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Behavioral problems by M.Ram Naik


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Behavioral problems by M.Ram Naik

  1. 1. -RamNaik.M 7th Semester
  2. 2. BEHAVIOUR  Range of actions and mannerisms made by organisms or systems or artificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.  It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli/inputs, whether internal/external; conscious/ subconscious; overt/covert and voluntary/involuntary.
  3. 3. Development of Behaviour Motor Development Adaptive Development Language Development Personal-Social Development Motor Adaptive Personal & Social Language
  4. 4. BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS Antisocial nature Personality disorders Habit disordersPsychosomatic disorders Educational disorders Stealing, Lying, Gambling, Cruelty, Sexual Offences, Destructiveness Jealousy Day dreaming Timidity Shyness Anxiety Hysteria unsociability Masturbation Thumb suckling Bed wetting Nail biting Tremors Headache Asthma Depression Delusion hallucination School phobia School failures Backwardness
  5. 5. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY (under age violation of the law)  Juvenile: A boy under 16 years or a girl under 18 years of age.  Delinquent(The Children’s Act 1960) : A child who has committed an offense • Delinquency is not merely “juvenile crime”. • Includes all deviations from normal youthful behaviour. Eg: Children who are habitually disobedient, who desert homes, mix with immoral people, those with behavioural problems, indulging in antisocial practices.
  6. 6. Incidence: • 20% of all children and youth are at some time officially delinquent  In US  2% of children between 7 & 17 years attend juvenile courts.  India  Increasing during the past 2-3 years due to changes in cultural pattern of people, urbanization and industrialization.  Highest incidence  15 years & above  Among boys  4-5 times more than girls
  7. 7. Juvenile delinquency activities include: Substance abuse Gang Involvement Early sexual activities Public and Private Vandalism
  8. 8. STRAIN THEORY Crime is caused by the difficulty faced in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means by those in poverty DIFFERENTIAL THEORY Young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers and learn criminal skills from them LABELLING THEORY Once labeled as deviant a young person may accept that role and be more likely to associate with others who have been similarly labelled MALE PHENOMENON Youth crime is disproportionately committed by young men THEORIES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
  9. 9. Causes:  Feeble mindedness  Physical defects  Glandular abnormalities Biological Social Genetic ? Others Urbanization Industrialization Sex thrillers Cheap recreation Cinemas and TV Step parents  Separated parents  Death of parents Disturbed home conditions Poverty, alcoholism, ignorance of child care, parental neglect, too many children Extra Y-chromosome  XYY genotype
  10. 10. PREVENTIVE MEASURES • Juvenile Delinquency Court • Improvement of family life: – Well-adjusted family. – Parents prepared for parenthood. – Meeting needs of children. • Schooling: – Healthy teacher pupil relationship. • Social welfare services: – Recreation facilities – Parent counseling – Child guidance – Educational facilities – Adequate general health services.
  11. 11. CHILDREN IN DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES Girl Child Homeless Street children Migrants & refugees Working children Trafficked children Victims of crime Orphaned or abandoned Children affected by conflict Children affected by HIV/AIDS Children with disabilities Children in bondage & prostitution Children of ethnic and religious minorities Children belonging to SCs, STs Children of prisoners& sex workers
  13. 13. Battered baby syndrome is defined as “a clinical condition in young children, usually under 3years of age who have received non-accidental wholly inexcusable violence or injury, on one or more occasions, including minimal as well as fatal trauma, for what is often the most trivial provocation, by the hand of an adult in a position of trust, generally a parent, guardian or foster parent. In addition to physical injury, there may be deprivation of nutrition, care and affection in circumstances which indicates that deprivation is not accidental”
  14. 14. Risk factors • Low SES, • Age <1yr, • Inconsolable crying, • Step children, Symptoms • Delayed visit to the emergency room with an injured child; • An implausible explanation of the cause of a child's injury; • Bruises that match the shape of a hand, fist or belt; cigarette burns; scald marks; bite marks; black eyes; unconsciousness; bruises around the neck; and • A bulging fontanel in infants. Diagnosis • By an emergency room physician or pediatrician, or by teachers or social workers. • The presence of injuries at different stages of healing (i.e. having occurred at different times) is nearly always indicative of BCS • Often hindered by the excessive cautiousness of caregivers or by actual concealment of the true origin of the child. • Young parents, • Multiple children, • Substance abuse, • Poor impulse control, • Negative childhood experiences.
  15. 15. TREATMENT Primary: Focus on effect of crying on parents & caregivers. Coping skills r/t crying & stress it provokes. Prenatal visits/classes. Routine office visits. Normal & preterm development teaching. Realistic expectations of infant behaviour. Encourage sharing feelings of inadequacy and helplessness.
  16. 16. Treatment(contd…) • If suspected, Notified ASAP- promptly investigate allegations. • Continuous observation. • Laboratory Studies. • Anemia, Coagulation changes, and High Amylase (pancreatic damage), and Transaminase levels (liver damage). • Diagnostic tests: • MRI, CT, X-ray. Secondary • Medical intervention. • Assessment for decline in patient status. Tertiary
  17. 17.  Trafficking  Frequent illness  Anemia, IFA def  Child marriage  Low literacy  Poor health& attention  Child-mother and child bearing  Denied information  Domestic violence & Dowry  STDs, HIV/AIDS  Unpaid works o Discrimination in food o Domestic duties o Nutritional anemia o Poorer health assistance o Vitamin deficiency o Micronutrient deficiency o Discrimination in parent care o Household/near home sexual abuse o Child marriages?  Being unwanted  Foeticide  Infanticide  Health neglect  Discrimination in breast feeding& infant food Girl Child • Malnutrition • Anemia • IFA deficiency • Child trafficking • Child labour • Abuse& exploitation • Domestic duties • Look after siblings • Restriction on mobility, play GIRL CHILD AND GENDER BIAS
  18. 18. Title in here  Being unwanted  Foeticide  Infanticide  Health neglect  Discrimination in breast feeding& infant food o Discrimination in food o Discrimination in parent care o Poorer health assistance o Nutritional anemia o Vitamin deficiency o Micronutrient deficiency o Domestic duties o Household/near home sexual abuse o Child marriages? • Malnutrition • Anemia • IFA deficiency • Child trafficking • Child labour • Abuse& exploitation • Domestic duties • Look after siblings • Restriction on mobility, play Before birth-1year 1 to 5 years 6 to 11 years 12 to 18 years  Poor health& attention  Frequent illness  Anemia, IFA def  Child marriage  Child-mother  Child bearing  Trafficking  Low literacy  Denied information  Domestic violence  Dowry harassment  STDs, HIV/AIDS  Unpaid works
  19. 19. National Plan For Action Of Children-2005 The Specific Goals For Girls @ Assurance of equality of status for girl child as an individual& citizen @ Ensure survival, development & protection of girl child @ Create an environment wherein she lives with dignity and opportunity @ To stop sex selection, female foeticide& infanticide @ Eliminate child marriages @ Ensure girl child’s security and protection from abuse, exploitation, violence @ Protect her from neglect and deprivation @ Ensure equal share of care& resources in home and community @ Measures to protect girl child from any treatment which undermines their self- esteem and causes their exclusion from social main stream @ Eliminate all obstacles that prevent girls from full enjoyment of human rights @ Health and nutrition @ Equal opportunity for free and compulsory elementary education to all girls.
  20. 20. CHILD ABUSE In 1999, the WHO Consultation on Child Abuse Prevention compared definitions of abuse from 58 countries and drafted the following definition: ‘‘Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill- treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.’’
  21. 21. Types of Child Abuse Physical 34% Sexual 30% Emotional 8% Neglect 28% Physical Sexual Emtional Neglect
  22. 22. Physical effects 1. Unexplained burns, cuts, bruises. 2. Bite marks 3. Anti-social behavior 4. Problems in school 5. Fear of adults Emotional effects 1. Apathy 2. Depression 3. Hostility or stress 4. Lack of concentration 5. Eating disorders Sexual effects 1. Inappropriate interest or knowledge of sexual acts 2. Nightmares and bed wetting 3. Drastic changes in appetite 4. Over compliance 5. Fear of a particular person or family member Neglect 1. Unsuitable clothing for weather 2. Appearance is dirty or unbathed 3. Extreme hunger 4. Apparent lack of supervision EARLY EFFECTS OF CHILD ABUSE
  23. 23. • Poor physical health • Battered baby syndrome/ shaken baby syndrome • Impaired brain development Physical consequences: • Difficulties during infancy: Depression and withdrawal symptoms • Social difficulties: antisocial traits • Cognition difficulties • Poor mental and emotional health : depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts , panic disorder, dissociative disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, anger, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder Psychological consequences • Difficulties during adolescence. • Juvenile delinquency and adult criminality. • Alcohol and other drug abuse. • Abusive behavior. Behavioural consequences: LATE or DELAYED CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE
  24. 24. PREVENTION • Never discipline your child when your anger is out of control. • Participate in your child’s activities and get to know your child’s friends. • Never leave your child unattended. • Teach your child the difference between “good touches,” “bad touches” and “confusing touches.” • When your child tells you he or she doesn’t want to be with someone, this could be a red flag. Listen to them and believe what they say. • Be aware of changes in your child’s behavior or attitude, and inquire into it. • Teach your child what to do if you and your child become separated while away from home. • Be alert for any talk that reveals premature sexual understanding. • Pay attention when someone shows greater than normal interest in your child.
  25. 25. LEGISLATION I. CAPTA: Child Abuse Prevention And Treatment Act II. Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act of 1988 III. Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants Reauthorization Act of 1989 IV. The Community-Based Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Grants program V. The Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants Reauthorization Act of 1989 VI. Child Abuse, Domestic Violence Adoption and Family Services Act of 1992 VII. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Amendments of 1992 VIII.Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003 IX. Reauthorized as CAPTA of 2010
  26. 26. What to do….. • Be open and understanding. • Don’t try to conduct an investigation, yourself. • If the child tells you of the sexual abuse immediately after it occurred, DO NOT bathe the child, or wash or change his or her clothes. • Let the child talk as much as he or she wishes. • Understand that the child is probably having mixed feelings. • Believe the child. • Explain what you will do next to help them.
  27. 27. Street Children
  28. 28. The term street children refers to children for whom the street more than their family has become their real home. It includes children who might not necessarily be homeless or without families, but who live in situations where there is no protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults. - Human Rights Watch
  29. 29. Problems in the street • Poverty, • Lack of education, • AIDS, • Prostitution, • All kinds of abuse, • Drugs, • Alcohol, • Murders.
  30. 30. UNICEF divides street children into two main categories:
  31. 31. UNICEF has defined three types of street children Street Living Children Children who ran away from their families and live alone on the streets. Street Working Children Children who spend most of their time on the streets, fending for themselves, but returning home on a regular basis. Children from Street Families Children who live on the streets with their families.
  32. 32. • Interventions: – Housing and educational opportunities – Employment – Rehabilitation of children – Voluntary government& non-governmental organizations. – Integrated programme for street children – Integrated child protection scheme • 24hours shelters, provides food, non-formal education, clothing, recreation, counselling and guidance for street children by NGOs.
  33. 33. CHILD MARRIAGE • Child marriage is a violation of human rights whether it happens to a girl or a boy, but it represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls. • The harmful consequences include separation from family and friends, lack of freedom to interact with peers and participate in community activities, and decreased opportunities for education. • Child marriage can also result in bonded labour or enslavement, commercial sexual exploitation and violence against the victims. • The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women recommends the age to be 18.
  34. 34. Legislation • The Sharada Act, 1929 • The Child Marriage Restrain Act, 1978 – 15 to 18yrs for girls; 18 to 21 years for boys • The Prohibition Of Child Marriage Act, 2006 – Prohibits rather than restraining – Makes child marriage an offence – Provision for punishment of those conducting/promoting/abetting/permitting
  35. 35. CHILD PLACEMENT ORPHA NAGES • For children with no home or who could not cared for by their parents. • Little opportunity for the child to experience warmth & intimacy of family life FOSTER HOMES • Temporary arrangement where the child lives with an extended or unrelated family member. • Biological parents doesnot lose their rights or responsibilities. • Aims at eventual re-union under better circumstances. ADOPTIO N • Adoptive parents have the same rights as biological parents. • Hindu Adoption and Maintanance Act, 1956. BORSTAL S • Children(>16) who are too difficult to be handled in a certified school or have misbehaved there. • Categorised between certified school and adult prison. • Sentenced for 3year duration. And meant for reformation REMAND HOMES • Under care of doctors, psychiartists and other trained personnel • Aims at improving mental, physical well being. • Elimentary schooling, teaching various arts, games and recreation activities.