Insect orders

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Insect orders

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  • The Head
    The main visible parts on the head are the large compound eyes, the antenna (feelers), and the mouthparts.
    The Thorax
    The thorax is the middle region of the body, and it bears the legs and wings--if wings are present. Almost all insects have a pronotum covering the top of the first segment of the thorax. Insects breathe through spiracles and not through their mouths.
    The legs of different insects are adapted to do different things. The legs of some insects are adapted for swimming, burrowing, jumping, or grasping.
    The Abdomen
    The abdomen does not have many outstanding features on most insects. It just looks like a series of similar-looking segments.
  • Just a quick overview of what we mean by mouthparts
  • Just a quick overview of what we mean by mouthparts
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Because they are joined together and the hindwings are often small, it can be difficult to tell whether there are four wings.
  • Because they are joined together and the hindwings are often small, it can be difficult to tell whether there are four wings.
  • Because they are joined together and the hindwings are often small, it can be difficult to tell whether there are four wings.
  • Because they are joined together and the hindwings are often small, it can be difficult to tell whether there are four wings.
  • Because they are joined together and the hindwings are often small, it can be difficult to tell whether there are four wings.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Orthodontist – person who straightens teeth.
  • Insect orders

    1. 1. Common Insect OrdersAdapted from Berkeley Natural History Museums lesson “A Quick Way to Identify Common Insect Orders” with edits by Ertell
    2. 2. Insects are the most species- rich group of organisms on earth as indicated in this species-scape. The size of the organism reflects the number of described species.
    3. 3. Parts of an insect
    4. 4. Parts of an insect Head Thorax Abdomen Spiracles
    5. 5. Parts of an insect Head Thorax Abdomen 3 pairs of legs Spiracles
    6. 6. Parts of an insect Head Thorax Abdomen 3 pairs of legs Wings and legs on thorax Spiracles
    7. 7. Important areas to study to identify common insect orders Head Thorax Abdomen 3 pairs of legs Spiracles
    8. 8. Mouthparts: Chewing mandibles mandibles
    9. 9. Mouthparts: Piercing Sucking Sponging-sucking Coiled
    10. 10. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids) Greek "ortho" = straight, "ptera" = wing Spot ID • Jumping legs • parallel-sided structure of front wings
    11. 11. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids) Greek “orthos” = straight, “pteros” = wing
    12. 12. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)
    13. 13. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids) Spot ID • Jumping hind legs
    14. 14. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids) Spot ID • Jumping hind legs • Some with ovipositor at hind end
    15. 15. Coleoptera (beetles) Greek “koleos”= sheath, “ptero”= wing
    16. 16. Coleoptera (beetles)
    17. 17. Coleoptera (beetles) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts
    18. 18. Coleoptera (beetles) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts • Forewings (elytra) form hard shell covering hindwings
    19. 19. Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Greek “lepido”= scale, “ptero”= wing
    20. 20. Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Greek “lepido”= scale, “ptero”= wing • Coiling-sucking mouthparts
    21. 21. Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Greek “lepido”= scale, “ptero”= wing • Coiling-sucking mouthparts • Four wings covered with scales
    22. 22. Diptera (flies) Latin “di”= two, “ptero”= wing
    23. 23. Diptera (flies) Latin “di”= two, “ptero”= wing Spot ID • Two wings
    24. 24. Diptera (flies) Latin “di”= two, “ptero”= wing Spot ID • Two wings – Hind wings reduced to halteres
    25. 25. Diptera (flies) Latin “di”= two, “ptero”= wing Spot ID • Two wings – Hind wings reduced to halteres • Sponging-sucking mouthparts – Except mosquitoes and some others that pierce skin
    26. 26. Diptera (flies) Latin “di”= two, “ptero”= wing
    27. 27. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) Greek “hymen”=membrane, “ptero”=wing or Hymen, the Greek god of marriage because the forewing & hindwings are joined together with small hooks Hooks not shown
    28. 28. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants)
    29. 29. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts
    30. 30. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts • Four membranous wings
    31. 31. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts • Four membranous wings • Waist often constricted
    32. 32. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) Spot ID • Chewing mouthparts • Four membranous wings • Waist often constricted • Females with ovipositor or stinger at end of abdomen
    33. 33. Hemiptera (true bugs, also sometimes called Heteroptera) Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wing
    34. 34. Hemiptera (true bugs) Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wing Spot ID • A beak: piercing-sucking mouthparts
    35. 35. Hemiptera (true bugs) Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wing Spot ID • A beak: piercing-sucking mouthparts • Forewings covering hindwings – Wing half membrane, half thickened
    36. 36. Homoptera (hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas) Greek “homo” = uniform, “ptero” = wing Spot ID • A beak: piercing-sucking mouthparts • Forewings covering hindwings – Wings all membranous
    37. 37. Homoptera (hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas) Greek “homo” = uniform, “ptero” = wing Some entomologists now combine Order Homoptera with Order Hemiptera because the DNA has been found to be similar. In this case, Homoptera would be considered a suborder.
    38. 38. Dermaptera (earwigs) Greek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wing
    39. 39. Dermaptera (earwigs) Greek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wing Spot ID • Long skin-like hindwings folded under very short forewings
    40. 40. Dermaptera (earwigs) Greek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wing Spot ID • Long skin-like hindwings folded under very short forewings • Pinchers off end of abdomen
    41. 41. Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Greek “odon” = tooth (referring to teeth on their mandibles)
    42. 42. Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies)
    43. 43. Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Spot ID • Long slender wings
    44. 44. Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Spot ID • Long slender wings • Long thin body
    45. 45. Isoptera (termites) Greek "iso" = equal, "ptera" = wings Spot ID • Pale, elongate body • 2 pairs of membranous wings of equal length only present in reproductives and shed after mating • Mandibulate (chewing) mouthparts • Antennae about the same length as the head • Sometimes now classified with Blattodea because their DNA suggests that they are specialized roaches
    46. 46. Blattodea (roaches) Latin “blatta” = cockroach
    47. 47. Blattodea (roaches)
    48. 48. Blattodea (roaches) Spot ID • Flat
    49. 49. Blattodea (roaches) Spot ID • Flat • Spiny legs
    50. 50. Blattodea (roaches) Also called Blattaria, Greek “Blatta” = cockroach Spot ID • Flat • Spiny legs • Long antennae
    51. 51. Neuroptera (ant lions, lacewings, mantidflies) Greek "neuron" = nerve and "ptera" = wings Spot ID • four membranous net- veined wings • forewings and hindwings about the same size
    52. 52. Neuroptera (ant lions, lacewings, mantidflies) Greek "neuron" = nerve and "ptera" = wings Spot ID • Larvae have elongated mandibles adapted for piercing and sucking • Oliver the Owlfly larva is an example • Antlion larvae (doodlebugs)
    53. 53. Mantodea (praying mantises) Greek “mantis” = prophet Spot ID • two grasping, spiked forelegs often held in “praying” position • Triangular, swiveling head with large compound eyes
    54. 54. Phasmatodea (walking stick insects) Also Phasmida, Greek “phasm” = phantom Spot ID • cylindrical stick-like body or flattened, leaflike shape • long, slender antennae • sometimes have wings
    55. 55. Thysanura (silverfish, bristletails) Greek "thysano-" = fringed, "ura" = tail Spot ID • three long caudal (tail) filaments • Silverfish are so called due to the silvery glitter of the scales covering their bodies • flattened bodies, may be elongated or oval in shape
    56. 56. Ephemerida (mayflies) Also Ephemeroptera, Greek "ephemera" =short-lived Spot ID • delicate bodies and gauzy, fragile wings • two or three long threads (caudal filaments) at end of abdomen • Adults have no functional mouthparts
    57. 57. Plecoptera (stoneflies) Greek "pleco" = braided, "ptera" = wing Spot ID • complex venation of two pairs of wings, which are membranous and fold flat over the back • legs each end in two claws • long, multi-segmented antennae
    58. 58. Mecoptera (scorpionflies) Greek “meco-” = long, “ptera” = wings Spot ID • abdomen is cylindrical, and typically curves upwards in the male, superficially resembling the tail of a scorpion • wings are narrow in shape, with numerous cross-veins
    59. 59. Trichoptera (caddisflies) Greek “trich” = hair, ptera = wing Spot ID • small moth-like with two pairs of hairy membranous wings • Aquatic larvae, adults usually found near aquatic habitats
    60. 60. Siphonaptera (fleas) Greek "siphon“ = tube or pipe, "aptera" = wingless Spot ID • Wingless (adaptation to ectoparasitism) • 1-10mm long • Mouthparts are sucking and piercing • Hind legs are enlarged for jumping • Laterally flattened
    61. 61. Thysanoptera (thrips) Greek "thysano-" = fringed, “ptera" = wing • Very small insects with a range of 1/32 to 1/8 inch in length • Feed on plants, considered crop pest
    62. 62. Some Common Insects

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