Climate Change And The Community 1010


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What is climate change? How does this affect American communities? What can people do and what are the additional benefits?

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Climate Change And The Community 1010

  1. 1. Climate Change & Our Community Marc Karell, P.E., CEM Environmental Committee Borough of Milltown, NJ October 5, 2010 1
  2. 2. Goals  Understand the basics of climate change, greenhouse gases (GHGs), and sustainability  Learn what we as individuals, businesses, and the community can do  The many ways and benefits of “greening” our activities 2
  3. 3.
  4. 4. You Hear About it On The News, But Is Climate Change For Real? Part 1: “Global Warming” Is Happening  Avg. global temp. ⇑ 1.10F in past century. Real increase.  Another 40F rise in next 35 years?  If this continues, long-term effects on:  our climate,  oceans,  diseases,  agricultural, tourist, insurance & oil markets, and  ecosystems.  Our economy and way of life  “Climate Change” 
  5. 5. The Arctic is Melting 
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Is Climate Change For Real? Part 2: Causes of Climate Change  Certain compounds in our atmosphere trap heat, called “greenhouse gases” or GHGs.  Each GHG has a different relative effect.  GHGs derive from both natural & man-made sources.  Atmospheric CO2 levels have risen by about 40% since late 1800’s, correlating with fossil fuel combustion.  Global temperature rise correlates with these activities.  Large majority of climatologists believe that man-made GHG emissions significantly contributes to climate change.  But there is legitimate dispute.  See the Stern Report. 
  8. 8. from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change 
  9. 9. To Address Climate Change We Need To Understand What Are GHGs and From Where They Are Emitted  GHGs are a group of non-toxic compounds that trap heat.  Carbon dioxide (CO2)  Methane (CH4)  Nitrous oxide (N2O)  Many refrigerants  CO2 is the most common one, derives from the combustion of fuel: electricity production, transportation, keeping warm  Indirect emissions. When we use electricity, we don’t emit GHGs from our home, but we cause a power plant somewhere to potentially emit GHGs. 
  10. 10. Attempts to Address Issue: Reduce GHG Emissions  Scientific consensus: global GHG emissions must be reduced by 70-80% from 1990 baseline by 2050 to reverse effects and prevent disaster. Effects are global, so action must be global.  “Kyoto Protocol” was initial attempt to reduce GHG emissions.  U.S. never approved Kyoto  The Obama Administration and Congress promised aggressive federal GHG emission reduction rules.  Some states and regions are currently developing and implementing their own GHG rules. 
  11. 11. GHG Regulation - Here in NJ Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative  “RGGI” is a market-based CO2 trading program for power plants in 10 NE states, including NJ.  Affected states must have met total CO2 emissions equal to a early 2000’s baseline rate beginning in 2009 and a 10% reduction by 2019.  CO2 emission reduction by individual power plants by a cap and trade system. 
  12. 12. The Concept of Cap and Trade purchased units + 1,000 sold units - 1,000 Emissions cap CO2 emissions Decision making: Comparison between cost to reduction GHG emissions vs. market price for emission credits Company 1 Company 2 
  13. 13. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 1. $$$. The growing cost of energy  Actions that reduce energy usage reduce GHG emissions  Given the price of energy these days, much $$$ saved!  Example. DuPont claims they invested $120 million in energy efficiency programs in the 1990’s and as a result has saved over $3 billion in avoided energy costs 2. $$$. GHG emission reductions can become sellable credits  Example. Blue Heron Paper Co. (OR) improved energy efficiency by 25% (191,000 metric tons GHGs/yr). Financial incentives, tax credits for project and a pledge to buy all verified GHG emission reduction credits. 
  14. 14. Why Develop a Climate Change (CC) Program? Many Business (Non-regulatory) Reasons 3. Public relations and product development  Just say “Climate Change” to Toyota and GE! 4. Pleasing customers. Firms ask about the “carbon footprint” of products. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)  Example. Major retailers Walmart and Tesco are requesting GHG emission data throughout product life cycle entering local store. 
  15. 15. Non-regulatory Pressures in the U.S. Pleasing Customers  Life cycle assessment (LCA). What is the “carbon footprint” of a product from “cradle to grave”?  Sometimes called “Walmart Effect”, as Walmart has become the most prominent retailer to ask suppliers.  More firms are being asked to calculate GHG emissions from all phases of a product life.  From where do most of the GHG emissions derive:  Life cycle quiz 
  16. 16. GHG Emissions Along Product Life Cycle New Sales and Supply Production/ Recycling/ Investment/ Distribution Consumer Chain Operation End of Life Design End Use • Green Building • Emissions related • Emissions related • raw / input materials Emissions related to to energy demand to energy demand • raw / input related to Emissions materials of processes at end user filling facility processing related /to Emissions of raw • Emissions due to • input materialsraw / processing of storage, cooling usage Transport emissions • input materials • Transport emissions • Transport • Transport emissions emissions • Emissions related to energy demand for waste disposal recycling 
  17. 17. Borough of Milltown’s Carbon Footprint  A carbon footprint is a calculation of GHGs being emitted by an entity and from which sources. Such data can be used to determine strategies to reduce GHG emissions rationally and at minimal cost.  The Borough of Milltown is attempting to perform such a carbon footprint of the community and the municipality.  It is important to cooperate and provide as accurate answers as possible so that the most effective solutions can be determined. 
  18. 18. Borough of Milltown’s Carbon Footprint  Carbon footprint will tell us from where most GHGs are emitted (businesses, municipality) and from where (electricity, fuel combustion, transportation).  The results will provide Milltown with potential cost- effective strategies to reduce the carbon footprint.  Not only will GHG emissions be reduced, but this will also save people, businesses, and Milltown $$$, reduce energy usage, reduce emissions of other, toxic compounds, and reduce traffic congestion. 
  19. 19. What Is Sustainability?  Policies that meet society’s present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Economic development must proceed in a way that protects our finite natural resources.  Productivity Planet People  What we have talked about – climate change and its effects on our way of life and Earth – is just 1 part of sustainability. Besides climate change, there is also:  Water conservation  Energy conservation  Waste minimization  Recycling 
  20. 20. Sustainable Jersey Certification Program for Municipalities  A rating system and guideline for municipalities, sponsored by groups including the NJDEP, NJ Board of Public Utilities, the Municipal Land Use Center at College of NJ, and others.  Sustainable Jersey strives for:  Prosperity – support local economy; use community resources  Planet – practice responsible environmental management and conservation  People – social equity and fairness 
  21. 21. What Can We Do To Positively Affect Sustainability? from 1. Insulate your home 2. Evaluate lights; use compact fluorescents; remove, move fixtures 3. Energy-efficient (Energy Star) appliances 4. Fuel efficient automobiles; for municipality: more efficient routes 5. Install a clothesline (call it solar drying) 6. Compost, reducing garbage and need for fertilizer 7. Install low-flow shower heads and faucets 8. Use thermostats to not waste fuel; sensors to turn off unneeded lights 9. “Vampire” energy: turn off power strips if not in use 10. Install cotton or hemp curtains to keep in warmth 
  22. 22. 2030 U.S. abatement potential under mid-range commitment and action 
  23. 23. The Green Building Revolution  A lot of usage of resources and GHG emissions is passive – in our homes, schools, and offices daily  Features can be built into these structures to minimize our environmental impact  US Green Building Council: LEED Standards  Reduce energy, water usage, waste generation, exposure to toxic compounds  Govt, NGO, private funding in many cases  Studies show improved worker productivity, fewer sick days 
  24. 24. Average Savings of Green Buildings WASTE COST WATER SAVINGS USE 50-90% CARBON SAVINGS SAVINGS 30-50% 35% ENERGY SAVINGS 30% Source: Capital E 
  25. 25. UN HQ Renovation into High Performing Green Buildings Photovoltaics Combined Green Roof with Urban wind Double-glazed windows High Albedo membranes turbines plus film Rain harvesting Tracking skylights & light pipes Fuel Cell power generators running HVAC: upgrade chillers, on biofuel from wastes use dehumidification system Superior insulation, Energy recovery and using low VOC, using heat exchange renewable, high recycled content Sensors, sensors, materials sensors Sustainable Urban Drainage System Low water Increased daylighting & Radiant cooling (SUDs) consumption fixtures high efficiency lighting 
  26. 26. “The insuffurable arrogance of human beings to think that Nature was made solely for their benefit.” - Who said this? When? 
  27. 27. “The insuffurable arrogance of human beings to think that Nature was made solely for their benefit.” - Cyrano de Bergerac, 1655 
  28. 28. Thank You, Milltown!  Questions?  28