Last But Not Least - Managing The Indexing Process


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Focused on editors and authors who need to understand how to deal with indexes as part of the publishing process. Includes indexing basics and best practices, as well as guides for managing the editor-author-indexer relationship.

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Last But Not Least - Managing The Indexing Process

  1. 1. Last But Not Least: Managing the Indexing Process <ul><li>Presented by Fred Leise </li></ul><ul><li>ContextualAnalysis, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Graham School of General Studies </li></ul><ul><li>October 23–24, 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. About Fred <ul><li>Immediate Past-President, American Society for Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Owner, ContextualAnalysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specializing in taxonomy development and information architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. About Fred <ul><li>Freelance back-of-book indexer since 1995 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarly texts in the humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded indexing using InDesign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade books </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. About Fred <ul><li>Recent Indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates and the Fat Rabbis (UC Press) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPod: The Missing Manual (O’Reilly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing with Web Standards (Peachpit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Politics of Intelligence Sharing (Columbia Univ. Pr.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World History For Dummies (Wiley) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. About Fred <ul><li>Recent Taxonomy Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Mathematical Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripps Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disney Studios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harpo, Inc. ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow Corning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbott Laboratories </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Participant Introductions <ul><li>Tell us about yourself, including your experience with indexers and the indexing process. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Participant Introductions <ul><li>What is the single most important question you would like to have answered by the end of the course? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Course Schedule <ul><li>9:00 Start </li></ul><ul><li>10:30–10:45 Morning Break </li></ul><ul><li>12:00–1:30 Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>3:00–3:15 Afternoon Break </li></ul><ul><li>4:30 End </li></ul>
  9. 9. Goals for This Course <ul><li>Increase your basic understanding of indexes and index creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable you to recognize good indexes as well as problem indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your ability to edit submitted indexes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Goals for This Course <ul><li>Improve your skills for managing the indexing process and the editor-author-indexer relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to ask questions or contribute examples at any time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Course Overview <ul><li>1. What are indexes? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Index structure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Characteristics of good indexes/indexing best practices </li></ul><ul><li>4. Index style and format </li></ul><ul><li>5. Indexing process </li></ul>
  12. 12. Course Overview <ul><li>6. Finding and hiring indexers </li></ul><ul><li>7. Editor-author-indexer relationship </li></ul><ul><li>8. Index review/index revisions </li></ul><ul><li>9. Managing large indexing projects </li></ul><ul><li>10. Revised editions </li></ul>
  13. 13. About Indexes
  14. 14. Exercise <ul><li>“Jack and Jill” </li></ul><ul><li>[handouts, page 2] </li></ul>
  15. 15. About Indexes <ul><li>What is an Index? </li></ul>An index is not a concordance (a complete listing of every word in the text).
  16. 16. About Indexes An index is a structured sequence—resulting from a thorough and complete analysis of text—of synthesized access points to all the information contained in the text. Mulvany, Indexing Books An index is a structured sequence —resulting from a thorough and complete analysis of text —of synthesized access points to all the information contained in the text. Mulvany, Indexing Books
  17. 17. About Indexes <ul><li>What is an Index? </li></ul><ul><li>An index points to the relevant text without repeating it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry VIII residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry VIII residence at Whitehall Palace </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. About Indexes: Users <ul><li>Pre-purchase evaluators </li></ul><ul><li>Index referers, e.g., librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Information re-finders </li></ul><ul><li>Citation gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>[Vanity users] </li></ul>
  19. 19. About Indexes: Users <ul><li>Lay audience </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul>
  20. 20. Business Context <ul><li>Purpose of index? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication as index ( Reader’s Guide ) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. About Indexes: Content <ul><li>Type of book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>El-Hi textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical manual </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Publication Context <ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time allowed for indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index exhaustivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space available for index </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Publication Context <ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many indexes should this text have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If more than one, what kinds? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who makes that decision? Production editor? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Numbers and Types of Indexes <ul><li>Multiple indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be required by different organizational scheme, e.g., geographic versus alphabetical order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required for different function: poetry first-line index versus subject index </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Numbers and Types of Indexes <ul><li>Multiple indexes, problems of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User may not realize there are multiple indexes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use running heads/footers to alert user? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Numbers and Types of Indexes <ul><li>Multiple indexes, problems of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-index references are awkward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Truman, Harry. See also Truman administration in subject index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Truman administration. See also Truman, Harry in name index </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Types of Indexes <ul><li>Geographic indexes (maps) </li></ul><ul><li>Name indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Genealogic indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical references index </li></ul><ul><li>Legal case indexes </li></ul><ul><li>[text, pp. 13–23] </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Indexes <ul><li>Title indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific name indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Author indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical names indexes </li></ul>
  29. 29. Types of Indexes <ul><li>Numerical indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Melodic indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Citation indexes </li></ul><ul><li>Other types? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Index Structure
  31. 31. Index Structure <ul><li>1. Headnote (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Arrays (entries) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Index Structure <ul><li>Headnote: explains particular/unusual usage in the index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VW refers to Virginia Woolf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures are indicated by an “f” after the page number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major discussions are indicated in bold. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Index Structure <ul><li>Headnote: explains particular/unusual indexing decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The appendices have not been indexed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While the text uses both Wade-Giles and Pinyin romanization, names in the index are given using Pinyin. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Index Structure <ul><li>Headnote: explains particular/unusual indexing decisions </li></ul>
  35. 35. Index Structure <ul><li>Arrays (entries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headings (main headings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-references </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas (subjects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covering different subject granularities, both general and specific topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nouns or noun phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives generally not used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs (for technical manuals) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Searchable order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some possible ordering schemes for headings? </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Searchable order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Exercise <ul><li>Headings: Searchable order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetical order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[handouts, page 3] </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter-by-letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word-by-word </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Alphabetical Filing Systems <ul><li>Letter-by-Letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetize ignoring spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue alphabetizing until the first punctuation mark (usually a comma) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Alphabetical Filing Systems <ul><li>Word-by-Word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabetize on first word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If two headings share the same first word, sort the second word. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Alphabetical Filing Systems <ul><li>Word-by-Word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If any two words share the same beginning letter sequence, but one word is longer than the other, the shorter precedes the longer. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Alphabetical Filing Systems Word-by-word is clearer for the reader and is generally preferred
  46. 49. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places-Names-Subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Park Place Park, Nora Park rehabilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Generally outdated, but may be used in some instances.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of numbers in alpha-order index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate section before alphas? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Index Structure <ul><li>Palm Pre: The Missing Manual, O’Reilly </li></ul>
  49. 52. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of numbers in alpha-order index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As if spelled out and interfiled or as spoken? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is 1025 spelled and spoken? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 53. Index Structure <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of symbols in alpha-order index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate section before alphas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As if spelled out/meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem of determining order </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Exercise <ul><li>Headings: Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of symbols in alpha-order index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[handouts, page 4] </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. Exercise <ul><li>5 R’s of iPod repair </li></ul><ul><li>± (Add bookmark) button </li></ul><ul><li>” (Back) button </li></ul><ul><li>} (Bookmarks) button </li></ul><ul><li>} button (YouTube) </li></ul><ul><li>¬ button (YouTube) </li></ul><ul><li>’ (Forward) button </li></ul><ul><li>ƒ (Reload) button </li></ul><ul><li>: ; (Page Juggler) </li></ul><ul><li>1928 </li></ul>5 R’s of iPod repair ± (Add bookmark) button [U+00b1] ” (Back) button [U+0022] } (Bookmarks) button [U+007D] } button (YouTube) [U+007D] ¬ button (YouTube) [U+00ac] ’ (Forward) button [U+0027] ƒ (Reload) button [U+0191] : ; (Page Juggler) [U+003a, U+003b] 1928 5 R’s of iPod repair ± (Add bookmark) button [U+00b1] (plus-minus sign) ” (Back) button [U+0022] (quotation mark) } (Bookmarks) button [U+007D] (close parenthesis) } button (YouTube) [U+007D] (close parenthesis) ¬ button (YouTube) [U+00ac] (“not” sign) ’ (Forward) button [U+0027] (apostrophe) ƒ (Reload) button [U+0191] : ; (Page Juggler) [U+003a, U+003b] (colon, semi-colon) 1928
  53. 56. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide specific context for instance of heading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disambiguate long locator strings </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. <ul><li>Building Enterprise Taxonomies (Stewart) </li></ul>
  55. 58. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheading-Heading Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole-part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automobile drive shaft </li></ul></ul>
  56. 59. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheading-Heading Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity-characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>egg yolks protein concentrations in </li></ul></ul>
  57. 60. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheading-Heading Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity-action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPod Touch ejecting from computer </li></ul></ul>
  58. 61. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheading-Heading Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entity-context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt, Franklin at Yalta conference </li></ul></ul>
  59. 62. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheading-Heading Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genealogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt Eleanor Franklin Theodore </li></ul></ul>
  60. 63. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheadings: Numbers of levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woolf , Virginia novels Between the Acts plot additions, 414–415 </li></ul></ul>
  61. 64. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheadings: Numbers of levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woolf , Virginia novels, Between the Acts plot additions, 414–415 novels, Jacob’s Room arrival of proofs of, 257 </li></ul></ul>
  62. 65. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions: mandatory or optional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions: mandatory or optional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apostle definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apostle definition of </li></ul></ul>
  63. 66. Index Structure <ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositions: for meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, John corrections of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, John corrections by </li></ul></ul>
  64. 67. Index Structure Subheadings, classified vocal ensembles [choral ensembles] [singing groups] American Boy Choir Dale Warland Chorale Minnesota Chorale Vancouver Chamber Singers
  65. 68. Index Structure <ul><li>Locators: Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable users to find the specific piece of information pointed to from the index </li></ul></ul>
  66. 69. Index Structure <ul><li>Locators: Types </li></ul><ul><li>Locators: Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Section numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph numbers </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Index Structure <ul><li>Locators: Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map number/grid number 42:D3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume/page number IV: 28 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year/volume/page 1928:III:72 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodical name/year/volume/page JAMA 1928:III:72–84 </li></ul></ul>
  68. 71. Index Structure <ul><li>Cross-References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See also references </li></ul></ul>
  69. 72. Index Structure <ul><li>See references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: vocabulary control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads from non-preferred (entry) term to preferred term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cancer. See oncology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never include locators </li></ul></ul>
  70. 73. Index Structure <ul><li>See references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doud, Mamie. See Eisenhower, Mamie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudonyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clemens, Samuel. See Twain, Mark </li></ul></ul>
  71. 74. Index Structure <ul><li>See references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peace. See war and peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seriocomic. See spoudogeloion </li></ul></ul>
  72. 75. Index Structure <ul><li>See references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inversions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rabbinic literature. See literature, rabbinic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN. See United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  73. 76. Index Structure <ul><li>See references, general </li></ul><ul><li>Indians. See names of specific tribes </li></ul>
  74. 77. Index Structure <ul><li>See references, from subheadings </li></ul><ul><li>China foreign incursions in, 22, 47 nationalism in,129 trading partners. See trade weapons production, 228 </li></ul>
  75. 78. Index Structure <ul><li>Double-posting versus See reference </li></ul><ul><li>cats care of, 27 feeding, 92, 143 grooming, 14 … felines. See cats </li></ul>
  76. 79. Index Structure <ul><li>Double-posting versus See reference </li></ul><ul><li>cats, 27, 92, 143 … felines, 27, 92, 143 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: locators must be parallel </li></ul>
  77. 80. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references </li></ul><ul><li>Lead user to additional, closely related material found on different pages than in current array </li></ul><ul><li>horses, 27. See also zebras </li></ul>
  78. 81. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references </li></ul><ul><li>Broader to narrow references </li></ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul><ul><li> bundled functionality, 101–104 </li></ul><ul><li> wall-mountability, 101 </li></ul><ul><li> WPA support, 167 </li></ul><ul><li> See also access point; router </li></ul>
  79. 82. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references </li></ul><ul><li>Broader to narrow references </li></ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul><ul><li> See also access point; router </li></ul><ul><li> bundled functionality, 101–104 </li></ul><ul><li> wall-mountability, 101 </li></ul><ul><li> WPA support, 167 </li></ul>
  80. 83. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references </li></ul><ul><li>Broader to narrow references </li></ul><ul><li>equipment . See also access point; router </li></ul><ul><li> bundled functionality, 101–104 </li></ul><ul><li> wall-mountability, 101 </li></ul><ul><li> WPA support, 167 </li></ul>
  81. 84. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dialogue ( dialegesthai ). See also dialectic; monologism; rhetoric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>memory, 28-32. See also forgetfulness </li></ul></ul>
  82. 85. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references, general </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. foreign policy, 42 trade, 198, 207 wars, 44, 73, 224 See also names of individual presidents </li></ul>
  83. 86. Index Structure <ul><li>See also references, from subheading </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. foreign policy, 42 trade, 198, 207 wars, 44, 73, 224 ( See also WWII) See also names of individual presidents </li></ul>
  84. 87. Indexing Best Practices
  85. 88. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Collocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The index brings all mentions of a topic together in place. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Halicarnassos </li></ul><ul><li>Halicarnassus </li></ul><ul><li>Halikarnasos </li></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  86. 89. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Collocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“If you have an entry in your index, the reader will assume that all references to that topic are included in that entry…Each entry must be complete” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Mi Stauber, Facing the Text </li></ul>
  87. 90. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The index clearly separates information on different topics </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  88. 91. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>historical culture, 197n55 </li></ul><ul><li>historical education, 101 </li></ul><ul><li>historical sciences, 87–88 </li></ul><ul><li>historicism, modern, 101 </li></ul><ul><li>historicity, 86–87, 90–91, 114 </li></ul><ul><li>historiography, 7–8, 87, 99–102 </li></ul>
  89. 92. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Benham, Thomas (father) Benham, Thomas (son) </li></ul><ul><li>Episcopal Church (Ashland) Episcopal Church (Greenville) </li></ul>
  90. 93. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Exhaustivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index covers the entire ranges of significant concepts without including passing mentions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both major topics and specific discussions </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  91. 94. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Completeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct or through relevant cross-references, access to all discussions of each significant topic. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  92. 95. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Information Scent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading terms strongly indicate the content contained in that array. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>banks </li></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers <ul><li>Information Scent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading terms strongly indicate the content contained in that array. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>banks </li></ul><ul><li>banks (pool shots) </li></ul>
  93. 96. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Information Scent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heading terms strongly indicate the content contained in that array. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>stereos </li></ul><ul><li>wireless home stereo systems </li></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  94. 97. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Multiple Access Paths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-posts and cross-references offer readers multiple access paths to information (syndetic structure). </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  95. 98. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Literary Warrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology of main headings reflects author’s usage. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  96. 99. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>User Warrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional entry terms lead users from common terms to the language used by the author. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>service area. See SSID (service set identifier) </li></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  97. 100. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index displays consistency at all levels, from technical aspects of formatting to levels of indexing exhaustivity and phrasing. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  98. 101. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Audience-Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index is appropriate for intended audience, in both format and terminology. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  99. 102. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Author-Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index accurately reflects author’s point of view without adding any bias or editorializing by the indexer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>religion, evils of </li></ul><ul><li>religion, societal responses to </li></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  100. 103. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Metatopic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index provides readers with appropriate means of moving from metatopics to applicable secondary topics. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers <ul><li>Metatopic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index provides readers with appropriate means of moving from metatopics to applicable secondary topics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birds, 1–273 </li></ul></ul>
  101. 104. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Metatopic ( American’s Response to China ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China … See also Chinese Communist Party; extraterritoriality; Mao Tse-tung; Nationalist government; People's Republic of China; spheres of influence; Taiwan; trade; treaty ports; treaty system </li></ul></ul>
  102. 105. Exercise <ul><li>Identifying Metatopics </li></ul><ul><li>[handouts, pages 6–7] </li></ul>
  103. 106. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Locator Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate sub-headings provide specific context to the reader. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  104. 107. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index has been proofread. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index mirrors spelling and style of text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locators are accurate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locators for double-posts are mirrored. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  105. 108. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index adheres to standard style guidelines for format, capitalization, entry alphabetization, punctuation, and locator formation. </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  106. 109. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Cross-References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-references have been checked to eliminate blind or circular cross-references. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burma. See Myanmar … Myanmar. See Burma </li></ul></ul>Source: Institute of Certified Indexers
  107. 110. Indexing Best Practices <ul><li>Titles of Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book and article titles (and titles of works of art) include the author’s (creator’s) last name as a parenthetical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of Innocence (Wharton) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinker (Rodin) </li></ul></ul>
  108. 111. Index Style
  109. 112. Index Style <ul><li>Indented Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to read and scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily accommodates multiple levels of subheadings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes most space of any index style </li></ul></ul>
  110. 114. Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf (Reid)
  111. 115. Index Style <ul><li>Run-in (Paragraph) Style </li></ul>
  112. 116. Index Style <ul><li>Run-in Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best with only one subheading level (two subheading levels possible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves 6–7% of total index space over indented style </li></ul></ul>
  113. 117. Index Style <ul><li>Third-Level Only Run-in Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts deepest level of index in paragraph style, remainder in run-in style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can save space if many entries have multiple levels </li></ul></ul>
  114. 118. Socrates and the Fat Rabbis (Boyarin)
  115. 119. Index Style <ul><li>Lowest level run-in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs in the whenever possible within each entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly more compact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates multiple levels of subheadings </li></ul></ul>
  116. 120. Envisioning the Tale of Genji (Shirane) First subheading level run in … Second subheading level run in
  117. 121. Index Style <ul><li>Spelling Conventions </li></ul><ul><li>American versus English spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Word forms (open versus closed) </li></ul><ul><li>Web site web site </li></ul><ul><li>Web-site web-site </li></ul><ul><li>Website website </li></ul>
  118. 122. Index Style <ul><li>Heading capitalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aardvarks aardvarks Beatles Beatles Beetles beetles Bergamot bergamot Cheesecake cheesecake Cherries cherries Cook, Dane Cook, Dane </li></ul></ul>
  119. 123. Index Style <ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After main headings and sub-headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between entries and locators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In locator strings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[text, pages 41–44] </li></ul></ul>
  120. 124. Index Style <ul><li>Cross-reference Style and Placement </li></ul><ul><li>[text, pages 44–46] </li></ul>
  121. 125. Index Style <ul><li>Page Ranges: Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celtic lands, 23–55, 40–43, 105–109, 165–172, 192–196 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celtic lands, 23–55, 40–43, 105–9, 165–72, 192–96 ( CMOS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celtic lands, 23–55, 40–3, 105–9, 165–72, 192–6 ( Hart’s Rules ) </li></ul></ul>
  122. 126. Index Style <ul><li>Page Ranges: Conflation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beagles, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beagles, 98–100, 104–105 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue: continuous discussion versus isolated mentions </li></ul></ul>
  123. 127. Index Style <ul><li>Illustrative material </li></ul><ul><li>Jarrow, 125–130, 127, 132 </li></ul><ul><li>Jarrow, 125–130, 127 f, 132 p </li></ul><ul><li>Requires headnote on usage </li></ul>
  124. 128. Index Style <ul><li>Style Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Always check with indexer first. Many style changes are easily made using indexing software. </li></ul>
  125. 129. Index Format
  126. 130. Index Format <ul><li>Numbers of Columns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 x 9 = 2 columns standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 x 11, 10 x 12 = 3 columns standard </li></ul></ul>
  127. 131. Index Format <ul><li>Numbers of Columns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow columns increase turnover lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce readability </li></ul></ul>
  128. 132. <ul><li>2-column format 3-column format </li></ul><ul><li>9 lines 17 lines </li></ul>
  129. 133. Index Format <ul><li>Font size </li></ul><ul><li>Indents </li></ul><ul><li>Line spacing </li></ul><ul><li>[text, pages 53–57] </li></ul>
  130. 134. Index Format <ul><li>Running Heads </li></ul><ul><li>Especially helpful for large indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Index (Vol. XI) to The Diary of Samuel Pepys (Latham and Matthews) </li></ul></ul>
  131. 136. Index Format <ul><li>Continued Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually on versos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes on rectos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely on every column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist reader in locating place in index </li></ul></ul>
  132. 137. Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf (Reid)
  133. 138. Index Length and Space
  134. 139. Index Length and Space Source: Indexing Books (Mulvany)
  135. 140. Index Length and Space <ul><li>Reducing Index Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine cuts necessary, i.e., a few lines or several pages </li></ul></ul>
  136. 141. Index Length and Space <ul><li>Reducing Index Space: Minor Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce font size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce letter kerning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce line spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate section heading letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page number contractions </li></ul></ul>
  137. 142. Index Length and Space <ul><li>Reducing Index Space: Larger Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change to run-in or one of the modified formats from indented format </li></ul></ul>
  138. 143. Index Length and Space <ul><li>Reducing Index Space: Major Changes (Index Revisions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase allowable undifferentiated locators (fewer subheadings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine subheadings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove See references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete single-locator entries </li></ul></ul>
  139. 144. Index Length and Space <ul><li>Increasing Index Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger font </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider line spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More subheadings (requires additional work from indexer) </li></ul></ul>
  140. 145. Indexing Process
  141. 146. Indexing Process <ul><li>Be aware of/confirm deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Understand audience and type of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lay vs. professionals; students; researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade book; text book; technical manual </li></ul></ul>
  142. 147. Indexing Process <ul><li>Check in text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are pages complete? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any unexpected types of material? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review style guide </li></ul><ul><li>Review TOC/intro/summary </li></ul>
  143. 148. Indexing Process <ul><li>Read the text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Mark text for indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Index direct from pages </li></ul></ul>
  144. 149. Indexing Process <ul><li>Identify significant concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Ever since the Truman administration, American Presidents have… </li></ul><ul><li>The Truman administration’s policy on China was informed by… </li></ul>
  145. 150. Indexing Process <ul><li>Term Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate indexable concept into appropriate terminology </li></ul></ul>
  146. 151. Exercise <ul><li>Finding main topics and indexable terms </li></ul><ul><li>[handouts, pg. 8] </li></ul>
  147. 152. Indexing Process <ul><li>As Index Grows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of topic coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index structure and balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metatopic treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double- and triple-posting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul>
  148. 153. Index Editing <ul><li>Indexers generally plan on 20% of total time to be devoted to editing. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be accounted for when planning for deadline. </li></ul>
  149. 154. Indexing Editing <ul><li>Remove single/few subheads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agathon conversations of, as false tragedy, 324 Plato's representation of, 312–313 speech in Symposium , 308n72 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove single/few subheads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agathon conversations of, as false tragedy, 324 Plato's representation of, 312–313 speech in Symposium , 308n72 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agathon, 308n72, 312–313, 324 </li></ul></ul>
  150. 155. Indexing Editing <ul><li>Change double-posts to cross-references or vice versa, as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Validate parallelism of double-posts </li></ul><ul><li>Validate cross-references </li></ul><ul><li>Check heading-subheading wording </li></ul>
  151. 156. Indexing Editing <ul><li>Combine subheadings as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>bridges maintenance of, 28 … repair and maintenance of, 32 </li></ul>
  152. 157. Indexing Editing <ul><li>Differentiate long locator strings </li></ul><ul><li>Verify style guide adherence </li></ul>
  153. 158. Exercise <ul><li>Index Editing </li></ul><ul><li>[handouts, pages 9–11] </li></ul><ul><li>(25 minutes) </li></ul>
  154. 159. Index Proofing <ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Locators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot-check accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization </li></ul>
  155. 160. Exercise <ul><li>Index Proofing </li></ul><ul><li>[handouts, page 12] </li></ul>
  156. 161. Indexing Process <ul><li>Subcontracting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowable or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple indexers on large project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific tasks on short deadlines, e.g., name index </li></ul></ul>
  157. 162. Indexing Process <ul><li>Fred Leise’s Rules of Indexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Always remember the reader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. There are no rules, only contexts. </li></ul></ul>
  158. 163. Indexing Process <ul><li>Inter- and Intra-Indexer Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no such thing as a “perfect” index. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexes can be different and still be equally valid. </li></ul></ul>
  159. 164. Indexing Process <ul><li>Miss Muffet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eating of curds and whey by, 2 proximity of spider to, 3‑4 psychological state of, 5 response to spider by, 5 tuffet sat on by, 1 </li></ul></ul>
  160. 165. Indexing Process <ul><li>Muffet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>description of, 1 eating curds and whey, 2 experiencing arachnophobia, 5 fleeing tuffet, 5 frightened by spider, 5 sitting, 1 vegetarian diet, 2 </li></ul></ul>
  161. 166. Indexing Process <ul><li>Little Miss Muffet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approach of spider to, 3 curds, eating by, 2 reaction to spider by, 5 sitting next to spider, 4 tuffet sitting by, 1 whey, eating by, 2 </li></ul></ul>
  162. 167. Indexing Process <ul><li>Muffet, Miss (tuffet sitter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arachnophobia experienced by, 4-5 body size of, 1 curds and whey eating by, 2 departure from tuffet by, 5 tuffet sitting by, 1 </li></ul></ul>
  163. 168. Finding/Hiring a Professional Indexer
  164. 169. Indexers <ul><li>Qualities of Good Indexers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention to detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to meet tight deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy solitude </li></ul></ul>
  165. 170. Indexers <ul><li>Authors as Indexers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent knowledge of material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be too close to material for objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not understand indexing principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not have indexing skills, which are different from text writing skills </li></ul></ul>
  166. 171. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Subject expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  167. 172. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Indexing Courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Society for Indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley Extension Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate School (formerly USDA Graduate School) </li></ul></ul>
  168. 173. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Indexer Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain: Society of Indexers Accredited Indexer Fellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.: no indexer certification (yet) </li></ul></ul>
  169. 174. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Referrals from other editors/authors </li></ul><ul><li>American Society for Indexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs Hotline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexer Locator </li></ul></ul>
  170. 175. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Check availability </li></ul><ul><li>Verify subject matter experience </li></ul><ul><li>Verify format experience </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on fee </li></ul>
  171. 176. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Fee basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Per page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rush fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change fees </li></ul></ul>
  172. 177. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Contracts/Letters of Intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract: ASI Recommended Indexing Agreement </li></ul></ul>
  173. 178. Professional Indexers <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index is “derivative work” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright of derivative work resides in the creator of that work, the indexer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright usually understood to transfer to publisher upon payment for index. </li></ul></ul>
  174. 179. Editor-Author-Indexer Relationships
  175. 180. Authors <ul><li>Books as their “baby” </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of text versus knowledge of indexing conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Author term lists </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s index review responsibilities </li></ul>
  176. 181. Authors <ul><li>Contact with Indexer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through editor </li></ul></ul>
  177. 182. Editors <ul><li>“Traffic cop” in author-editor-indexer relationship </li></ul>
  178. 183. Editors <ul><li>What to Tell the Author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index as part of contracted text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who pays for indexer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who hires indexer, press or author? </li></ul></ul>
  179. 184. Editors <ul><li>What to Tell the Author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility and schedule for index review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to submit index changes and corrections </li></ul></ul>
  180. 185. Editors <ul><li>What to Tell the Indexer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul>
  181. 186. Editors <ul><li>What to Tell the Indexer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size limits: minimum/maximum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexable material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prelims Reference lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendices Notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations Author bios </li></ul></ul></ul>
  182. 187. Editors <ul><li>What to Tell the Indexer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text delivery: must be final format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery method: PDF/FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery schedule: all at once/piecemeal </li></ul></ul>
  183. 188. Editors <ul><li>Indexer Queries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To editor or to author? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As occur or single list with index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special queries need quick response </li></ul></ul>
  184. 189. Editors <ul><li>Index Review Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to Style Guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate entries for new readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate entries for re-readers </li></ul></ul>
  185. 190. Editors <ul><li>Index Review Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot-check locators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index evaluation checklist [text, pg. 62] </li></ul></ul>
  186. 191. Editors <ul><li>Index Revisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editor versus indexer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexer knows structure of index better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel double-posts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-references </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related entries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  187. 192. Editors <ul><li>Index Revisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If problems with index, ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore indexer’s methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give specific examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark up index file; don’t correct part then ask indexer to complete process </li></ul></ul>
  188. 193. Editors <ul><li>Index Revisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagination problems: consistent or irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wording problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entries too long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear phrasing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  189. 194. Editors <ul><li>Index Revisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding/deleting types of entries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biblical references </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple entry points </li></ul></ul></ul>
  190. 195. Communication <ul><li>Schedule changes </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page reflows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deleted material </li></ul></ul>
  191. 196. Communication <ul><li>Indexable material changes, e.g., illustrations, appendices, reference lists </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt notification is key </li></ul>
  192. 197. Index Previews <ul><li>May affect indexer’s work schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Preview index is incomplete in different ways than an incomplete manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Preview index may not reflect final editing </li></ul>
  193. 198. Other Issues
  194. 199. Large Indexing Projects <ul><li>Scheduling multiple indexers </li></ul><ul><li>Setting indexing guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing for index compilation/ editing </li></ul><ul><li>Appointing lead indexer </li></ul>
  195. 200. Revised Editions <ul><li>Index revision/new index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of old index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of text changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of old index in accessible format for indexer </li></ul></ul>
  196. 201. Embedded Indexing <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Complexities </li></ul>
  197. 202. Embedded Indexing
  198. 203. Embedded Indexing <ul><li>Adobe InDesign CS4 </li></ul>
  199. 205. Embedded Indexing <ul><li>CUP-XML </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge University Press </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Index files stored separately from text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by unique locators, e.g., 203.14 </li></ul></ul>
  200. 206. Q&A
  201. 207. Resources <ul><li>American Society for Indexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nancy Mulvany, Indexing Books, 2d ed., U. of C. Press, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Do Mi Stauber, Facing the Text, Cedar Row Press, 2004 </li></ul>
  202. 208. Resources <ul><li>NISO TR02-1997 Guidelines for Indexes and Related Information Retrieval Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available as free download from: tr02.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  203. 209. Contact Information <ul><li>Fred Leise </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>