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Consumer Behaviour-Attitude, Tri module of attitude, Multi attribute module of attitude

In a consumer behavior context, they are learned predispositions to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object (e.g., people, places, products, services or events)


Attitudes

Introduction. Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about, (2) feelings about, (3) and behavioral intentions toward some object--within the context of marketing, usually a brand or retail store. These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumer will react to the object.

attitudes

Beliefs. The first component is beliefs. A consumer may hold both positive beliefs toward an object (e.g., coffee tastes good) as well as negative beliefs (e.g., coffee is easily spilled and stains papers). In addition, some beliefs may be neutral (coffee is black), and some may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation (e.g., coffee is hot and stimulates--good on a cold morning, but not good on a hot summer evening when one wants to sleep). Note also that the beliefs that consumers hold need not be accurate (e.g., that pork contains little fat), and some beliefs may, upon closer examination, be contradictory (e.g., that a historical figure was a good person but also owned slaves).

Since a consumer holds many beliefs, it may often be difficult to get down to a “bottom line” overall belief about whether an object such as McDonald’s is overall good or bad. The Multiattribute (also sometimes known as the Fishbein) Model attempts to summarize overall attitudes into one score using the equation:





That is, for each belief, we take the weight or importance (Wi) of that belief and multiply it with its evaluation (Xib). For example, a consumer believes that the taste of a beverage is moderately important, or a 4 on a scale from 1 to 7. He or she believes that coffee tastes very good, or a 6 on a scale from 1 to 7. Thus, the product here is 4(6)=24. On the other hand, he or she believes that the potential of a drink to stain is extremely important (7), and coffee fares moderately badly, at a score -4, on this attribute (since this is a negative belief, we now take negative numbers from -1 to -7, with -7 being worst). Thus, we now have 7(-4)=-28. Had these two beliefs been the only beliefs the consumer held, his or her total, or aggregated, attitude would have been 24+(-28)=-4. In practice, of course, consumers tend to have many more beliefs that must each be added to obtain an accurate measurement.

Affect. Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects. Sometimes these feelings are based on the beliefs (e.g., a person feels nauseated when thinking about a hamburger because of the tremendous amount of fat it contains), but there may also be feelings which are relatively independent of beliefs. For example, an extreme environmentalist may believe that cutting down tree

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Consumer Behaviour-Attitude, Tri module of attitude, Multi attribute module of attitude

  1. 1. Attitude
  2. 2. What Are Attitudes? In a consumer behavior context, they are learned predispositions to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object (e.g., people, places, products, services or events)
  3. 3. Sources of Attitudes Three Major Influences on Attitude Formation 1. Personal experience 2. Influence of family and friends 3. Exposure to direct marketing and mass-media
  4. 4. The Functions of Attitudes Attitudes can be classified into four functions: 1. Utilitarian Function 2. Ego-defensive Function 3. Value-expressive Function 4. Knowledge Function
  5. 5. Tri-Component Model According to this model, attitude consists of three components: 1. Affective component 2. Behavioral/conative component 3. Cognitive component
  6. 6. 2. Affective Component A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand Generally a reaction to the cognitive aspect of the attitude Our emotional state may amplify positive or negative experiences, which then have an effect on our attitude
  7. 7. 3. Behavioral/Conative Component Is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that a consumer will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way regarding the attitude object Frequently treated as a consumer’s intention to buy
  8. 8. 1. Cognitive Component The knowledge and perceptions we have about the object Based on personal experience with the object and information from various sources (e.g., opinions of others, ads, articles, etc.) This knowledge and perceptions commonly take the form of beliefs
  9. 9. 1. Attitude toward the object model Model is especially suitable for measuring attitudes toward a product or service category or specific brands Holds that a consumer’s attitude towards a product or brands of a product is a function of the presence (or absence), and an evaluation of, certain product-specific beliefs or attributes
  10. 10. 2. Attitude toward behavior model A person’s attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than toward the object itself Not uncommon for consumers to have a positive attitude toward an object but a negative attitude toward purchasing it
  11. 11. 3. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) According to this model, behavior is determined by a person’s intention to behave To understand intention, we also need to measure the subjective norms that influence an individual’s intention to act A subjective norm can be measured directly by assessing a consumer’s feelings as to what relevant others (family, friends, co-workers) would think of the action contemplated
  12. 12. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)

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In a consumer behavior context, they are learned predispositions to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object (e.g., people, places, products, services or events) Attitudes Introduction. Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about, (2) feelings about, (3) and behavioral intentions toward some object--within the context of marketing, usually a brand or retail store. These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumer will react to the object. attitudes Beliefs. The first component is beliefs. A consumer may hold both positive beliefs toward an object (e.g., coffee tastes good) as well as negative beliefs (e.g., coffee is easily spilled and stains papers). In addition, some beliefs may be neutral (coffee is black), and some may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation (e.g., coffee is hot and stimulates--good on a cold morning, but not good on a hot summer evening when one wants to sleep). Note also that the beliefs that consumers hold need not be accurate (e.g., that pork contains little fat), and some beliefs may, upon closer examination, be contradictory (e.g., that a historical figure was a good person but also owned slaves). Since a consumer holds many beliefs, it may often be difficult to get down to a “bottom line” overall belief about whether an object such as McDonald’s is overall good or bad. The Multiattribute (also sometimes known as the Fishbein) Model attempts to summarize overall attitudes into one score using the equation: That is, for each belief, we take the weight or importance (Wi) of that belief and multiply it with its evaluation (Xib). For example, a consumer believes that the taste of a beverage is moderately important, or a 4 on a scale from 1 to 7. He or she believes that coffee tastes very good, or a 6 on a scale from 1 to 7. Thus, the product here is 4(6)=24. On the other hand, he or she believes that the potential of a drink to stain is extremely important (7), and coffee fares moderately badly, at a score -4, on this attribute (since this is a negative belief, we now take negative numbers from -1 to -7, with -7 being worst). Thus, we now have 7(-4)=-28. Had these two beliefs been the only beliefs the consumer held, his or her total, or aggregated, attitude would have been 24+(-28)=-4. In practice, of course, consumers tend to have many more beliefs that must each be added to obtain an accurate measurement. Affect. Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects. Sometimes these feelings are based on the beliefs (e.g., a person feels nauseated when thinking about a hamburger because of the tremendous amount of fat it contains), but there may also be feelings which are relatively independent of beliefs. For example, an extreme environmentalist may believe that cutting down tree

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