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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE
DRUGS
By-
Dipesh Adesh Gamare
KGRDCP & RI, Karjat
Crude drugs are broadly divided into the following two main groups on the basis of their
apparent morphological forms of cellular and structural organisation
• Organised crude drugs are composed of definite organised histological or cellular
structures and tissues.
• Unorganised crude drugs are devoid of any definite histological or cellular structures
and are derived from plants and animals by different extraction processes or as natural
secretions.
• The Organised crude plant drugs are again further divided into lie
following two groups -
• a) Drugs from Overground organs, which include all drugs that ire derived from the
overground or aerial parts or organs of plants.
• (b) Drugs from Underground organs, which include all drugs that are derived from
underground or subterranean parts or organs of plants.
Classsification
of crude drugs
a. Alphabetical
system
b.
Morphological
system
c.
Taxonomical
system
d.Chemical
system
e.Pharmacolo
gical or
therapeutic
system
f. Sero and
chemo
taxonomical
system
Taxonomical classification
In this system the drug are arranged according to taxonomical studies. The
drugs are arranged according to their phylum, order, family, genus and
species. It is purely a type of botanical classification or biological
classification and restricted mainly to crude drugs from plant source.
Example of Nuxvomica ( Strychnos nuxvomica) Division – Angiosperm
 Class – Dicotyledon
 Order – Gentiales
 Family – Loganiaceae
 Genus – Strychnos
 Species - Nuxvomica
Advantages:
It will provide proper idea about species and varieties of the
organism.
Disadvantages:
The system is criticized for its failure to recognize the organised
/ unorganised nature of crude drugs in their morphological
studies.
The system fails to face into an account chemical nature of active
constituent and therapeutic significance of crude drugs.
Chemical classification
Crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their most
important constituent present in the drug to which the pharmacological/therapeutic activity of
drug is attributed.
 Chemical constituents of Drugs –
Alkaloids - Datura, Vasaka, Vinca, Lobelia
Glycosides - Cascara, Senna, Digitalis
Tannins - Catechu, Myrobalan, Ashoka
Volatile oil - Clove, Eucalyptus, Cinnamon •
 Lipids - Castor oil, Beeswax, Arachis oil
 Carbohydrates and derived products - Acacia, Agar, Honey, Linseed, Tragacanth, Starch
Resins -Colophony,
 Vitamins and hormones – Yeast, Shark liver oil, Insulin
Advantages :
 Known chemical constituents are easy to study the drug.
 Popular approach for phytochemical study.
Disadvantages :
Drugs of different origin are grouped under similar chemical titles.
This type of classification makes no proper placement of drugs containing
two different types of chemicals. Eg: Certain drugs are found to contain
alkaloids and glycosides (Cinchona), Fixed oil and volatile oil (Nutmeg) of
equal importance together and hence it is difficult to categorize them
properly

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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx

  • 1. CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS By- Dipesh Adesh Gamare KGRDCP & RI, Karjat
  • 2. Crude drugs are broadly divided into the following two main groups on the basis of their apparent morphological forms of cellular and structural organisation • Organised crude drugs are composed of definite organised histological or cellular structures and tissues. • Unorganised crude drugs are devoid of any definite histological or cellular structures and are derived from plants and animals by different extraction processes or as natural secretions. • The Organised crude plant drugs are again further divided into lie following two groups - • a) Drugs from Overground organs, which include all drugs that ire derived from the overground or aerial parts or organs of plants. • (b) Drugs from Underground organs, which include all drugs that are derived from underground or subterranean parts or organs of plants.
  • 3. Classsification of crude drugs a. Alphabetical system b. Morphological system c. Taxonomical system d.Chemical system e.Pharmacolo gical or therapeutic system f. Sero and chemo taxonomical system
  • 4. Taxonomical classification In this system the drug are arranged according to taxonomical studies. The drugs are arranged according to their phylum, order, family, genus and species. It is purely a type of botanical classification or biological classification and restricted mainly to crude drugs from plant source. Example of Nuxvomica ( Strychnos nuxvomica) Division – Angiosperm  Class – Dicotyledon  Order – Gentiales  Family – Loganiaceae  Genus – Strychnos  Species - Nuxvomica
  • 5. Advantages: It will provide proper idea about species and varieties of the organism. Disadvantages: The system is criticized for its failure to recognize the organised / unorganised nature of crude drugs in their morphological studies. The system fails to face into an account chemical nature of active constituent and therapeutic significance of crude drugs.
  • 6. Chemical classification Crude drugs are divided into different groups according to the chemical nature of their most important constituent present in the drug to which the pharmacological/therapeutic activity of drug is attributed.  Chemical constituents of Drugs – Alkaloids - Datura, Vasaka, Vinca, Lobelia Glycosides - Cascara, Senna, Digitalis Tannins - Catechu, Myrobalan, Ashoka Volatile oil - Clove, Eucalyptus, Cinnamon •  Lipids - Castor oil, Beeswax, Arachis oil  Carbohydrates and derived products - Acacia, Agar, Honey, Linseed, Tragacanth, Starch Resins -Colophony,  Vitamins and hormones – Yeast, Shark liver oil, Insulin
  • 7. Advantages :  Known chemical constituents are easy to study the drug.  Popular approach for phytochemical study. Disadvantages : Drugs of different origin are grouped under similar chemical titles. This type of classification makes no proper placement of drugs containing two different types of chemicals. Eg: Certain drugs are found to contain alkaloids and glycosides (Cinchona), Fixed oil and volatile oil (Nutmeg) of equal importance together and hence it is difficult to categorize them properly