SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 97
WELCOME…
TAXONOMY AND BIODIVERSITY
OF BEES & WASPS
Presented by:
Ch. Naga Satyasri
BAM-14-28
IMPORTANT POINTS
• 3rd or 4th most species-rich order.
• “Membrane-wing”; well developed ovipositor;
most live in constructed “nests”.
• Includes: sawflies, parasitoids, “wasps”, ants, & bees.
• “Wasp” = general, paraphyletic term; may describe
almost any hymenopteran.
• Many “beneficial” species but also many pests.
• Bees are the primary pollinators of zoophilous vascular plants; they
are linked to survival of the earth’s modern vegetation.
HYMENOPTERA
Taxonomy & Diversity
Suborder SYMPHYTA sawflies
<10% of species
Suborder APOCRITA
Division Parasitica, parasitoids,
>70% of species
Division Aculeata, stinging wasps, ants, & bees
~20% spp.
Phylogeny of Hymenoptera
BEES
Classification:
Kingdom- Animalia
Phylum - Arthropoda
Class - Insecta
Order - Hymenoptera
 Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants and
are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey
and beeswax.
 Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the
superfamily Apoidea presently considered as a Anthophila.
 There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to
nine recognized families.
 Bees have a long proboscis that enables them to obtain the
nectar from flowers.
 They have antennae almost universally made up of 13
segments in males and 12 in females.
 Bees all have two pairs of wings the hind pair being the
smaller of the two, in a very few species, one sex or caste
has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or
impossible, but none are wingless.
 Tiny stingless bee species as workers are less than 2 mm
(0.079 in) long. The largest bee in the world is Megachile
pluto , a leafcutter bee whose females can attain a length of
39 mm (1.5").
Differences between Bees and Wasps
Characteristics Bees Wasps
Morphology
Long and fat, two pairs of
wings, often brightly
colored.
Narrow junction between
thorax and abdomen.
Long and thin, two pairs of
wings, often brightly
colored.
Narrow junction between
thorax and abdomen.
Stinger Backward-pointed barbs on
stinger to penetrate victim
Backward-pointed barbs on
stinger to penetrate victim
Characteristics Bees Wasps
Body Hairy body Smooth body
Legs Flat and wide Round and waxy
Abdomen & thorax Round Cylindrical
Hives Geometric wax hives Papery nests
Colonial or Solitary Colonial Colonial or solitary,
depending on the species
Food Pollen and nectar Predators or parasites of
other insects, or scavengers
Diversity of Bees
 The diversity of bees accounts for 633 species grouped
under 60 genera in our country.
 Michener (2000) apprehended 16,325 species of bees,
grouped under 425 genera.
 The taxa found in whole of the world were recognized
under 7 families.
 Around 92% of known species were recorded from northern
(J&K, Punjab, Uttaranchal, U.P, Himachal pradesh,
Haryana) or Western part (Rajasthan, except extreme north
or eastern green parts and Gujarat) and remaining 8% from
rest of the Indian regions.
Diversity of bees in India
Families:
 Colletidae
 Andrenidae
 Halictidae
 Melittidae
 Megachilidae
 Apidae
Colletidae
 These are often referred to collectively as polyester bees,
due to the method of smoothing the walls of their nest cells
with secretions applied with their mouthparts.
 There are five subfamilies, 54 genera, and over 2000
species, all of them evidently solitary, though many nest in
aggregations.
 They can be found all over the world, but the most species
live in South America and Australia. Over 50% of all bee
species living in Australia belong to this family.
S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of
species
Distribution
1 Colletidae Colletinae
Hylaeinae
Colletes
Hylaeus
05
14
Northern
region
13 in
Northern
region and
2 in
Southern
region
 Medium size family.
 Majority of Colletes species are distributed in intermediate
area namely union territory of Delhi, Northern U.P. as well
as green northern Rajasthan.
 Grewal, et al (1970) described the life history of C. nursei
from punjab.
 Hylaeus species known from our country were collected
from southern extremities probably reaching upto Srilanka
(Wijesekara, 2001).
 Species of this genus are known to visit some cultivated
crops in Punjab (Batra, 1968).
Colletes daviesanus
S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of
species
Distributio
n
2 Andrenidae Andrenina
e
Andrena 034 Widely
distributed
in northern
region
It is a large family of bees subdivided into following
subfamilies.
1.Alocandreninae
2. Andreninae
3. Panurginae
4.Oxaeinae
Andrenidae
 Commonly known as mining bees. These are ground-
nesting bees.
 Most of the family's diversity is located in temperate or arid
areas (warm temperate regions).
 It includes some enormous genera (e.g., Andrena with over
1300 species, and Perdita with nearly 800).
 They can be separated from other bee families by the
presence of two sub antennal sutures on the face, a primitive
trait shared with the sphecoid wasps.
 Species of Andrena marked all over northern india, more
particularly plains of punjab, Haryana, Himachala Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, U.P, Bihar and West bengal.
Halictidae
 The Halictidae are small (> 4 mm) to midsize (>
8 mm) bees which are usually dark-colored and often
metallic in appearance.
 Large family having many semisocial bee species,
commonly known as sweat bees.
 Most of the halictids nest gregariously in the moist
subterranean soil ( resembling Colletes).
 However, their burrows were comparatively shallower.
 A nest is a cooperative effort of as many as 20-25 females,
suggesting their gregarious or semisocial behaviour.
S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of
species
Distribution
3. Halictidae Rophitinae Systropha 02 Punjab &
northern
Rajasthan
Nomiinae Nomia 67 Widely
distributed
Pseudapis 02 Northern
region
Nomioidinae Ceylalictus 03 Northern and
Western
Ghat regions
Halictinae Halictini 55 47 in hilly
region of
north east
and 8 in
west, central
and western
ghats
Halictus scabiosae
Melittidae
 The Melittidae are a small bee family, with some 60 species
in four genera, restricted to Africa and the northern
temperate zone.
 They are typically small to moderate-sized bees, which
often have shaggy shape.
These bees are rear occurrence in India. This family has
numerous representatives in Africa and countries in the middle
east.
S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of
species
Distribution
4 Melittidae Melittinae Melitta 01 North and
north
eastern
region
Megachilidae
 Largest family of bees with regard to number of taxa known
from India.
 As a whole, 24 genera with 229 species are included in this
family.
 Species like Lithurgus atratus and L. dentipes have been
great concern with regard to their pollination of cotton and
their nests build in hollow sticks.
 Interesting act of cutting leaf pieces with its mandibles,
followed by their transportation to the nesting site by a
female megachiline bee.
 Megachilid genera are most commonly known as mason
bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials from
which they build their nest cells.
 Megachilid bees are among the world's most
efficient pollinators because of their energetic swimming-
like motion.
 Megachilids require on average nearly 10 times as many
trips to flowers to gather sufficient resources to provision a
single brood cell.
S.No Family Subfamily Tribe Genus No. of
species
Distribution
5 Megachilidae Fideliinae Pararhophitini Pararhophites 02 Northwestern
and Gujarath
Megachilina
e
Lithurgus Lithurgus 14 Northern,western
caostal
Osmiini Chelostoma 01 Sikkim and hilly
territories of north
east &
Mayanmar
Heriades 22 H.P,Uttaranchal
& north eastern
hills
Anthidiini Anthidiellum 01 Northeastern
region
Indanthidium 01 Pune
Dioxyini Aglaoapis 01 Bombay
Megachilini Coelioxys 32 All over country
Megachile 105 All over the
country
Anthidium manicatum
S.No Family Subfamily Tribe Genus No. of
species
Distribution
6 Apidae Xylocopinae Xylocopini xylocopa 36 All over country
Allodpini Braunsapis 06 Northern parts,
extreme southern
parts
Nomadinae Nomadini Nomada 13 Northern region
Apinae Ancylini Tarsalia 01 Western ghats
Eucerini Tetralonia 15 Northern and
central region
Anthophorini Amegilla 21 All over country
Anthophora 10 All over country
Melectini Melecta 02 Extreme northern
region
Bombini Bombus 26 Mountains in
Himalaya
Meliponini Lisotrigona 01 Central region
Apini Apis 05 Widely distributed
Apidae
 So far 192 species have been grouped under different
categories.
 The social stingless bees belonging to genus Trigona.
 Genus Apis, the honeybee, has five species in our country.
 Apis mellifera the Italian honey bee was introduced in India
during sixties in previous century.
 It ultimately merged with Apis indica and now becomes a
cosmopolitan species by virtue of its adoptation.
 Batra (1996) decribed the biology of Apis Dorsata
laboriosa and declared it as a good pollinator of apple at
high altitudes in Garhwal.
 Carpenter bees belongs to Xylocopa.
 Iwata (1964) refereed the egg of Xylocopa as the largest
among all insects.
 Sharma and Gupta (1993) concluded a total of 119 species
of flowering plants in Solan (H.P) among them 72 were
visited regularly.
Three members of the colony
Worker Queen Drone
The Worker Bee
 Sterile females.
Normally does not lay eggs
About 20,000 to 60,000 in a colony
Has several functions throughout her life
Lives about 4 – 6 weeks in the summer
Lives about 4 – 5 months in the winter
The Queen
 One queen (normally)
 Function: laying eggs
 Can live 2 – 5 years
 Can lay 1500 eggs a day at height of
season
 Produces air-borne pheromones (“queen substance”) that keep
the colony functioning orderly, loyal and protective to that
queen
 Stinger does not have barbs – only uses it to kill rival queens
The Drone
 Developed from unfertilized egg
 Larger than workers
 Big eyes
 Sexually mature at 2 weeks
 One function in life – mate with virgin queens
 No stinger (remember, he only has one function)
 In North America 3500 species of wild-solitary bees have
been recorded, commonly referred as pollen bees.
 Alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata) blue orchard
bee (Osmia lignaria propinqua), fuzzy foot bees
(Anthophora pilipes) and mustard bees (Anthophora
abrupta) are some of the wild-bee cross pollinators which
are successfully used in artificial domestication and
management of wild bees for crop pollination (ADMP).
WASPS
Taxonomy
 The majority of wasp species (well over 100,000 species)
are "parasitic" (technically known as parasitoids), and
the ovipositor is used simply to lay eggs, often directly into
the body of the host.
 The most familiar wasps belong to Aculeata, a "division" of
Apocrita, whose ovipositors are adapted into
a venomous sting, though many aculeate species do not
sting.
Sting
• Modified abdominal
tergites/sternites
• Double stylet with levering
valves at base
• Venom glands in some spp.
• Evolution:
Ovipositor 
Host-paralysing 
Defensive Sting
parasitoid,
egg-laying
aculeate bee or wasp,
offensive, defensive
specialized, barbed
honey bee sting
Wasp stinger, with droplet of venom
Families
 Agaonidae – fig wasps
 Chalcididae
 Chrysididae – cuckoo wasps
 Crabronidae – sand wasps
 Cynipidae – gall wasps
 Encyrtidae
 Eulophidae
 Eupelmidae
 Ichneumonidae,
and Braconidae
 Mutillidae – velvet ants
 Mymaridae – fairyflies
 Pompilidae – spider wasps
 Pteromalidae
 Scelionidae
 Scoliidae – scoliid wasps
 Sphecidae – digger wasps
 Tiphiidae – flower wasps
 Torymidae
 Trichogrammatidae
 Vespidae – common wasp,
yellow jacket s, hornets, paper
wasps , potter wasps, pollen
wasps
Agaonidae
 The family Agaonidae is a group of pollinating and non
pollinating fig wasps.
 They spend their larval stage inside the fruits of figs.
 The non pollinating fig wasps are parasitic.
 subfamilies Epichrysomallinae, Otitesellinae, Sycoecinae,
Sycoryctinae, Sycophaginae, and Agaoninae were the
subdivisions of the family.
Agonid wasp
Chalcididae
 Subfamilies
 Chalcidinae
Dirhininae
Epitraninae
Haltichellinae
Smicromorphinae
 Diversity
 5 subfamilies
85 genera
1455 species
 Chalcids are tiny, dark-coloured wasps, often metallic blue
or green with complex sculpturing on the body. Enlarged
femur is the characteristic feature.
 They are also recognized by the characteristic reduced wing
venation, similar to that seen in other superfamilies of
parasitic wasps.
 Most of the species are parasitoids of other insects,
attacking the egg or larval stage of their host. These hosts
including Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Diptera (true
flies), Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (true bugs), and
other Hymenoptera, as well as two orders of Arachnida, and
even one family of nematodes.
Chalcid
Chrysididae
 Subfamilies
Amiseginae
Chrysidinae
Cleptinae
Loboscelidiinae
 Commonly known as cuckoo wasps.
 The hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large
cosmopolita group (over 3000 described species)
of parasitoid wasps
 They are most diverse in desert regions of the world.
cuckoo wasp
Crabronidae
 Subfamilies
Astatinae
Bembicinae
Crabroninae
Mellininae
Pemphredoninae
Philanthinae
 It collectively includes well over 200 genera, containing
well over 9000 species.
 The Crabronidae are a large family of wasps, including
nearly all of the species formerly comprising the now-
defunct superfamily Sphecoidea.
Crabonidae wasp
Cynipidae
 Gall wasps, also called gallflies.
 Their common name comes from the galls they induce
on plants for larval development.
 About 1300 species of this generally very small creature (1-
8 mm) are known worldwide, with about 360 species of 36
different genera in Europe and some 800 species in North
America.
Gall flies
Encyrtidae
 Subfamilies:
 Encyrtinae
 Tetracneminae
 Diversity:
 Two subfamilies of around 3710 species in 455 genera.
 The Encyrtidae are a large family of parasitic wasps, with
some 3710 described species in about 455 genera.
 The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on
Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of
the life history can be variable.
Encyrtid wasp
Eulophidae
 Subfamilies
 Elasminae
 Entedoninae
 Euderinae
 Eulophinae
 Tetrastichinae
 Diversity
 about 300 genera
 about 4300 species
 The larvae of a very few species feed on plants, but the
majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of
arthropods at all stages of development.
 They are exceptional in that they are one of two
hymenopteran families with some species that are known to
parasitize Thysanoptera.
 Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all
habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid
beetles).
Eulophidae wasp
Eupelmidae
 Subfamilies:
 Calosotinae
 Eupelminae
 Neanastatinae
 The Eupelmidae are a family of parasitic wasps in the
superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, there are
over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the
majority are primary parasitoids, commonly
on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked,
including spiders, and details of the life history can be
variable). They are found throughout the world in virtually
all habitats.
Eupelamidae wasp
Ichneumonidae
 Over 60,000 species occur worldwide, with about 3,000 in
North America.
 The family is thought to be at its most species rich in high
latitudes.
 Ichneumon wasps differ from typical, aculeate wasps,
which sting in defence and do not pass their eggs along the
stinger.
 Antennae have more segments; typically 16 or more,
whereas the others have 13 or fewer.
 Female ichneumon wasps sometimes have an ovipositor
longer than their body.
 Ichneumons generally inject venom along with the egg, but
only larger species, with relatively shorter ovipositors, use
the ovipositor as a stinger in defence.
Ichneumonidae wasp
Braconidae
 The Braconidae is a large family of parasitoid wasps.
 There are approximately 17,000 recognized species.
 One analysis estimated a total between about 30,000 and
50,000, and another provided a narrower estimate between
42,000 and 43,000 species.
 As of 2013, the species are grouped into 47 subfamilies and
over 1,000 genera.
Braconidae wasp
 A new phytophagous Bracon Fabricius (Hymenoptera,
Braconidae) associated with Protium ovatum Engl.
(Burseraceae) fruits from Brazilian savannah.
Braconid wasp
ovipositing into
lepidopterous pupae.
Pupae of a
parasitoid formed
on host’s exterior as
larvae exit.
Mymaridae
 Diversity:
 0–2 subfamilies
 100 genera
 1,400 species
 The Mymaridae, commonly known as fairyflies or fairy
wasps, found in temperate and tropical regions throughout
the world.
Fairyfly
Pompilidae
 Numbers
 300 spp.
 40 genera in our country.
 5,000 worldwide.
 Size
 5-40 mm
 Typically 15-25 mm
 Also known as Spider wasp.
 Typically dark colored with smoky or yellowish wings; a
few are brightly colored.
 Slender with long and spiny legs, hind femora typically
extending beyond tip of abdomen.
 Tibiae of rear legs have two prominent spines at apex (distal
end, next to tarsi)
 Wings not folded flat on top of abdomen.
 Like the Vespidae, the Pompilidae have
the pronotum extending back to the tegulae, the pronotum
thus appearing triangular when viewed from the side and
horseshoe-shaped when viewed from above.
Spider wasp
Pteromalidae
 Diversity:
 15–28 subfamilies
 640 genera
 3450 species
 Accordingly, details of their life histories range over nearly
the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though
the majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of
other insects. They are found throughout the world in
virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological
control agents.
Pteromalidae wasp
Scelionidae
 The hymenopteran family Scelionidae is a very large
cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species in some
160 genera) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly small
(0.5–10 mm), often black, often highly sculptured, with
(typically) elbowed antennae that have a 9- or 10-segmented
flagellum.
 Nowadays, it is considered to be a subfamily of
Platygastridae.
Scelionid wasp
Scoliidae
 Subfamilies:
 Scoliinae
Proscoliinae
 The Scoliidae, the scoliid wasps, are a family of about 560
wasps found worldwide.
 They tend to be black, often marked with yellow or orange,
and their wing tips are distinctively corrugated.
 Males are more slender and elongated than females, with
significantly longer antennae, but the sexual dimorphism is
not as apparent as in the Tiphiidae, a closely related family.
Scoliid wasp
Sphecidae
 The Sphecidae includes digger wasps, mud daubers, and
other familiar types that all fall under the category
of thread-waisted wasps.
 The families Heterogynaidae and Ampulicidae are the sister
taxa to what are now two families (instead of one), the
Sphecidae and Crabronidae.
Tiphiidae
 The Tiphiidae (also known as the tiphiid wasps or, rarely,
flower wasps) are a family of large solitary wasps whose
larvae are almost universally parasitoids of various beetle
larvae, especially those in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.
 Most species are small, but they can be up to 30 mm long.
 The females of some subfamilies (all Brachycistidinae,
Diamminae, Methochinae, and Thynninae) are wingless,
and hunt ground-dwelling (fossorial) beetle larvae, or (in
one species) mole crickets.
Flower wasp
Torymidae
 Subfamilies:
 Megastigminae
Monodontomerinae
Thaumatoryminae
Toryminae
 Diversity:
 4 subfamilies
70 genera
960 species
 The Torymidae are a family of wasps that consists of
attractive metallic species with enlarged hind legs, and
generally with long ovipositors in the females.
 Many are parasitoids on gall forming insects, and some
are phytophagous (plant-eating) species, sometimes
usurping the galls formed by other insects.
Torymidae wasp
 Several species of Megastigmus (Torymidae) are serious
pests of Pinaceae as they attack the seeds of plantation
species.
Trichogrammatidae
 Genera;
 80 genera
 The Trichogrammatidae are a family of tiny wasps that
include some of the smallest of all insects, with most
species having adults less than 1 mm in length.
 The over 840 species are in about 80 genera; their
distribution is worldwide.
 Trichogrammatids parasitize the eggs of many different
orders of insects. As such, they are among the more
important biological control agents known, attacking many
pest insects (esp. Lepidoptera).
Trichogramma wasp
Vespidae – common wasp, yellow jacket s,
hornets, paper wasps , potter wasps, pollen wasps
 Subfamilies
 Eumeninae: potter wasps
Euparagiinae
Masarinae: pollen wasps
Polistinae: paper wasps
Stenogastrinae: hover wasps
Vespinae; yellowjackets, hornets
 The Vespidae are a large (nearly 5000 species), diverse, ,
including nearly all the known eusocial wasps (such
as Poliste fuscatus, Polistes annularis, and Vespula
germanica) and many solitary wasps.
 Each social wasp colony includes a queen and a number of
female workers with varying degrees of sterility relative to
the queen.
Vespa tropica
Vespa germanica
Species of Bruchophagus are found in seeds of a
number of leguminous crops such as lucerne
(Medicago sativa) and species of Systole are
fequently pests of seeds of various Apiaceae used as
spices such as coriander (Coriandrum sativum).
Thank You!

More Related Content

What's hot

Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukh
Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah RukhOrder lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukh
Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukhmahrukh abdulmajeed
 
Apiculture bee behavior and communication
Apiculture bee behavior and communicationApiculture bee behavior and communication
Apiculture bee behavior and communicationSangeeta Bhalerao
 
Insect Wings, Structure and their Modifications
Insect Wings, Structure and their ModificationsInsect Wings, Structure and their Modifications
Insect Wings, Structure and their ModificationsVikas Kashyap
 
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimation
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimationDifferent sampling techniques for insect population estimation
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimationDevina Seram
 
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop production
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop productionInsect pollinators, their management and role in crop production
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop productionRAU, Pusa
 
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural Importance
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural ImportanceOrder Hymenoptera of Agricultural Importance
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural ImportanceSandeep Kumar Sathua
 
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect Pests
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect PestsIntroduction to Biological Control of Insect Pests
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect PestsAaliya Afroz
 
Insect wings & their modifications
Insect wings &  their modificationsInsect wings &  their modifications
Insect wings & their modificationsRupakSubhraSarkar
 
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISM
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISMINSECT DEFENSE MECHANISM
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISMElango K
 
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their management
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their managementLac insect, it's natural enemies and their management
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their managementAaliya Afroz
 
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...Aaliya Afroz
 
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanism
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanismPhytophagous insect and their host finding mechanism
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanismsushmmeetaa
 
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptx
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptxATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptx
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptxOm Prakash
 

What's hot (20)

Odonates
OdonatesOdonates
Odonates
 
Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukh
Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah RukhOrder lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukh
Order lepidoptera_ppt by Mah Rukh
 
Apiculture bee behavior and communication
Apiculture bee behavior and communicationApiculture bee behavior and communication
Apiculture bee behavior and communication
 
Insect Wings, Structure and their Modifications
Insect Wings, Structure and their ModificationsInsect Wings, Structure and their Modifications
Insect Wings, Structure and their Modifications
 
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimation
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimationDifferent sampling techniques for insect population estimation
Different sampling techniques for insect population estimation
 
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop production
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop productionInsect pollinators, their management and role in crop production
Insect pollinators, their management and role in crop production
 
Digestive system of Insects
Digestive system of InsectsDigestive system of Insects
Digestive system of Insects
 
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural Importance
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural ImportanceOrder Hymenoptera of Agricultural Importance
Order Hymenoptera of Agricultural Importance
 
Castes of honey bee
Castes of honey beeCastes of honey bee
Castes of honey bee
 
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect Pests
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect PestsIntroduction to Biological Control of Insect Pests
Introduction to Biological Control of Insect Pests
 
Insect wings & their modifications
Insect wings &  their modificationsInsect wings &  their modifications
Insect wings & their modifications
 
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISM
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISMINSECT DEFENSE MECHANISM
INSECT DEFENSE MECHANISM
 
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their management
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their managementLac insect, it's natural enemies and their management
Lac insect, it's natural enemies and their management
 
Insect Pheromones
Insect PheromonesInsect Pheromones
Insect Pheromones
 
Hemiptera
HemipteraHemiptera
Hemiptera
 
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...
Characterization of Distribution of insects- Indices of Dispersion, Taylor's ...
 
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanism
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanismPhytophagous insect and their host finding mechanism
Phytophagous insect and their host finding mechanism
 
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptx
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptxATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptx
ATTRACTANTS & REPELLENTS IN PEST CONTROL.pptx
 
Nervous system in insects
Nervous system in insectsNervous system in insects
Nervous system in insects
 
Insect Order lepidoptera
Insect Order  lepidopteraInsect Order  lepidoptera
Insect Order lepidoptera
 

Similar to Taxonomy and Diversity of Bees & Wasps

Moth of North Bengal Part 6
Moth of North Bengal Part 6Moth of North Bengal Part 6
Moth of North Bengal Part 6Tusar Ghosal
 
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...DINAMANI0inam
 
Miscellaneous ants
Miscellaneous antsMiscellaneous ants
Miscellaneous antsChiro Nuri
 
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)Vàłłürî Åvîñäsh
 
Venus flytrap and Philippine Eagle
Venus flytrap and Philippine EagleVenus flytrap and Philippine Eagle
Venus flytrap and Philippine EagleYokimura Dimaunahan
 
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdfCpnYadavag
 
Amegilla- non apis pollinators
Amegilla- non apis pollinatorsAmegilla- non apis pollinators
Amegilla- non apis pollinatorsKishor6460
 
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...ijtsrd
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestsofpat
 
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdf
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdfFresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdf
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdfsudheerforce
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestsofpat
 
Endangered Species : Power Point Presentation
Endangered Species  : Power Point PresentationEndangered Species  : Power Point Presentation
Endangered Species : Power Point Presentationaiswaryab916
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestsofpat
 
evs project on study of birds,insects and plants
evs project on study of birds,insects and plantsevs project on study of birds,insects and plants
evs project on study of birds,insects and plantsRaghu Roy
 
Ants and squirrels the super ppt
Ants and squirrels the super pptAnts and squirrels the super ppt
Ants and squirrels the super pptShashank Prakash
 

Similar to Taxonomy and Diversity of Bees & Wasps (20)

Presentation by manisha
Presentation by manishaPresentation by manisha
Presentation by manisha
 
Economic zoology
Economic zoologyEconomic zoology
Economic zoology
 
Moth of North Bengal Part 6
Moth of North Bengal Part 6Moth of North Bengal Part 6
Moth of North Bengal Part 6
 
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...
Apiculture flower pollinator honey bee queen drone worker hive wild artificia...
 
Lady Bird Beetle
Lady Bird BeetleLady Bird Beetle
Lady Bird Beetle
 
Miscellaneous ants
Miscellaneous antsMiscellaneous ants
Miscellaneous ants
 
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)
Nymphalidae , Pieridae , Lycaenidae complete details (Butterfly families)
 
Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
 
Venus flytrap and Philippine Eagle
Venus flytrap and Philippine EagleVenus flytrap and Philippine Eagle
Venus flytrap and Philippine Eagle
 
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf
1585768721six_spotted_zigzag_ladybird_beetle.pdf
 
Amegilla- non apis pollinators
Amegilla- non apis pollinatorsAmegilla- non apis pollinators
Amegilla- non apis pollinators
 
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...
Entomological Characterisation of Some of the Butterfly Species of Papilionid...
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
 
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdf
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdfFresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdf
Fresh cut vegitation a non-generic name, are any of 47 species of.pdf
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
 
Endangered Species : Power Point Presentation
Endangered Species  : Power Point PresentationEndangered Species  : Power Point Presentation
Endangered Species : Power Point Presentation
 
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforestFauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
Fauna and vegetation of a tropical rainforest
 
evs project on study of birds,insects and plants
evs project on study of birds,insects and plantsevs project on study of birds,insects and plants
evs project on study of birds,insects and plants
 
Ants and squirrels the super ppt
Ants and squirrels the super pptAnts and squirrels the super ppt
Ants and squirrels the super ppt
 
Arachnids pests
Arachnids pestsArachnids pests
Arachnids pests
 

More from Naga Satyasri Ch

More from Naga Satyasri Ch (9)

Toxicology
ToxicologyToxicology
Toxicology
 
Pest surveillence and monitoring satyasri
Pest surveillence and monitoring  satyasriPest surveillence and monitoring  satyasri
Pest surveillence and monitoring satyasri
 
Systemic Acquired resistance
Systemic Acquired resistanceSystemic Acquired resistance
Systemic Acquired resistance
 
Pyrimidines
PyrimidinesPyrimidines
Pyrimidines
 
Role of carbohydrates in insect nutrition
Role of carbohydrates in insect nutritionRole of carbohydrates in insect nutrition
Role of carbohydrates in insect nutrition
 
Insect head
Insect headInsect head
Insect head
 
Pests of maize
Pests of maizePests of maize
Pests of maize
 
Birds Management
Birds ManagementBirds Management
Birds Management
 
Insect Mouthparts
Insect MouthpartsInsect Mouthparts
Insect Mouthparts
 

Recently uploaded

A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .Alan Dix
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.Curtis Poe
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Scott Andery
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesSanjay Willie
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsSergiu Bodiu
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Manik S Magar
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersNicole Novielli
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentPim van der Noll
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo Day
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo DayH2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo Day
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo DaySri Ambati
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .
From Family Reminiscence to Scholarly Archive .
 
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
How AI, OpenAI, and ChatGPT impact business and software.
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
 
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your QueriesExploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
Exploring ChatGPT Prompt Hacks To Maximally Optimise Your Queries
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
 
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Fit for Passkeys for Employee and Consumer Sign-ins: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
 
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo Day
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo DayH2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo Day
H2O.ai CEO/Founder: Sri Ambati Keynote at Wells Fargo Day
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
 

Taxonomy and Diversity of Bees & Wasps

  • 2. TAXONOMY AND BIODIVERSITY OF BEES & WASPS Presented by: Ch. Naga Satyasri BAM-14-28
  • 3. IMPORTANT POINTS • 3rd or 4th most species-rich order. • “Membrane-wing”; well developed ovipositor; most live in constructed “nests”. • Includes: sawflies, parasitoids, “wasps”, ants, & bees. • “Wasp” = general, paraphyletic term; may describe almost any hymenopteran. • Many “beneficial” species but also many pests. • Bees are the primary pollinators of zoophilous vascular plants; they are linked to survival of the earth’s modern vegetation. HYMENOPTERA
  • 4. Taxonomy & Diversity Suborder SYMPHYTA sawflies <10% of species Suborder APOCRITA Division Parasitica, parasitoids, >70% of species Division Aculeata, stinging wasps, ants, & bees ~20% spp.
  • 6.
  • 7. BEES Classification: Kingdom- Animalia Phylum - Arthropoda Class - Insecta Order - Hymenoptera
  • 8.  Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax.  Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea presently considered as a Anthophila.  There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families.  Bees have a long proboscis that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers.  They have antennae almost universally made up of 13 segments in males and 12 in females.
  • 9.  Bees all have two pairs of wings the hind pair being the smaller of the two, in a very few species, one sex or caste has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or impossible, but none are wingless.  Tiny stingless bee species as workers are less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long. The largest bee in the world is Megachile pluto , a leafcutter bee whose females can attain a length of 39 mm (1.5").
  • 10. Differences between Bees and Wasps Characteristics Bees Wasps Morphology Long and fat, two pairs of wings, often brightly colored. Narrow junction between thorax and abdomen. Long and thin, two pairs of wings, often brightly colored. Narrow junction between thorax and abdomen. Stinger Backward-pointed barbs on stinger to penetrate victim Backward-pointed barbs on stinger to penetrate victim
  • 11. Characteristics Bees Wasps Body Hairy body Smooth body Legs Flat and wide Round and waxy Abdomen & thorax Round Cylindrical Hives Geometric wax hives Papery nests Colonial or Solitary Colonial Colonial or solitary, depending on the species Food Pollen and nectar Predators or parasites of other insects, or scavengers
  • 12. Diversity of Bees  The diversity of bees accounts for 633 species grouped under 60 genera in our country.  Michener (2000) apprehended 16,325 species of bees, grouped under 425 genera.  The taxa found in whole of the world were recognized under 7 families.  Around 92% of known species were recorded from northern (J&K, Punjab, Uttaranchal, U.P, Himachal pradesh, Haryana) or Western part (Rajasthan, except extreme north or eastern green parts and Gujarat) and remaining 8% from rest of the Indian regions.
  • 13. Diversity of bees in India Families:  Colletidae  Andrenidae  Halictidae  Melittidae  Megachilidae  Apidae
  • 14. Colletidae  These are often referred to collectively as polyester bees, due to the method of smoothing the walls of their nest cells with secretions applied with their mouthparts.  There are five subfamilies, 54 genera, and over 2000 species, all of them evidently solitary, though many nest in aggregations.  They can be found all over the world, but the most species live in South America and Australia. Over 50% of all bee species living in Australia belong to this family.
  • 15. S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of species Distribution 1 Colletidae Colletinae Hylaeinae Colletes Hylaeus 05 14 Northern region 13 in Northern region and 2 in Southern region
  • 16.  Medium size family.  Majority of Colletes species are distributed in intermediate area namely union territory of Delhi, Northern U.P. as well as green northern Rajasthan.  Grewal, et al (1970) described the life history of C. nursei from punjab.
  • 17.  Hylaeus species known from our country were collected from southern extremities probably reaching upto Srilanka (Wijesekara, 2001).  Species of this genus are known to visit some cultivated crops in Punjab (Batra, 1968).
  • 19. S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of species Distributio n 2 Andrenidae Andrenina e Andrena 034 Widely distributed in northern region It is a large family of bees subdivided into following subfamilies. 1.Alocandreninae 2. Andreninae 3. Panurginae 4.Oxaeinae
  • 20. Andrenidae  Commonly known as mining bees. These are ground- nesting bees.  Most of the family's diversity is located in temperate or arid areas (warm temperate regions).  It includes some enormous genera (e.g., Andrena with over 1300 species, and Perdita with nearly 800).  They can be separated from other bee families by the presence of two sub antennal sutures on the face, a primitive trait shared with the sphecoid wasps.
  • 21.  Species of Andrena marked all over northern india, more particularly plains of punjab, Haryana, Himachala Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, U.P, Bihar and West bengal.
  • 22.
  • 23. Halictidae  The Halictidae are small (> 4 mm) to midsize (> 8 mm) bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance.  Large family having many semisocial bee species, commonly known as sweat bees.  Most of the halictids nest gregariously in the moist subterranean soil ( resembling Colletes).  However, their burrows were comparatively shallower.  A nest is a cooperative effort of as many as 20-25 females, suggesting their gregarious or semisocial behaviour.
  • 24. S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of species Distribution 3. Halictidae Rophitinae Systropha 02 Punjab & northern Rajasthan Nomiinae Nomia 67 Widely distributed Pseudapis 02 Northern region Nomioidinae Ceylalictus 03 Northern and Western Ghat regions Halictinae Halictini 55 47 in hilly region of north east and 8 in west, central and western ghats
  • 26. Melittidae  The Melittidae are a small bee family, with some 60 species in four genera, restricted to Africa and the northern temperate zone.  They are typically small to moderate-sized bees, which often have shaggy shape.
  • 27. These bees are rear occurrence in India. This family has numerous representatives in Africa and countries in the middle east. S.No Family Subfamily Genus No. of species Distribution 4 Melittidae Melittinae Melitta 01 North and north eastern region
  • 28.
  • 29. Megachilidae  Largest family of bees with regard to number of taxa known from India.  As a whole, 24 genera with 229 species are included in this family.  Species like Lithurgus atratus and L. dentipes have been great concern with regard to their pollination of cotton and their nests build in hollow sticks.  Interesting act of cutting leaf pieces with its mandibles, followed by their transportation to the nesting site by a female megachiline bee.
  • 30.  Megachilid genera are most commonly known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials from which they build their nest cells.  Megachilid bees are among the world's most efficient pollinators because of their energetic swimming- like motion.  Megachilids require on average nearly 10 times as many trips to flowers to gather sufficient resources to provision a single brood cell.
  • 31. S.No Family Subfamily Tribe Genus No. of species Distribution 5 Megachilidae Fideliinae Pararhophitini Pararhophites 02 Northwestern and Gujarath Megachilina e Lithurgus Lithurgus 14 Northern,western caostal Osmiini Chelostoma 01 Sikkim and hilly territories of north east & Mayanmar Heriades 22 H.P,Uttaranchal & north eastern hills Anthidiini Anthidiellum 01 Northeastern region Indanthidium 01 Pune Dioxyini Aglaoapis 01 Bombay Megachilini Coelioxys 32 All over country Megachile 105 All over the country
  • 33. S.No Family Subfamily Tribe Genus No. of species Distribution 6 Apidae Xylocopinae Xylocopini xylocopa 36 All over country Allodpini Braunsapis 06 Northern parts, extreme southern parts Nomadinae Nomadini Nomada 13 Northern region Apinae Ancylini Tarsalia 01 Western ghats Eucerini Tetralonia 15 Northern and central region Anthophorini Amegilla 21 All over country Anthophora 10 All over country Melectini Melecta 02 Extreme northern region Bombini Bombus 26 Mountains in Himalaya Meliponini Lisotrigona 01 Central region Apini Apis 05 Widely distributed
  • 34. Apidae  So far 192 species have been grouped under different categories.  The social stingless bees belonging to genus Trigona.  Genus Apis, the honeybee, has five species in our country.  Apis mellifera the Italian honey bee was introduced in India during sixties in previous century.  It ultimately merged with Apis indica and now becomes a cosmopolitan species by virtue of its adoptation.  Batra (1996) decribed the biology of Apis Dorsata laboriosa and declared it as a good pollinator of apple at high altitudes in Garhwal.
  • 35.  Carpenter bees belongs to Xylocopa.  Iwata (1964) refereed the egg of Xylocopa as the largest among all insects.  Sharma and Gupta (1993) concluded a total of 119 species of flowering plants in Solan (H.P) among them 72 were visited regularly.
  • 36. Three members of the colony Worker Queen Drone
  • 37. The Worker Bee  Sterile females. Normally does not lay eggs About 20,000 to 60,000 in a colony Has several functions throughout her life Lives about 4 – 6 weeks in the summer Lives about 4 – 5 months in the winter
  • 38. The Queen  One queen (normally)  Function: laying eggs  Can live 2 – 5 years  Can lay 1500 eggs a day at height of season  Produces air-borne pheromones (“queen substance”) that keep the colony functioning orderly, loyal and protective to that queen  Stinger does not have barbs – only uses it to kill rival queens
  • 39. The Drone  Developed from unfertilized egg  Larger than workers  Big eyes  Sexually mature at 2 weeks  One function in life – mate with virgin queens  No stinger (remember, he only has one function)
  • 40.  In North America 3500 species of wild-solitary bees have been recorded, commonly referred as pollen bees.  Alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata) blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria propinqua), fuzzy foot bees (Anthophora pilipes) and mustard bees (Anthophora abrupta) are some of the wild-bee cross pollinators which are successfully used in artificial domestication and management of wild bees for crop pollination (ADMP).
  • 41. WASPS
  • 42. Taxonomy  The majority of wasp species (well over 100,000 species) are "parasitic" (technically known as parasitoids), and the ovipositor is used simply to lay eggs, often directly into the body of the host.  The most familiar wasps belong to Aculeata, a "division" of Apocrita, whose ovipositors are adapted into a venomous sting, though many aculeate species do not sting.
  • 43. Sting • Modified abdominal tergites/sternites • Double stylet with levering valves at base • Venom glands in some spp. • Evolution: Ovipositor  Host-paralysing  Defensive Sting parasitoid, egg-laying aculeate bee or wasp, offensive, defensive specialized, barbed honey bee sting
  • 44. Wasp stinger, with droplet of venom
  • 45. Families  Agaonidae – fig wasps  Chalcididae  Chrysididae – cuckoo wasps  Crabronidae – sand wasps  Cynipidae – gall wasps  Encyrtidae  Eulophidae  Eupelmidae  Ichneumonidae, and Braconidae  Mutillidae – velvet ants  Mymaridae – fairyflies  Pompilidae – spider wasps  Pteromalidae  Scelionidae  Scoliidae – scoliid wasps  Sphecidae – digger wasps  Tiphiidae – flower wasps  Torymidae  Trichogrammatidae  Vespidae – common wasp, yellow jacket s, hornets, paper wasps , potter wasps, pollen wasps
  • 46. Agaonidae  The family Agaonidae is a group of pollinating and non pollinating fig wasps.  They spend their larval stage inside the fruits of figs.  The non pollinating fig wasps are parasitic.  subfamilies Epichrysomallinae, Otitesellinae, Sycoecinae, Sycoryctinae, Sycophaginae, and Agaoninae were the subdivisions of the family.
  • 49.  Chalcids are tiny, dark-coloured wasps, often metallic blue or green with complex sculpturing on the body. Enlarged femur is the characteristic feature.  They are also recognized by the characteristic reduced wing venation, similar to that seen in other superfamilies of parasitic wasps.  Most of the species are parasitoids of other insects, attacking the egg or larval stage of their host. These hosts including Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Diptera (true flies), Coleoptera (beetles), Hemiptera (true bugs), and other Hymenoptera, as well as two orders of Arachnida, and even one family of nematodes.
  • 51. Chrysididae  Subfamilies Amiseginae Chrysidinae Cleptinae Loboscelidiinae  Commonly known as cuckoo wasps.  The hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolita group (over 3000 described species) of parasitoid wasps  They are most diverse in desert regions of the world.
  • 53. Crabronidae  Subfamilies Astatinae Bembicinae Crabroninae Mellininae Pemphredoninae Philanthinae  It collectively includes well over 200 genera, containing well over 9000 species.
  • 54.  The Crabronidae are a large family of wasps, including nearly all of the species formerly comprising the now- defunct superfamily Sphecoidea.
  • 56. Cynipidae  Gall wasps, also called gallflies.  Their common name comes from the galls they induce on plants for larval development.  About 1300 species of this generally very small creature (1- 8 mm) are known worldwide, with about 360 species of 36 different genera in Europe and some 800 species in North America.
  • 58. Encyrtidae  Subfamilies:  Encyrtinae  Tetracneminae  Diversity:  Two subfamilies of around 3710 species in 455 genera.  The Encyrtidae are a large family of parasitic wasps, with some 3710 described species in about 455 genera.  The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable.
  • 60. Eulophidae  Subfamilies  Elasminae  Entedoninae  Euderinae  Eulophinae  Tetrastichinae  Diversity  about 300 genera  about 4300 species
  • 61.  The larvae of a very few species feed on plants, but the majority are primary parasitoids on a huge range of arthropods at all stages of development.  They are exceptional in that they are one of two hymenopteran families with some species that are known to parasitize Thysanoptera.  Eulophids are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats (one is even aquatic, parasitising psephenid beetles).
  • 63. Eupelmidae  Subfamilies:  Calosotinae  Eupelminae  Neanastatinae  The Eupelmidae are a family of parasitic wasps in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. As presently defined, there are over 905 described species in 45 genera. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids, commonly on beetle larvae, though many other hosts are attacked, including spiders, and details of the life history can be variable). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats.
  • 65. Ichneumonidae  Over 60,000 species occur worldwide, with about 3,000 in North America.  The family is thought to be at its most species rich in high latitudes.  Ichneumon wasps differ from typical, aculeate wasps, which sting in defence and do not pass their eggs along the stinger.  Antennae have more segments; typically 16 or more, whereas the others have 13 or fewer.
  • 66.  Female ichneumon wasps sometimes have an ovipositor longer than their body.  Ichneumons generally inject venom along with the egg, but only larger species, with relatively shorter ovipositors, use the ovipositor as a stinger in defence.
  • 68. Braconidae  The Braconidae is a large family of parasitoid wasps.  There are approximately 17,000 recognized species.  One analysis estimated a total between about 30,000 and 50,000, and another provided a narrower estimate between 42,000 and 43,000 species.  As of 2013, the species are grouped into 47 subfamilies and over 1,000 genera.
  • 70.  A new phytophagous Bracon Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) associated with Protium ovatum Engl. (Burseraceae) fruits from Brazilian savannah.
  • 71. Braconid wasp ovipositing into lepidopterous pupae. Pupae of a parasitoid formed on host’s exterior as larvae exit.
  • 72. Mymaridae  Diversity:  0–2 subfamilies  100 genera  1,400 species  The Mymaridae, commonly known as fairyflies or fairy wasps, found in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world.
  • 74. Pompilidae  Numbers  300 spp.  40 genera in our country.  5,000 worldwide.  Size  5-40 mm  Typically 15-25 mm  Also known as Spider wasp.  Typically dark colored with smoky or yellowish wings; a few are brightly colored.
  • 75.  Slender with long and spiny legs, hind femora typically extending beyond tip of abdomen.  Tibiae of rear legs have two prominent spines at apex (distal end, next to tarsi)  Wings not folded flat on top of abdomen.  Like the Vespidae, the Pompilidae have the pronotum extending back to the tegulae, the pronotum thus appearing triangular when viewed from the side and horseshoe-shaped when viewed from above.
  • 77. Pteromalidae  Diversity:  15–28 subfamilies  640 genera  3450 species  Accordingly, details of their life histories range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents.
  • 79. Scelionidae  The hymenopteran family Scelionidae is a very large cosmopolitan group (over 3000 described species in some 160 genera) of exclusively parasitoid wasps, mostly small (0.5–10 mm), often black, often highly sculptured, with (typically) elbowed antennae that have a 9- or 10-segmented flagellum.  Nowadays, it is considered to be a subfamily of Platygastridae.
  • 81. Scoliidae  Subfamilies:  Scoliinae Proscoliinae  The Scoliidae, the scoliid wasps, are a family of about 560 wasps found worldwide.  They tend to be black, often marked with yellow or orange, and their wing tips are distinctively corrugated.  Males are more slender and elongated than females, with significantly longer antennae, but the sexual dimorphism is not as apparent as in the Tiphiidae, a closely related family.
  • 83. Sphecidae  The Sphecidae includes digger wasps, mud daubers, and other familiar types that all fall under the category of thread-waisted wasps.  The families Heterogynaidae and Ampulicidae are the sister taxa to what are now two families (instead of one), the Sphecidae and Crabronidae.
  • 84. Tiphiidae  The Tiphiidae (also known as the tiphiid wasps or, rarely, flower wasps) are a family of large solitary wasps whose larvae are almost universally parasitoids of various beetle larvae, especially those in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea.  Most species are small, but they can be up to 30 mm long.  The females of some subfamilies (all Brachycistidinae, Diamminae, Methochinae, and Thynninae) are wingless, and hunt ground-dwelling (fossorial) beetle larvae, or (in one species) mole crickets.
  • 87.  The Torymidae are a family of wasps that consists of attractive metallic species with enlarged hind legs, and generally with long ovipositors in the females.  Many are parasitoids on gall forming insects, and some are phytophagous (plant-eating) species, sometimes usurping the galls formed by other insects.
  • 89.  Several species of Megastigmus (Torymidae) are serious pests of Pinaceae as they attack the seeds of plantation species.
  • 90. Trichogrammatidae  Genera;  80 genera  The Trichogrammatidae are a family of tiny wasps that include some of the smallest of all insects, with most species having adults less than 1 mm in length.  The over 840 species are in about 80 genera; their distribution is worldwide.  Trichogrammatids parasitize the eggs of many different orders of insects. As such, they are among the more important biological control agents known, attacking many pest insects (esp. Lepidoptera).
  • 92. Vespidae – common wasp, yellow jacket s, hornets, paper wasps , potter wasps, pollen wasps  Subfamilies  Eumeninae: potter wasps Euparagiinae Masarinae: pollen wasps Polistinae: paper wasps Stenogastrinae: hover wasps Vespinae; yellowjackets, hornets
  • 93.  The Vespidae are a large (nearly 5000 species), diverse, , including nearly all the known eusocial wasps (such as Poliste fuscatus, Polistes annularis, and Vespula germanica) and many solitary wasps.  Each social wasp colony includes a queen and a number of female workers with varying degrees of sterility relative to the queen.
  • 96. Species of Bruchophagus are found in seeds of a number of leguminous crops such as lucerne (Medicago sativa) and species of Systole are fequently pests of seeds of various Apiaceae used as spices such as coriander (Coriandrum sativum).