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Attitude and change - Consumer Behavior

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Attitude and change - Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Consumer Attitude Formation and Change
  2. 2. Attitude A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. We have attitudes toward many things – to people, products, advertisements, ideas, and more. 2
  3. 3. What Are Attitudes? • The attitude “object” • Attitudes are a learned predisposition- either through direct experience or from others • Attitudes may not be consistent over time • Attitudes occur within a situation 3
  4. 4. Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Multiattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model 4
  5. 5. Cognition A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model 5
  6. 6. The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources Components 6
  7. 7. The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand Components 7
  8. 8. The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive • Affective • Conative The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object Components 8
  9. 9. Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. 9
  10. 10. Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of-reasoned- action model • Attitude is function of the presence of certain beliefs or attributes. • Useful to measure attitudes toward product and service categories or specific brands. Types 10
  11. 11. Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of-reasoned- action model • Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself • Corresponds closely to actual behavior Types 11
  12. 12. Consumer Characteristics, Attitude, and Online Shopping 12
  13. 13. Multiattribute Attitude Models • The attitude-toward- object model • The attitude-toward- behavior model • Theory-of-reasoned- action model • Includes cognitive, affective, and conative components • Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude Types 13
  14. 14. A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action 14
  15. 15. Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase). 15
  16. 16. Attitude- Toward-the- Ad Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand. 16
  17. 17. A Conception of the Relationship Among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model 17
  18. 18. Issues in Attitude Formation • How attitudes are learned – Conditioning and experience – Knowledge and beliefs 18
  19. 19. Issues in Attitude Formation • Sources of influence on attitude formation – Personal experience – Influence of family – Direct marketing and mass media • Personality factors 19
  20. 20. Strategies of Attitude Change Changing the Basic Motivational Function Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands 20
  21. 21. Changing the Basic Motivational Function Utilitarian Ego- defensive Value- expressive Knowledge 21
  22. 22. Attitude Change • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model – Changing relative evaluation of attributes – Changing brand beliefs – Adding an attribute – Changing the overall brand rating • Changing Beliefs about Competitors’ Brands 22
  23. 23. Behavior Can Precede or Follow Attitude Formation Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object. Attribution Theory • A theory concerned with how people assign causality to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior. 23
  24. 24. Issues in Attribution Theory • Self-Perception Theory – Foot-in-the-Door Technique • Attributions toward Others • Attributions toward Things • How We Test Our Attributions – Distinctiveness; action occurs when the product is present, and does not occur when the product is absent. – Consistency over time; whenever product is present-reaction is the same. – Consistency over modality; reaction is the same- even when situation varies. – Consensus; action is perceived in the same way by others. 24
  25. 25. THANK YOU! 25

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