Zootoxins A poisonous substance produced by specific types of animals that can induced harmful effects when exposed to tissues. Poisonous animals are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom; the only major group that seems to be exempt is the birds.
Types of Poisons Ingested Poison Ingested Poisons are poisons that are dangerous if consumed. The most common ingested poisons are crafted from plants or from common chemicals. Frequently, poisoning occurs accidentally when a creature unknowingly consumes a poisonous plant, or a food that has been unintentionally contaminated.
Parenteral poisons, or venoms -Those that are produced by a specialized poison gland and administered by means of a venom apparatus.
Crinotoxins Those that are produced by a specialized poison gland but are merely released into the environment, usually by means of a pore.
Arachnids Class: Arachnida Any arthropods comprising chiefly terrestrial invertebrates having a segmented body divided into two regions of which the anterior bears four pairs of legs but no antennae. E.g. Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks
Spiders All spiders are capable of producing venom. Spider venoms work on one of two fundamental principles; they are either neurotoxic or necrotic. Neurotoxic effect -Attacks the nervous system Necrotic effect -attacking tissues surrounding the bite and vital organs and systems.
Neutrotoxic venoms Widow spider venom contains components known as latrotoxins, which cause the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can affect the body in several ways, including causing painful abdominal cramps, as well as interfering with respiration, and causing other systemic effects.
The venom of Australian funnel-web spiders and mouse spiders works by opening sodium channels, causing excessive neural activity which interferes with normal bodily function. The venom of Brazilian wandering spiders is also a potent neurotoxin, which attacks multiple types of ion channels. In addition, the venom contains high levels of serotonin, making an envenomation by this species particularly painful.
Necrotic Venom Spiders known to have necrotic venom are found in the family Sicariidae, a family which includes both the recluse spiders and the six- eyed sand spiders. Spiders in this family possess a known dermonecrotic agent sphingomyelinase D.
Pathophysiology Initial reaction: No pain from the bite Bites usually become painful and itchy within two to eight hours. pain and other local effects worsen 12 to 36 hours after the bite, and then necrosis will develop over the next few days. Mild symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, rashes, muscle and joint pain. Severe symptoms occur including hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Venom assessment LD-50 Give a rough approximation of the medical consequences of various spider bites to humans. Based on experiments with laboratory mice
Reptiles Class: reptilia Air breathing vertebrates Characterized by completely ossified skeleton with single occipital condyle Body is usually covered with scales or bony plates E.g. alligators, crocodiles, lizards, snakes and turtles.
Snake bite The most fatal form of zoonotic poisoning Proteins constitute 90-95% of venoms dry weight and they are responsible for almost all of its biological effects. Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins.
Protein and Enzymes in SnakeVenoms digestive hydrolases, L-amino acid oxidase, Damage phospholipases, vascular thrombin-like pro-coagulant endothelium kallikrein-like serine proteases metalloproteinases (hemorrhagins)
Polypeptide toxins include cytotoxins, cardio toxins, and postsynaptic neurotoxins (such as α- bungarotoxin and α-Cobratoxin), which bind to acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. Inhibits angiotensin converting enzymes and potentiate bradykinin. Phosphodiesterases
Neurotoxin These toxins attack cholinergic neurons by destroying acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ACh therefore cannot be broken down and stays in the receptor which causes tetany, that can lead to death. Hemotoxins The toxin causes hemolysis, or destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
Dendrotoxins inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the exchange of + and – ions across the neuronal membrane lead to no nerve impulse. So they paralyse the nerves Cardiotoxins are components that are specifically toxic to the heart. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells and cause depolarisation. These toxins may cause the heart to beat irregularly or stop beating, causing death.
Venomous Snakes: Mambas Vipers Rattlesnakes King cobra Members of Naja genus
Prophylaxis Antivenoms Usually came from animals such as sheep, goat, horse and rabbits. The immune system of the subject animal responds to the dose, producing antibodies to the venoms active molecules. the antibodies can then be harvested from the animals blood and injected into bite victims to treat envenomation.
Venomous Fishwith spineslive in the Indo-Pacific seastropical areasothers live in temperate waters
VENOMOUS FISH Rajiformes (stingrays and mantas) Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish, stonefish and lionfish) Siluroidei (catfish) Squaliformes (sharks and dogfish) Trachinidae (weevers). They live in shallow water near the shore or near reefs and lie in sand or among rocks
MOA• inject venom through their spines• it causes intense pain near the bite and affects the muscles.Venom from dead fish is still poisonousfor up to 24 hours after the fish hasdied.
Poisoning from eating SEAFOOD Ciguatoxin poisoning Poisoning from shellfish Tetrodotoxin poisoning Scombrotoxin poisoning
Ciguatoxin poisoning• tropical reef fish barracuda grouper red snapper amber jack
Poisoning from shellfish Mussels Clams Oysters Cockles Scallops
Tetrodotoxin poisoning• porcupine fish• puffer fish• sun fish
• Cigautoxin, tetrodotoxin and poisons from shellfish affect the gut and the nervous system.• Tetrodotoxin and the poison from the shellfish paralyse muscles, including the muscles that are used in breathing.• Scombrotoxin causes an allergic type of reaction.• Shellfish are most poisonous at times of the year when the dinoflagellates on which they feed multiply and form “red tides”.
Signs and Symptoms• Nausea• Vomiting• Headache• Numbness• Shallow breathing• Itching• Aching muscles• FitsRare : DEATH
What to do If the patient is stung rescue him or her immediately from the water Soak the wounded part of the body at once in the bowl or bath of water as hot as the patient can safely bare (about 50 C ) for not more than 30 minutes. Clean the wound and remove any broken spines
Plants that contain Atropine1.Atropa belladonna -a.k.a deadly night shade or enchanter’s shade -Most common -Shrub with Bell shaped purple or red flower -Found in Europe, north africa and west AsiaUses -prevent or treat asthma in folk medicine
Datura stramonium A.k.a thorn apple, jimson weed or angel’strumpet Funnel shaped white or mauve herb flowers Fruits are prickly or spiny capsules and black in colour Unpleasant smell WorldwideUses
Uses Leaves are infused in water to make a drink Made into cigarettes and smoked Used to cause abortion.3.Hyoscyamus niger-A.k.a henbane-herb with yellow flowers and purple markings-unpleasant smell-found in north& south America, Europe,India and western Asia
How they cause harm Excite brain and affect nerves that control heart, eyes, gut and bladder Make skin and mouth dry Cause fever Wide pupils Fast breathing and heartbeat
How poisonous they are Poisonous if eaten, even when cooked or boiled because poison is not destroyed by heat Atropa and hyoscyamus both contain sap irritant to skin and eyes Atropa may cause poisoning to the eye Poison may be severe in old and young children
Special danger Mistaken for spinach and the berries of Atropa for edible fruits Are abused for their hallucinogenic effects Signs and symptoms If swallowed Red, dry skin, wide pupils, blurred vision Dry mouth and thirst Confusion and hallucination excitement and aggression
Signs and symptoms continued Fast pulse, can’t pass urine, unconsciousness Fever and rarely fits on skin Redness and irritation Blistering In the eyes Same effects as when swallowed
What to do Give first aid If breathing stops, give mouth –mouth respiration, heart massage It fever is present, sponge body with cool water Give activated charcoal, make him/her vomit Wash eye for 15-20minswith running water Take the patient to the hospital
Cannabis A.k.a marijuana, indian hemp, hashish, ganja, pot, dope and grass Made from the indian hemp plant cannabis saliva Uses and abuses Often abused Makes people relax Makes colours and sounds seem brighter and louder
Uses and abuses continued Taken as food or injected Pipe and smoked How it causes harm Affects brain How poisonous is it ? Children get signs of poisoning but recover Less harm to adults unless when injected
Signs and symptoms Effects start within 10mins of smoking the drug and last for 2-3hrs When eaten, effects start within 30-60mins and last 2-5mins Effects are: Feeling of well-being, happiness and sleepness but high doses may cause fear, panic and confusion
Effects continued Fast pulse, hallucinations, drowsiness, slurred speech and coughing if the drug is breathed If injected may cause:Dizziness, fever,low blood pressureSevere headace,fever and unconsciousness What to doSame as atropines
Irritant plants Cause skin reactions Include:1. Cashew nut tree (anacardium occidentale) - tropical countries -Nut shell contains irritant brown oily juice -Roasting shell destroys chemicals2 . Dumb-cane(dieffenbachia species -lance shaped leaves with yellow or white markings -Common household plant
Irritants continued Large group of plants4. poison ivy-climbing plant, may be found clinging to trees or houses5.Rhus radicans (toxicodendron radicans)-shrub like tree with green leaves that turn yellow, red violet in autumn6.African poison
Irritants continued7. Mango (mangifera indica)8.Urtica dioica-common stinging nettle How they cause harm-irritates skin and brain if swallowed-dumb-cane causes sever irritations of lips, mouth and throat and can affect heart and muscles if swallowed.
How they cause harm Intense allergic skin reactions depends on sensitivity of the individual Watering, blurred vision, burning pain, Swelling of face and eye lids Fever, blisters and pain thats worse in bright lightWhat to do:-wash skin with soapy water-Apply hydrocortisone cream
oleanders Nerium oleander- Evergren shrub. White pink flowers with a sweet smell- China,india, mediterranean- Garden plant- All parts poisonous, crushed leaves and stems are irritants to skin
Thevetia peruviana-Small ornamental tree, bright yellow flowers-Round fruits, green when unripe and black when ripe-Milky sap.-Central and south America, gardens in tropics and subtropical regions
How it causes harm Poison affect heart in similar way to digitalis Serious poisoning has been reported in children and adults from eating fruit..very poisonous Special danger:-bright flowers are attractive to children-Eaten by people who want to kill themselves
Signs and symptoms Numbness or burning pain in mouth, Nausea and vomiting which maybe severe Diarrhea, belly pain, drowsiness,possible fits Unconsciousness, pulse maybe slow or fast Effect of heart may result to death What to do-give magnesium sulphate with charcoal-Activated charcoal, first aid
Ornamental beans Abrus precatoris-climbing tree, clusters of small white pink flowers-flat pod fruit with 2-5 shiny red with black patch seedsSubtropics, tropics Ricinus communis-large non woody, 3m high large palm like leaves
continued Round pricky fruits. Bean shaped seed Mottled pink and grey Grown as crop and also scattered in farmlands Tropics Uses-necklace and rosaries-castor oil beans used to make castor oil
uses Castor oil used as laxative Seeds are given to children to use in handicraft and counting and is not recommendedHow they cause harm-damage blood cells, gut and kidneysHow poisonous are they?-death, blindness, irritation and rash
Signs and symptoms If swallowed: effects are delayed for 2hrs to 2 days-burning sensation, sever vomiting, belly pain-Diarrhea with blood, dehydration. Drowsiness-fits ,may pass blood stained urine in small volumes In the eye-reddening and swelling-sometimes blindness
continued On skin-Redness and rashWhat to give:Magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate or activated charcoal-Wash skin with soap and water-Wash eyes for 15-20mins in running water-Take the seeds out of the mouth
Mushrooms Covers Amanita species1. A. mascaria and A.pantheria cause hallucinations , sleep or unconsciousness2. A. Phalloides, A. Virosa, A. Verna, cortinarius speciosissimus and lepiota species contain poisons that damage cells3. Clitocybe and Inocybe species contain a poison that causes sweating and affects gut
mushrooms4. Coprinus atramentarius only causes poisoning when alcohol is taken as well5. Psilocybe semilanceata and P. Cubensis cause hallucination without sleepHow poisonous they are:-most cause mild to moderate poisoning but some cause severe poisoning and deathMany people have died after eating A.phalloides
Special danger Identification of poisonous to non-poisonous is very difficult Cooking may destroy the poison but many kinds like Amanita species are poisonous even after cooking Sever effects in small children producing fits and unconsciousness
Signs and symptoms dizziness, incordination, stagering hallucinations, deep sleep, muscle jerking belly pain , nausea, sever vomiting,intense thirst, diarrhea lasting 2-3 days jaundice, signs of kidney failure,laughing Palpitaions and chest pains,blurred vision Drowsiness,anxiety, red face and neck Metallic taste in the mouth,chills and headace