Low carboneconomy bc's e-idea - oct 3, 2011


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Low carboneconomy bc's e-idea - oct 3, 2011

  1. 1. Why Low Carbon Economy Becomes More Relevant? Indonesia case study Mubariq Ahmad Presented at E-Idea Regional Event and Training British Council Indonesia Jakarta, 3 October 2011Outline• Overview of Low Carbon Economy Concept • Basic premise • Approaches• Why LCE becomes more relevant• Indonesia Case Study• Closing note
  2. 2. LCE Basic Premise • Increased GHG emission is caused by increased economic activities and growth • Global temperature rises as human economic activities instensified • Global warming/climate change induces economic losses • Therefore, must be responded with economic policiesConcentration of Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere over 1000 years Tracks Global Temperature Cli 4 ma
  3. 3. Range of CC impacts on economy Impacts on physicalClimate Change Effects condition => economy Loss of lands and small IslandsSea Level Rise Salt Water IntrusionOcean Warming Decline in Fisheries Harvest Loss of BiodiversityIncreasedTemperature Increased Fire Risk Increased Disease Risk, RangeIncreased Rainfall Floods and Land Slides Changes in Planting SeasonIncreased Drought, Food SecurityEvaporation Transport VulnerabilityIncreased Food and Water ScarcityTropical Storms Understanding Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Economic Values NR & Eco- system Use OECD Domestic Baseline policies scenario Change Change in in Change Economic Land use, in Change Value Climate, Biodiversity Pollution, In Water use EcosystemInternational Services Policies Change in Ecosystem functions Values can only be realized if ecosystem services and biodiversity is measured, managed and transformed into ‘economic’ products and services
  4. 4. Approach toward LCE• Goal of LCE as a strategy: – Help stabilize global GHG emission to 450 ppm CO2e to maintain the global warming within 20 C• The move toward LCE growth path: – Changing the growth path from baseline toward growth with less carbon footprint, • i.e. less GHG emission associated with production and consumption – Decarbonizing the economy • Changing/adopting low carbon production technology • Changing people’s lifestyle – Taking advantage of new path and technology for the planned growth Why LCE becomes more relevant• Potentially costs of CC impact: 2.5 - 7% of GDP in Asian countries due to high vulnerability (ADB)• Greatest impacts on poor people (WB): – More frequent climate related natural disaster (flood, draught) – Shift in cropping seasons and lower agricultural productivity – Decline in fishery productivity (due to coral bleaching) – Lost of productive land due to inundation – Damage on infrastructure – Over the longer term: food security and settlement – At least livelihood of 500 M people exposed to the CC risks– Most Asian countries are developing countries – Emission is on the rise with increasing industrialization and income
  5. 5. Why LCE becomes more relevant (2)• Market for low carbon products is developing fast regardless of state’s position in UNFCCC • > 70% consumers in developed countries are willing to shift their purchase toward low carbon content products • More retailers are cleaning their supply chains toward low carbon products• Finance for non low carbon investments and ODA are drying out • More commercial funds looking for opportunities in low carbon investment and leaving high-risk traditional investment • More ODAs are used to encourage investment in low carbon sectors and options Case Study: A deeper look into Indonesia’s opportunity and move toward Low Carbon Economy
  6. 6. LCE: key messages • Indonesia is highly vulnerable to CC and currently (+ potentially) emits GHG at significant level • Investment to control GHG emission and ecosystem-based adaptation is a win-win opportunity – Greening the economy in the framework of pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor – Adaptation to build resilience and to protect the people and the economy • The whole GOI policies comprise a set of strategy that is quite coherent at the top level – Market-based instruments are deployed to change/influence incentive structure – Climate finance facilities are being used offset adjustment and investment costs toward key development priorities • Implementation challenge: making operational policies coherent – Dealing with political economy interests 11Indonesia’s emission profile Source: SNC, 2010
  7. 7. Forest sector emission profile Indonesia’s Energy (Fossil Fuel) Emission Profile • Emission growth > energy cons. growth > GDP growth • BAU scenario: emission double every 12 years • Coal is current primary source => increasing carbon intensity • (despite) current low level of total and per capita emission Industry = largest emitter ID: Emissions by Fossil Fuel and Using Sector (Source: IEA 2004 in MtCO2e) • Inefficient fuel use Fastest • Subsidized energy prices 80.0 70.0 Largest Growing Component Largest Compont Power = fastest growing • Need to shift out of coal in Using Sector 60.0 50.0 Gas “10,000 MW” 2nd and 3rd to 40.0 Oil avoid increases in Carbon 30.0 Coal intensity 20.0 Renewable Energy Options 10.0 Coal • Geothermal: Large - Oil Potential Industry Gas14 Electricity Transport • Investment needs: $12 Residential billion!
  8. 8. Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE• Strategy: – Mainstreaming the adaptation and mitigation policies to medium term and annual sustainable development agenda • Framing the climate change policy within the pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor development principles • Shifting the economy toward low carbon growth path – Getting more pro-active internationally and ahead of competition in finance and possibly, future product competitiveness through LCE • The 26% voluntary emission reduction commitment – Taking advantage of global mitigation efforts and supports • CIF (FIP+CTF) + REDD+ – Mainstreaming economics into National Environmental Law no 32/09 (a GovReg on Economic Instrument is coming up) • Planning instrument: mandatory internalization of externalities, green procurement, SEA • Financing: PES, trust funds, public-private partnership, etc. • Incentives/disincentives: green taxes, green banking, etc – Institution: Establish DNPI, ICCTF, and REDD Agency Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE (2) • The 26% voluntary emission targets of baseline by 2020 to jump start the transition process: – Sectors involved: forestry, peat land management, energy, waste management, agriculture, transportation, energy efficiency in manufacturing sector. – To be financed by domestic resources (government + private) – Additional 15% target can/will be delivered with international funding support • Market-based means influence/change the incentive structure faced by the players 16
  9. 9. Indonesia’s emission and the 26% & 41% reduction target 17Emission distribution with 26% reduction target2005 Emission 2005 2020 Emission under BAU scenarioDistribution of emission reduction 2020 Emission under 26% 18burden under 26% scenario reduction scenario
  10. 10. Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE (3) • Overarching LULUCF policy under REDD+ Strategy – Control forest land conversion through strengthening of spatial plan and forest land use policy – Strengthen sustainable forest management efforts through establishment of forest management units – Control of forest and land fires – Peat land management and rehabilitation – Increase forest’s carbon sink capacity – Strengthen forest law enforcement – Promoting and implementing REDD+ • Providing incentives for regional governments for better forests and land use management – Fiscal transfer mechanism • Adopting low cost/grant FIP (Forest Investment Program) for forest revitalization 19 – Strengthening Policy and Investment Program Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE (4)• Energy sector development – Accelerate the increase in the share of renewable energy in power sector by promoting investment • Priority: geothermal (large and small scale, taking advantage of technology divisibility) – From 1,100 MW in 2010 to 5,000 in 2014 – 12 contracts (USD 5 B) were signed on 26/04/10 • Providing tax incentives for investments in geothermal and other renewable energy • Providing budgetary support for renewable exploration • Providing pricing and off-take policies for geothermal energy • Adopting low cost climate financing facility for geothermal and other renewable energy. – USD 400 millions CTF (Clean Technology Fund) for leveraging other capital investments for geothermal 20
  11. 11. Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE (5)• Gradual removal of fuel subsidy – Studies show: • Consistent with pro growth, pro-job, pro poor • Reallocate resources more fairly and for more productive use,(60%+ subsidy is enjoyed by non-deserving recipient) • Positive growth impacts on GDP/GRDP, Private and Government consumptions • Positive impact on poverty eradication – Need to compensate the poorest affected through direct well targeted transfer program • MTI: only public commercial vehicles need subsidy – Remove price distortion so as to encourage investment in renewable energy 21 Indonesia’s Approach Toward LCE (6) • Energy efficiency and conservation – Targeting energy-intensive industry (cement, metal, pulp & paper) in manufacturing sector – Established Energy Audit System for industry – Developing Master Plan for Energy Conservation including energy efficiency standards • Transportation sector – Move toward mass rapid transportation system – Move toward higher vehicle technology and fuel standard – Improvement in vehicle taxation and import duty • Developing Green Procurement Policy – Greening government’s offices 22
  12. 12. Local Governments & Cities: Future Challenges for Going Greener and Becoming Climate Resilient• Pop’n growth, urbanization: Urban growth 4%/yr è greater concentration, greater vulnerability to environmental threats• Weak zoning enforcement & poorly maintained infrastructure contribute: 25 million people lives in slums, informal settlements• More frequent disaster events + increased exposure + lower coping capacity = higher impacts.• Climate variability/change increases risk level: impacts on food production, uncertainty, frequency of floods and drought• Strategy: • Mapping of vulnerability, identifying priority threats & opps. • Assessment and development of tools and capacities based on local perspectives • Develop and implement ecosystem-based adaptation Closing notes • Shifting in development planners’ mind set is key: – Individual country’s pro-activeness is for the global common good, time to free ride is over • Expenditure in LCE/mitigation actions is investment: – To generate future incomes – To secure market access – To avoid future economic costs due to the need for adaptation • Government leadership is essential • LDC must strategically take advantage of low cost climate finance
  13. 13. Terima kasih Mubariq Ahmad mubariqa@cbn.net.id