Prevention of major accidents in road                   transportation of dangerous goods                 Adrian R. Gloor ...
 Swiss Major Accidents Ordinance (MAO)                                    Dangerous Goods on Swiss Roads                ...
Swiss MAO                                     GOAL of Swiss MAO:         •1982 Seveso Directive       Anyone who operates...
 Traffic loads from 2’000 to 140’000 vehicles                                     per day    The Swiss                   ...
Accidents        • Dangerous goods          transports include risks        • Major accidents are          rare        • A...
Open roads                                                  Tunnels                                            Analysis an...
F/N-Curves        • Frequency (F) of          occurance per year          and 100m                                        ...
Evaluation process                                   „Overall supervision of        • Two stage                the process...
„Surface Water“    Risk landscapes        • 90% on a low level        • Hot spots          - urban motorways          - mo...
„N02, City of Basel“    Motorways in urban    environment        • Traffic load > 80‘000          vehicles per day        ...
„N02, Lake of Lucern“    Surface water        • Traffic load > 40‘000          vehicles per day        • Direct drainage i...
„N01, interchange                                            Limmattal                                     (near the city ...
„N02, tunnel of St.Gotthard “    Tunnels        • Risks in tunnels          depend strongly on          safety equipment  ...
“FEDRO Standards and                                    Swiss norms includes the                                   “state-...
Reinforced guardrails    Additional    Safety measures        • In some cases the        E   Escape tunnels,          appl...
 Awarness of risks on the Swiss motorways and                                    knowledge on the driving risk parameters...
Thank you for your              attention !Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO   17
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Prevention of major accidents in road transportation of dangerous goods

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Adrian Robert GLOOR



ASTRA, Switzerland

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  • 7.6 million inhabitants 41,285 square kilometres 184 inhabitants per square kilometre Importance of the major urban centres The most important towns and urban centres are Zurich, Basel, Bern, Geneva and Lausanne. However, these are small in comparison with those in other countries. The population of Zurich, for example, is less than 400,000. 75 percent of the population live in urban centres.
  • 7.6 million inhabitants 41,285 square kilometres 184 inhabitants per square kilometre Importance of the major urban centres The most important towns and urban centres are Zurich, Basel, Bern, Geneva and Lausanne. However, these are small in comparison with those in other countries. The population of Zurich, for example, is less than 400,000. 75 percent of the population live in urban centres.
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • The Swiss motorway network There are 2,300 kilometres of cantonal roads in Switzerland, which are the responsibility of the authorities of the 26 cantons. And there are around 1,760 kilometres of motorway, which are the responsibility of FEDRO. As of the end of 2008 a total of 1,760 kilometres of motorway were in operation: 7-lane sections: 1.2 kilometres 6-lane stretches: 80.7 kilometres 4-lane stretches: 1,300.8 kilometres 3-lane stretches: 1.9 kilometres 2-lane stretches: 269.5 kilometres Mixed stretches: 111.5 kilometres
  • Prevention of major accidents in road transportation of dangerous goods

    1. 1. Prevention of major accidents in road transportation of dangerous goods Adrian R. Gloor Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO)Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 1
    2. 2.  Swiss Major Accidents Ordinance (MAO)  Dangerous Goods on Swiss Roads  Risk studies Content  F/N-Curves and risk criteria  Evaluation process  Risk landscape of the Swiss motorway network  Safety measures  Impacts/ConclusionsSwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 2
    3. 3. Swiss MAO  GOAL of Swiss MAO: •1982 Seveso Directive Anyone who operates installations which, in exceptional circumstances, could seriously •1982 Swiss damage people or their natural environment Environmental must take the measures required to protect the Protection Act, Art. 10 population and the environment. disaster prevention •1986 Schweizerhalle/ “In contrast to the Seveso Directive, the Sandoz fire accident Swiss MAO includes the transportation of •1991 Swiss Major dangerous goods on traffic routes.” ! (Motorways, railways and Rhine river navigation ) Accident Ordinance (MAO)Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 3
    4. 4.  Traffic loads from 2’000 to 140’000 vehicles per day The Swiss  0.5% of traffic is transporting dangerous goods motorway network • 1799 km network  75% of dangerous goods are combustibles • 228 tunnels  Densely populated areas in the economic center • In a rural and urban of Switzerland environment „Bern - Basel - Dangerous Goods Zurich – Lucern“ • 13.6 Mio t / a • 752 Mio t km / a !Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 4
    5. 5. Accidents • Dangerous goods transports include risks • Major accidents are rare • Aversion • How to prevent? „Bern - Basel - Zurich – Lucern“ • How to keep on a low level ?Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 5
    6. 6. Open roads Tunnels Analysis and evaluation of DG risks Analysis and evaluation of DG risks Owners summary report Risk study Owners summary report Risk study Risk studies Hs = ASV * AGS * ... Hs = ASV * AGS * ... • Frequency of accidents • Standard models for Art. 3 StFV Art. 8 StFV damage scenarios Structural / Operational / Structural / Operational / - fires technical Organisational technical Organisational - explosions, BLEVE Safety Restrictions DG Safety Restrictions DG Drainage measures measures Convoy Convoy - release of toxic gases Crash barrier ... ... ... - release of water pollutants • Tunnels and open ADR 2007 / SDR roads „Risks are calculated in sections of 100 m over the whole network“ Organisational measures: Categorisation according to ADR 2007/2009Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 6
    7. 7. F/N-Curves • Frequency (F) of occurance per year and 100m Risk is not acceptable Tr an • Damage (N) sit io na - fatalities rea → as - polluted se sm surface water Risk is acceptable en t by t he - loss of drinking water au th o rit y Risk criteria Number of fatalities • F x Na = k • Aversion (a) = 2 „Risks in the transition area have to be reduced, only if it is economically feasible and reasonable.“Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 7
    8. 8. Evaluation process „Overall supervision of • Two stage the process is carried investigation process out by the Federal office for the environment (FOEN) .“ (1)Summary report (2)Detailed risk studiesSwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 8
    9. 9. „Surface Water“ Risk landscapes • 90% on a low level • Hot spots - urban motorways - motorways along rivers and lakesides - crossing ground water areas which are used for drinking water supply „Population“Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 9
    10. 10. „N02, City of Basel“ Motorways in urban environment • Traffic load > 80‘000 vehicles per day • Population densitiy > 1‘000 persons per km2Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 10
    11. 11. „N02, Lake of Lucern“ Surface water • Traffic load > 40‘000 vehicles per day • Direct drainage into surface watersSwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 11
    12. 12. „N01, interchange Limmattal (near the city of Zurich)“ Ground water • Traffic load > 20‘000 vehicles per day • Amount of drinking water used > 2‘500 liter per minute • Cover of ground water carrier partially permeable and < 10mSwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 12
    13. 13. „N02, tunnel of St.Gotthard “ Tunnels • Risks in tunnels depend strongly on safety equipment • Due to high risks 7 tunnels are closed for transport of dangerous goods. (ADR categorie “E“) ESwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 13
    14. 14. “FEDRO Standards and Swiss norms includes the “state-of-the-art” on safety Safety measures technology.” • Structure “To keep the risks • Technology low, these must be • Organization considered mandatory.” • MAO risk studies have a strong influence on the develeopment of motorway standards and normsSwiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 14
    15. 15. Reinforced guardrails Additional Safety measures • In some cases the E Escape tunnels, application of closure for DG trucks standards and norms does not reduce the risks sufficiently Sealing embankment • Additional safety to protect ground water measures have to be of as e nt es h l taken ipm ervic idua qu s “E ncy s e re Special traffic routing, reducing accident rates e em o c t th erg over isks” r !Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 15
    16. 16.  Awarness of risks on the Swiss motorways and knowledge on the driving risk parameters  Guidelines for the development/adaption of norms and standards in road construction Impacts  Continuous reduction of risks through the Conclusions • What are the application of these norms and standards as part advantages of Swiss of road maintenance MAO for motorways ?  Insights for the adaption of the ADR-regulations “20 years after the introduction of Swiss MAO, Risk considerations are today an integral part of Swiss road construction.”Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 16
    17. 17. Thank you for your attention !Swiss Federal Roads Office FEDRO 17

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