy to back • accepts entire weight with legs while standing with support • reaches for toys while on tummy • reaches both hands to play with feet and transfers a toy from one hand to the other while lying on back • releases objects into a container with a large opening • takes several independent steps • moves in and out of various positions to explore environment and get desired toys • stands alone • pulls to stand and cruises along furniture • uses thumb and pointer finger to pick up tiny objects • maintains balance in sitting when throwing objects • claps hands
  21. 21. • Sensory Milestones: An infant • attempts to reach for a toy held above their chest, visually tracks a moving toy from side to side, keeps head centered to watch faces or toys while lying on back • is able to calm with rocking, touching and gentle sounds • enjoys a variety of movements • uses both hand to explore toys • is generally happy when not hungry or tired • brings hands and objects to mouth • is not upset by everyday sounds • enjoys a variety of movements
  22. 22. • Communication Milestones: An infant • quiets or smiles in response to sound or voice • turns head towards sound or voice • shows interest in faces • makes eye contact • cries differently for different needs (e.g. hungry vs. tired) • coos and smiles • listens and responds when spoken to • begins to use consonant sounds in babbling, e.g. “da,da,da” • reacts to sudden noises or sounds • uses babbling to get attention • makes different kinds of sounds to express feelings • notices toys that make sounds
  23. 23. •Feeding Milestones: An infant • latches on to a nipple or bottle • moves tongue forward and back to suck • drinks 2 oz to 6 oz of liquid per feeding, 6 times per day • sucks and swallows well during feeding • shows interest in food • begins to eat cereals and pureed foods • opens mouth as spoon approaches • moves pureed food from front of mouth to back • Finger feeds self • Is eating an increasing variety of food • Is ready to try soft fruits, soft-cooked vegetables and finger foods • Enjoys a great variety of smells and tastes • Might be ready to start self feeding with utensils • Begins to use an open cup
  24. 24. Features of Cognitive Development • Realizes that the world exist even if he/she cannot see it (object permanence) • Unable to see the perspective of other (egocentric) • Absence of logical thinking • Believes that all things (living and nonliving) possess life and feelings • Indulges in fantasy and make-believe play • Easily confused by surface appearances • Uneven attention • Limited memory • Confused about causal relationships • Acquires basic concepts of color, shape, size, number, days etc. • High level of curiosity • Language changes from tow word utterances to full sentences and grammatical usage Characteristics of Development in Early Childhood (2 to 6 years of age)
  25. 25. Features of Physical Development • At 2 years: A child • is 23-30 pounds in weight, 32-35 inches in height • is capable of bowel and bladder control • can run, kick a ball, build a 3 cube tower • At 2-3 years: A child • is 32-33 pounds in weight and 37-38 inches in height • can jump of a step, ride a tricycle, use crayons, build a 8 cube tower etc. • At 3-4 years: A child • is 38-40 pounds in weight and 40-41 inches in height • is self-sufficient in many routines in house e.g. dressing • can stand on one leg, jump up and down, draw a circle and a cross etc. • At 4-5 years: A child • is 42-43 pounds in weight, 43-44 inches in height • has mature motor control, skips on him/her self, do long jump, copy a square and a triangle
  26. 26. Features of Emotional Development • At 2 years: A child • throws temper tantrums • resents new baby (if present) • has negativism • At 2-3 years: A child • fears separation from others • is negativistic • differentiates facial expressions of anger, sorrow and joy • has sense of humor • At 3-4 years: A child • displays affection towards parent • pleasure in genital manipulation • imaginary fears of dark, monsters, injury etc. • At 4-5 years: A child • experiences feelings of responsibility and guilt • feels pride in accomplishment
  27. 27. Features of Social Development • At 2 years: A child • does opposite of what he is told • At 2-3 years: A child • copies parent’s action • is dependent, clinging • is possessive • enjoys playing alongside a child • At 3-4 years: A child • learns to share • has cooperative play with other children • may enter nursery school • begins to identify with same “sex parent” • imaginary friends • interest in human body • practices sex role activities • At 4-5 years: A child • prefers to play with other children • becomes competitive
  28. 28. Atypical development is when development doesn't follow the normal course. It could include things like learning and social disabilities and disorders.
  29. 29. • Not rolling by 7 months of age • Not pushing up on straight arms, lifting his head and shoulders, by 8 months of age • Not sitting independently by 10 months of age • Not crawling ("commando" crawling--moving across the floor on his belly) by 10 months of age • Not creeping (on all fours, what is typically called "crawling") by 12 months of age • Not sitting upright in a child-sized chair by 12 months of age • Not pulling to stand by 12 months of age • Not standing alone by 14 months of age • Not walking by 18 months of age • Not jumping by 30 months of age • Not independent on stairs (up and down) by 30 months of age ...an early intervention/developmental therapy referral may be appropriate. Gross Motor: If a child is...
  30. 30. • "walking" their hands up their bodies to achieve a standing position • only walking on their toes, not the soles of their feet • frequently falling/tripping, for no apparent reason • still "toeing in" at two years of age • unusual creeping patterns • any known medical diagnosis can be considered a "red flag": Down's syndrome, cerebral palsy, congenital heart condition etc. Here are some other gross motor "red flags":
  31. 31. • Frequently in a fisted position with both hands after 6 months of age • Not bringing both hands to midline (center of body) by 10 months of age • Not banging objects together by 10 months of age • Not clapping their hands by 12 months of age • Not deliberately and immediately releasing objects by 12 months of age • Not able to tip and hold their bottle by themselves and keep it up, without lying down, by 12 months of age • Still using a fisted grasp to hold a crayon at 18 months of age • Not using a mature pincer grasp (thumb and index finger, pad to pad) by 18 months of age • Not imitating a drawing of a vertical line by 24 months of age • Not able to snip with scissors by 30 months Fine Motor: If a child is...
  32. 32. • Not imitating body action on a doll by 15 months of age (ie, kiss the baby, feed the baby) • Not able to match two sets of objects by item by 27 months of age (ie, blocks in one container and people in another) • Not able to imitate a model from memory by 27 months (ie, show me how you brush your teeth) • Not able to match two sets of objects by color by 31 months of age • Having difficulty problem solving during activities in comparison to his/her peers • Unaware of changes in his/her environment and routine Cognition/ Problem Solving: If a child is...
  33. 33. • Very busy, always on the go, and has a very short attention to task • Often lethargic or low arousal (appears to be tired/slow to respond, all the time, even after a nap) • A picky eater • Not aware of when they get hurt (no crying, startle, or reaction to injury) • Afraid of swinging/movement activities; does not like to be picked up or be upside down • Showing difficulty learning new activities (motor planning) • Having a hard time calming themselves down appropriately • Appearing to be constantly moving around, even while sitting Sensory: If a child is...
  34. 34. • Showing poor or no eye contact • Frequently jumping and/or purposely falling to the floor/crashing into things • Seeking opportunities to fall without regard to his/her safety or that of others • Constantly touching everything they see, including other children • Hypotonic (floppy body, like a wet noodle) • Having a difficult time with transitions between activity or location • Overly upset with change in routine • Hates bath time or grooming activities such as; tooth brushing, hair brushing, hair cuts, having nails cut, etc. • Afraid of/aversive to/avoids being messy, or touching different textures such as grass, sand, carpet, paint, playdoh, etc. (Continuation) Sensory: If a child is...
  35. 35. • Having difficulty biting or chewing food during mealtime • Needing a prolonged period of time to chew and/or swallow • Coughing/choking during or after eating on a regular basis • Demonstrating a change in vocal quality during/after eating (i.e. they sound gurgled or hoarse when speaking/making sounds) • Having significant difficulty transitioning between different food stages • Not feeding him/herself finger foods by 14 months of age • Not attempting to use a spoon by 15 months of age • Not picking up and drinking from a regular open cup by 15 months of age • Not able to pull off hat, socks or mittens on request by 15 months of age • Not attempting to wash own hands or face by 19 months • Not assisting with dressing tasks (excluding clothes fasteners) by 22 months • Not able to deliberately undo large buttons, snaps and shoelaces by 34 months Self-care: If a child is...
  36. 36. Social/ Emotional/ Play Skills: If a child is... • Not smiling by 4 months • Not making eye contact during activities and interacting with peers and/or adults • Not performing for social attention by 12 months • Not imitating actions and movements by the age of 24 months • Not engaging in pretend play by the age of 24 months • Not demonstrating appropriate play with an object (i.e. instead of trying to put objects into a container, the child leaves the objects in the container and keeps flicking them with his fingers) • Fixating on objects that spin or turn (i.e. See 'n Say, toy cars, etc.); also children who are trying to spin things that are not normally spun • Having significant difficulty attending to tasks • Getting overly upset with change or transitions from activity to activity
  37. 37. Final Thought!
  38. 38. References: 1. Armstrong, K.H. et al. (2014) Evidence-Based Interventions for Children with Challenging Behavior : Early Childhood Development Theories. Springer Science-Business Media New York, 21-30. 2. Decker, Celia Anita Ed.D. (2016) Child Development Principles and Theories. Goodheart-Willcox Co, Inc., 68- 87. 3. Kendra, Cherry. (2017) Child Developmental Theories and Examples, Some Key Ideas About How Children Grow and Develop. [Online] Available: https://www.verywell.com/child-development- theories-2795068 [Accessed 8 August 2017] 4. Zimmerman, Jennifer (2015) The Difference Between Typical and Atypical Development in Children. [Online] Available: http://www.livestrong.com/article/561905-the-difference-between- typical-and-atypical-development-in-children/ [Accessed 10 August 2017] 5. Pathways. Assuring the Best for All Children’s Development. [Online Video Files] Available: http://pathways.org/growth-development 6. A Child Developmental Checklist: Find Out When Early Intervention Or Developmental Therapy May Be Needed [Online] Available: http://www.sensory-processing-disorder.com/child-developmental- checklist.html 7. Developmental Patterns in Early Childhood. 61- 80. [Online] Available: http://download.nos.org/srsec328newE/328%20Optional%20Module%20B%20L26.pdf
  39. 39. Photo Credits: 1. www.slate.com 2. www.sp.depositphotos.com 3. www.google.com/images

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