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Dangerous Insects

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Dangerous Insects

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Dangerous Insects

  1. 1. Dangerous Insects
  2. 2. Key Points • Modes of Action • Venomous Hymenoptera • Wasp vs. Bee vs. Ant • Allergic vs. toxic response • Anaphylaxis • Other Families of dangerous insects • Psychological Aspects
  3. 3. Dangerous Insects • Bites • Stings • Allergies • Dermatitis (a general term that describes an inflammation of the skin.) • Myiasis (The parasitic infestation of the body of a live mammal by fly larvae (maggots) that grow inside the host while feeding on its tissue) • Psychological Disorders Modes of Action:
  4. 4. Mortality: 40 to 100 deaths annually in the U.S. Dangerous Insects
  5. 5. Arachnids Some Arachnid venom can be toxic enough to kill with a single bite With insect venom, death is “usually” caused by an over reaction of the immune system. Dangerous Insects:
  6. 6. Poisonous Spiders • The Black widow • The Yellow (or Gold) sac spider • The Hobo spider (aggressive house spider) • The Brown recluse spider
  7. 7. Black Widow Of all spiders, the Black Widow is the most feared. The female's venom is especially poisonous to people. Despite its reputation, this spider often attempts to escape rather than bite, unless it is guarding an egg mass or if it is cornered and pressed. The male black widow will not bite you. After mating, the female sometimes eats the male (remember, she only has to mate once in her life), earning the name "widow." During the period shortly following mating and laying of eggs, the female black widow can be a little cranky and hungry.
  8. 8. The bite of the female black widow spider may not always be felt at first and besides slight local swelling, there is usually little evidence of a lesion. Two tiny red spots can sometimes be observed in the center of the swollen area. Most of the time, pain at the site of the bite occurs immediately and becomes most intense after about three hours. An overall aching of the body, especially the legs, are common reactions. Headache, elevated blood pressure, nausea and profuse perspiration may occur in severe cases. The condition is self-limiting and in most cases symptoms disappear in two or three days. Calcium gluconate is used intravenously to relieve and relax muscle spasms produced by black widow venom. Black Widow cont:
  9. 9. Hobo Spider It lives throughout the Pacific Northwest. As its range has extended in recent decades, reports of spider bites leading to significant injuries in both humans and animals have increased. As with recluse spider bites, these bites can cause moderate to severe skin lesions that may take months to heal, often resulting in significant scarring.
  10. 10. Most common symptom is a severe headache, sometimes occurring within 10 hours (sometimes 30 minutes) that does not respond to aspirin. The headaches have been compared to migraines and may persist for a week, sometimes accompanied by nausea, weakness, fatigue, temporary loss of memory, and vision impairment. No deaths due to Hobo spider bite . Hobo Spider Cont.
  11. 11. Brown Recluse Brown recluse spiders are found primarily in the Midwest. Many cases of bites are reported from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. They are suspected of being in other states as well. The edge of its range just reaches the tip of western Virginia, but it occurs rarely in this state. The spider commonly lives in basements, attics and garages of houses and often hides behind boards and boxes. Bites often occur when the spiders hide in towels or old clothes left in those areas. The Brown Recluse has adapted quite well to indoor habitats. They are commonly found in the storage areas of residences, including areas such as attics, closets, bedrooms and other dark recesses. This spider frequently inhabits clothing, toys, books, boxes, furniture as well as transport trucks, tool sheds, tree houses and little used or abandoned dog houses.
  12. 12. The brown recluse spider is nocturnal and prefers food such as firebrats, crickets, cockroaches and other soft bodied creatures. Earning their name well, the brown recluse spider ceases its wanderings at first light. People are most commonly bitten in bed, while changing clothes, or cleaning storage areas. Not only will this spider hide in cracks and crevices of the home, they will often climb into clothing or shoes that someone has laid out to wear the following day.  Brown Recluse Cont.
  13. 13. Camel Spider – a Solipugid {not a real spider}
  14. 14. Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  15. 15. • Ant VenomAnt Venom – family Formicidaefamily Formicidae • offense-defense-communicationoffense-defense-communication • Wasp VenomWasp Venom – multiple familiesmultiple families • prey capture - defenseprey capture - defense • Bee VenomBee Venom – multiple familiesmultiple families • defense onlydefense only Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  16. 16. Honey Bee Stinger
  17. 17. Hornet Stinger NO Barbs
  18. 18. The Red Imported Fire Ant – Solenopsis invictaSolenopsis invicta
  19. 19. • Toxic vs. Allergic Response Toxic – results from multiple stings – sometimes difficult to distinguish from an allergic response – Symptoms • gastrointestinal dysfunction • fainting • muscle spasms • convulsions Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  20. 20. • Allergic ReactionAllergic Reaction – an altered sensitivity due to a previous exposure to the venom – 0.08% of the general population – Are You of this small minority?? • Find Out!!!! • Get treatment!!!! Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  21. 21. • NormalNormal {note: everyone is allergic} – it hurts!! – Pain lasts a variable period – Accompanied by the appearance of a wheal – Soreness & itching which usually persists for 24 to 48 hours. Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  22. 22. • Large Local ReactionLarge Local Reaction – Swelling at the sting site & beyond over a 4 to 12 hour periodpersists for more than 48 hours. – Soreness & itching can be severe but not overly serious from a medical standpoint. Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  23. 23. • Systemic ReactionSystemic Reaction – Deserves serious medical concernDeserves serious medical concern – Potentially life threateningPotentially life threatening – Body responds to the sting in areasBody responds to the sting in areas far removed from envenomation site.far removed from envenomation site. – AnaphylaxisAnaphylaxis can resultcan result Bees, Wasps, and Ants Venom
  24. 24. ANAPHALAXIS • CutaneousCutaneous – rashes-swelling-hives on variousrashes-swelling-hives on various parts of the bodyparts of the body • VascularVascular – dizziness, fainting &dizziness, fainting & unconsciousnessunconsciousness • RespiratoryRespiratory – difficulty breathing, constrictions indifficulty breathing, constrictions in throatthroat • MiscMisc..
  25. 25. ANAPHALAXIS • Medical Emergency – 58% of deaths occur within one hour of sting – 75% of deaths occur within six hours of sting • Treatment – EPINEPHRINE (adrenaline) – Causes vasoconstriction, which counteracts the vasodilatation properties of venom
  26. 26. • Currently two systems – ANA-KIT – EPIPEN – both are sub-epidermal injections of pre- measured doses of adrenaline • Requires a prescription to obtain • Some laws allows persons other than physicians to administer. EPINEPHRINE (adrenaline)
  27. 27. ERUCISM Latin ‘eruca’ = caterpillar Stings by toxic setae of caterpillars Hickory Tussock Moth caterpillarPuss moth caterpillar
  28. 28. ERUCISM Io MothIo Moth
  29. 29. SaddlebackSaddleback caterpillarcaterpillar A Saturnine moth common to the east side of Oregon ERUCISM
  30. 30. LEPIDOPTERISM is…. • An allergic response triggered byAn allergic response triggered by the wing scales of any number ofthe wing scales of any number of moths &/or butterflies.moths &/or butterflies. • Expressed by respiratoryExpressed by respiratory distress.distress.
  31. 31. Formidable biters There some formidable biters in several families • Assassin Bugs – family Reduviidae – Predaceous on other insects – utilize extra-oral digestions • enzymes injected into the food/prey item, a fine line between venom & digestive enzymes
  32. 32. Rhodnius prolixus (also known as the kissing bug) dining
  33. 33. Shooters • Bombardier BeetlesBombardier Beetles – family Carabidae – When disturbed release a hot-toxic spray of quinones & H2O2 at temperatures of 100° C.
  34. 34. Cantharidin: A poisonous chemical secreted by the blister beetle
  35. 35. Psychological Aspects • EntomophobiaEntomophobia – a morbid, irrational fear of, or aversion to insects. – Most deeply manifested by the condition of delusional parasitosisdelusional parasitosis
  36. 36. Delusional Parasitosis • Perceived to be “infested” with insects – in or under the skin – around or just inside body openings – in sputum – internally, particularly the stomach or intestines – in the vicinity of the sufferer, particularly in the home Use of home remedies; Self exposure to oftenUse of home remedies; Self exposure to often dangerous levels of insecticides.dangerous levels of insecticides.
  37. 37. • SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS – a long time sufferer – seen by numerous physicians, exterminators, parasitologists, hygienists & entomologists – fiercely rejects negative findings – exhibits the “matchbox sign” • delivers or mails containers with “bugs” • samples consist of anything but “bugs” – self-mutilation can occur Delusional Parasitosis
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