SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 12
Download to read offline
CAUSES/ETIOLOGY OF CELL INJURY
By- Dipesh Gamare
Developmental defects
are group of abnormalities during fetal life due to errors in morphogenesis.
• Certain chemicals, drugs, physical and biological are known to induce suc birt defects
are known as teratogens. The study of teratogen is called as teratology. The result of
teratogen is formation of defective organ called as mal-formation. It results in following:
intrauterine death, intrauterine growth retardation, functional defects, and
malformation.
• The effect of teratogens in inducing developmental defects are depend upon following
factors,
Variable susceptible to teratogens
• Intrauterine stage
• Dose of teratogen
• Specifically of developmental defect for specific teratogen.
• Some clinical important examples are as
Thalidomide malformation, fetal hydantoin syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, torch
effect
 CYTOGENIC DEFECTS (KERYOTYPIC):
• Human germ cells contain 23 chromosomes (haploid or n) while all the nucleated
somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (diploid or 2n).
• They are 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes which are xx or xy.
• Mainly the abnormalities of chromosomes are divided in to two: numerical and
structural.
Numerical: the abnormalities occur due to increase or decrease number of total
chromosomes.
• 1. Polyploidy: it is the term used for number of chromosomes which is the
multiple of haploid number.
• 2. Aneuploidy: it is not exact multiple number of chromosomes but hypodiploid
(2N-1 or monosomy) and hyperdiploid (2N+1 or trisomy)
• E.g. of cytogenetic defects
• Down syndrome
• Klinefelter syndrome
• Turner syndrome
 Single gene defects: (mendelian syndrome)
• The classic laws of inheritance of characteristics were outlined by austrian
scientist monk gregor mendel in 1866 based on his observation of cross-breeding
of red & white garden peas.
• Single gene defect follows classic mendelian patterns of inheritance and are
called as mendelian syndrome or disorder.
• It is results of mutation of a single gene.
• (Mutation is the term applied to permanent changes in DNA of cell. If person
have mutated germ cell will be subjected to inheritance of discharacter to the
offspring)
• Ex, sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassamia.
DISORDERS WITH MULTIFACTORIAL INHERITANCE
• This disorder results from both genetic as well as environmental factor.
• Ex, colors of hair, eyes, skin, height, intelligence etc.
• These disorders of multifactorial inheritance include cleft lips, diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, ccf etc.
STORAGE DISEASES (INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM)
• These errors are introduced during or before birth. In such cases, the new born is
containing deficiency or lack of enzymes.
• Ex, glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency may cause hemolytic diseases.
• Storage of carbohydrate, proteins and lipids take place abnormally.
Acquired causes of cell injury
 HYPOXIA AND ISCHEMIA:
• Cells of different tissues essentially require oxygen to generate energy and
perform metabolic function.
• Deficiency of oxygen results in hypoxia or anoxia means failure to carry out above
activities.
• The most common causes for hypoxia are: ischemia, anaemia, co-poisoning,
cardiorespiratory insufficiency and increase demand of tissues.
 PHYSICALAGENTS:
• Physical agents for cell injury are:
• Mechanical trauma (Road accident)
• Thermal trauma ( Heat and cold)
• Electricity
• Radiation ( U.V. Radiation)
• Rapid changes in atmosphere pressure.
•
 CHEMICALS AND DRUGS:
• Increase level of chemicals and drugs cause the cell injury:
• Chemical poisons
• Strong acids and alkali
• Environmental pollutants
• Insecticides and pesticides
• Oxygen at high concentration
• Hypertonic glucose and salts
• Alcohol and narcotic drugs
• Therapeutic administration of drug
 MICROBIAL AGENTS:
• Injuries by microbes include infection caused by bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses, fungi,
protozoa, metazoa and other parasites.
 IMMUNOLOGICAL AGENTS:
• Immunity is double edge sword. It means, it protects against various injuries agents but
itself may cause cell injury.
• Example, hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions, autoimmune diseases.
 NUTRITIONAL DERANGEMENT:
• A deficiency or an excess of nutrients may results in nutritional imbalances.
• Nutritional deficiency diseases may be due to overall deficiency of nutrients
(starvation), protein calorie (marasmus, kwashiorkor), minerals (anaemia) or of trace
elements.
• Nutritional excess is a problem of societies results from obesity, in atherosclerosis,
heart diseases and hypertension.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS:
• There are number of specific biochemical or morphological changes in common
acquired mental diseases due to mental stress, strain, anxiety, overwork and
frustration.
• Problems of drug addiction, alcoholism and smoking results in various diseases
such as liver damage, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, peptic ulcer, hypertension,
ischemic heart diseases etc.
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Pathology cell injury i
Pathology   cell injury iPathology   cell injury i
Pathology cell injury iMBBS IMS MSU
 
Action potential
Action potential Action potential
Action potential Jinny Shaw
 
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasir
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasirIntracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasir
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasirUsman Nasir
 
Acute and chronic inflammation
Acute and chronic inflammationAcute and chronic inflammation
Acute and chronic inflammationHamzeh AlBattikhi
 
Pathology of Acute Inflammation
Pathology of Acute InflammationPathology of Acute Inflammation
Pathology of Acute InflammationNeyaz Ahmad
 
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammation
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammationDefinition, types & vascular events of inflammation
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammationVeer Choollun
 
Cellular adaptation
Cellular adaptationCellular adaptation
Cellular adaptationRajan Kumar
 
Irreversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injuryIrreversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injurySuraj Choudhary
 
Cell injury etiology and pathogenesis
Cell  injury etiology and pathogenesisCell  injury etiology and pathogenesis
Cell injury etiology and pathogenesisShamadeep Kaur (PT)
 
Blood clotting
Blood clottingBlood clotting
Blood clottingSaurav Das
 
Reversible cell injury I Pathology
Reversible cell injury I PathologyReversible cell injury I Pathology
Reversible cell injury I PathologyHarshit Jadav
 
Mechanisms of cell injury
Mechanisms of cell injuryMechanisms of cell injury
Mechanisms of cell injuryAmnah Shaukat
 

What's hot (20)

Pathology cell injury i
Pathology   cell injury iPathology   cell injury i
Pathology cell injury i
 
Pathology of Myocardial Infarction
Pathology of Myocardial InfarctionPathology of Myocardial Infarction
Pathology of Myocardial Infarction
 
Action potential
Action potential Action potential
Action potential
 
Embolism
EmbolismEmbolism
Embolism
 
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasir
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasirIntracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasir
Intracellular accumulations ppt by dr usman nasir
 
Acute and chronic inflammation
Acute and chronic inflammationAcute and chronic inflammation
Acute and chronic inflammation
 
Pathology of Acute Inflammation
Pathology of Acute InflammationPathology of Acute Inflammation
Pathology of Acute Inflammation
 
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammation
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammationDefinition, types & vascular events of inflammation
Definition, types & vascular events of inflammation
 
Cellular adaptation
Cellular adaptationCellular adaptation
Cellular adaptation
 
Irreversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injuryIrreversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injury
 
Cell injury etiology and pathogenesis
Cell  injury etiology and pathogenesisCell  injury etiology and pathogenesis
Cell injury etiology and pathogenesis
 
Hemostasis
HemostasisHemostasis
Hemostasis
 
Mediators of inflammation
Mediators of inflammationMediators of inflammation
Mediators of inflammation
 
Blood clotting
Blood clottingBlood clotting
Blood clotting
 
Necrosis
NecrosisNecrosis
Necrosis
 
Cell injury
Cell injuryCell injury
Cell injury
 
Inflammation
InflammationInflammation
Inflammation
 
Acute inflammation
Acute inflammationAcute inflammation
Acute inflammation
 
Reversible cell injury I Pathology
Reversible cell injury I PathologyReversible cell injury I Pathology
Reversible cell injury I Pathology
 
Mechanisms of cell injury
Mechanisms of cell injuryMechanisms of cell injury
Mechanisms of cell injury
 

Similar to etiology or causes of cell injury.pptx

Ppt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencePpt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencesimran153
 
Ppt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencePpt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencesimran153
 
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injury
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injuryGeneral pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injury
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injuryHuang Yu-Wen
 
Mutation
MutationMutation
MutationUE
 
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016pathologydept
 
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...Mohan Bastola
 
cell injury and adaptation
cell injury and adaptationcell injury and adaptation
cell injury and adaptationDrvidhyaSivadas
 
genetic.pptx
genetic.pptxgenetic.pptx
genetic.pptxatwineray
 
Genetics and health
Genetics and healthGenetics and health
Genetics and healthalka mishra
 
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptx
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptxThe Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptx
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptxHeshamShaikh
 
genomectics.pptx
genomectics.pptxgenomectics.pptx
genomectics.pptxatwineray
 
genometrics pathogenesis.pptx
genometrics pathogenesis.pptxgenometrics pathogenesis.pptx
genometrics pathogenesis.pptxatwineray
 
genomectrics do.pptx
genomectrics do.pptxgenomectrics do.pptx
genomectrics do.pptxatwineray
 
gene pathology.pptx
gene pathology.pptxgene pathology.pptx
gene pathology.pptxatwineray
 
genetic.pptx
genetic.pptxgenetic.pptx
genetic.pptxatwineray
 

Similar to etiology or causes of cell injury.pptx (20)

Ppt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencePpt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial science
 
Ppt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial sciencePpt for tutorial science
Ppt for tutorial science
 
Genetics and Health
Genetics and HealthGenetics and Health
Genetics and Health
 
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injury
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injuryGeneral pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injury
General pathology lecture 1 introduction & cell injury
 
Cell injury
Cell injuryCell injury
Cell injury
 
Mutation
MutationMutation
Mutation
 
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016
Introduction to genetic disorders, classification 26 10-2016
 
Cell injury
Cell injury Cell injury
Cell injury
 
cell injury.pptx
cell injury.pptxcell injury.pptx
cell injury.pptx
 
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...
Genetic epidemiology, classification of Genetic Disorder, factor causing gene...
 
cell injury and adaptation
cell injury and adaptationcell injury and adaptation
cell injury and adaptation
 
genetic.pptx
genetic.pptxgenetic.pptx
genetic.pptx
 
Genetics and health
Genetics and healthGenetics and health
Genetics and health
 
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptx
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptxThe Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptx
The Di George Syndrome Endocrinology.pptx
 
genex.pptx
genex.pptxgenex.pptx
genex.pptx
 
genomectics.pptx
genomectics.pptxgenomectics.pptx
genomectics.pptx
 
genometrics pathogenesis.pptx
genometrics pathogenesis.pptxgenometrics pathogenesis.pptx
genometrics pathogenesis.pptx
 
genomectrics do.pptx
genomectrics do.pptxgenomectrics do.pptx
genomectrics do.pptx
 
gene pathology.pptx
gene pathology.pptxgene pathology.pptx
gene pathology.pptx
 
genetic.pptx
genetic.pptxgenetic.pptx
genetic.pptx
 

More from DipeshGamare

Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptx
Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptxNiosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptx
Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptxDipeshGamare
 
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...DipeshGamare
 
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...DipeshGamare
 
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptx
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptxTheories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptx
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptxDipeshGamare
 
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptx
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptxSELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptx
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptxDipeshGamare
 
cell injury morphology.pptx
 cell injury morphology.pptx cell injury morphology.pptx
cell injury morphology.pptxDipeshGamare
 
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptx
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptxAnatomy Of Lungs.pptx
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptxDipeshGamare
 
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptx
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptxCALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptx
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptxDipeshGamare
 
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptxRADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptxDipeshGamare
 
water_pollution.ppt
water_pollution.pptwater_pollution.ppt
water_pollution.pptDipeshGamare
 
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docx
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docxTherapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docx
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docxDipeshGamare
 
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptx
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptxTherapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptx
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptxDipeshGamare
 
Transfer from R & D to production.pptx
Transfer from R & D to production.pptxTransfer from R & D to production.pptx
Transfer from R & D to production.pptxDipeshGamare
 
Size Separation.pptx
Size Separation.pptxSize Separation.pptx
Size Separation.pptxDipeshGamare
 
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptx
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptxMETHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptx
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptxDipeshGamare
 
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptx
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptxNovel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptx
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptxDipeshGamare
 
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptxDipeshGamare
 

More from DipeshGamare (17)

Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptx
Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptxNiosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptx
Niosomes-Method of preparation,evaluation,applications.pptx
 
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-Principle, Instrumentation Advantage and disadvantage appl...
 
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...
IR SPECTROCOPY, Instrumentation of IR spectroscopy, Application of IR spectro...
 
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptx
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptxTheories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptx
Theories of dispersion, pharmaceutical dispersion (Emulsion and suspension).pptx
 
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptx
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptxSELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptx
SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SEDDS).pptx
 
cell injury morphology.pptx
 cell injury morphology.pptx cell injury morphology.pptx
cell injury morphology.pptx
 
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptx
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptxAnatomy Of Lungs.pptx
Anatomy Of Lungs.pptx
 
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptx
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptxCALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptx
CALIBRATION METHODS OF APPARATUS IN LABORTORY.pptx
 
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptxRADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx
 
water_pollution.ppt
water_pollution.pptwater_pollution.ppt
water_pollution.ppt
 
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docx
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docxTherapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docx
Therapeutic drug monitoring- Descriptive questions and answers.docx
 
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptx
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptxTherapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptx
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.pptx
 
Transfer from R & D to production.pptx
Transfer from R & D to production.pptxTransfer from R & D to production.pptx
Transfer from R & D to production.pptx
 
Size Separation.pptx
Size Separation.pptxSize Separation.pptx
Size Separation.pptx
 
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptx
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptxMETHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptx
METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF CONFIGURATION OF GEOMETRICAL ISOMERS.pptx
 
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptx
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptxNovel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptx
Novel Drug Delivery System PPT(Niosomes).pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Badalona Serveis Assistencials
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxBibekananda shah
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfMyThaoAiDoan
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners
 
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptRheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptraviapr7
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledgeassessoriafabianodea
 
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiIntroduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiGoogle
 
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxSYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxdrashraf369
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptxTina Purnat
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxpdamico1
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...sdateam0
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxAkshay Shetty
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamAkebom Gebremichael
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdfPNEUMOTHORAX   AND  ITS  MANAGEMENTS.pdf
PNEUMOTHORAX AND ITS MANAGEMENTS.pdf
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
 
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
Wessex Health Partners Wessex Integrated Care, Population Health, Research & ...
 
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.pptRheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
Rheumatoid arthritis - Musculoskeletal disorders.ppt
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
 
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiIntroduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
 
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptxSYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
SYNDESMOTIC INJURY- ANATOMICAL REPAIR.pptx
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
 
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
 

etiology or causes of cell injury.pptx

  • 1. CAUSES/ETIOLOGY OF CELL INJURY By- Dipesh Gamare
  • 2.
  • 3. Developmental defects are group of abnormalities during fetal life due to errors in morphogenesis. • Certain chemicals, drugs, physical and biological are known to induce suc birt defects are known as teratogens. The study of teratogen is called as teratology. The result of teratogen is formation of defective organ called as mal-formation. It results in following: intrauterine death, intrauterine growth retardation, functional defects, and malformation. • The effect of teratogens in inducing developmental defects are depend upon following factors, Variable susceptible to teratogens • Intrauterine stage • Dose of teratogen • Specifically of developmental defect for specific teratogen. • Some clinical important examples are as Thalidomide malformation, fetal hydantoin syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, torch effect
  • 4.  CYTOGENIC DEFECTS (KERYOTYPIC): • Human germ cells contain 23 chromosomes (haploid or n) while all the nucleated somatic cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (diploid or 2n). • They are 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes which are xx or xy. • Mainly the abnormalities of chromosomes are divided in to two: numerical and structural. Numerical: the abnormalities occur due to increase or decrease number of total chromosomes. • 1. Polyploidy: it is the term used for number of chromosomes which is the multiple of haploid number. • 2. Aneuploidy: it is not exact multiple number of chromosomes but hypodiploid (2N-1 or monosomy) and hyperdiploid (2N+1 or trisomy) • E.g. of cytogenetic defects • Down syndrome • Klinefelter syndrome • Turner syndrome
  • 5.  Single gene defects: (mendelian syndrome) • The classic laws of inheritance of characteristics were outlined by austrian scientist monk gregor mendel in 1866 based on his observation of cross-breeding of red & white garden peas. • Single gene defect follows classic mendelian patterns of inheritance and are called as mendelian syndrome or disorder. • It is results of mutation of a single gene. • (Mutation is the term applied to permanent changes in DNA of cell. If person have mutated germ cell will be subjected to inheritance of discharacter to the offspring) • Ex, sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassamia.
  • 6. DISORDERS WITH MULTIFACTORIAL INHERITANCE • This disorder results from both genetic as well as environmental factor. • Ex, colors of hair, eyes, skin, height, intelligence etc. • These disorders of multifactorial inheritance include cleft lips, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ccf etc.
  • 7. STORAGE DISEASES (INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM) • These errors are introduced during or before birth. In such cases, the new born is containing deficiency or lack of enzymes. • Ex, glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency may cause hemolytic diseases. • Storage of carbohydrate, proteins and lipids take place abnormally.
  • 8. Acquired causes of cell injury  HYPOXIA AND ISCHEMIA: • Cells of different tissues essentially require oxygen to generate energy and perform metabolic function. • Deficiency of oxygen results in hypoxia or anoxia means failure to carry out above activities. • The most common causes for hypoxia are: ischemia, anaemia, co-poisoning, cardiorespiratory insufficiency and increase demand of tissues.
  • 9.  PHYSICALAGENTS: • Physical agents for cell injury are: • Mechanical trauma (Road accident) • Thermal trauma ( Heat and cold) • Electricity • Radiation ( U.V. Radiation) • Rapid changes in atmosphere pressure. •
  • 10.  CHEMICALS AND DRUGS: • Increase level of chemicals and drugs cause the cell injury: • Chemical poisons • Strong acids and alkali • Environmental pollutants • Insecticides and pesticides • Oxygen at high concentration • Hypertonic glucose and salts • Alcohol and narcotic drugs • Therapeutic administration of drug
  • 11.  MICROBIAL AGENTS: • Injuries by microbes include infection caused by bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses, fungi, protozoa, metazoa and other parasites.  IMMUNOLOGICAL AGENTS: • Immunity is double edge sword. It means, it protects against various injuries agents but itself may cause cell injury. • Example, hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions, autoimmune diseases.  NUTRITIONAL DERANGEMENT: • A deficiency or an excess of nutrients may results in nutritional imbalances. • Nutritional deficiency diseases may be due to overall deficiency of nutrients (starvation), protein calorie (marasmus, kwashiorkor), minerals (anaemia) or of trace elements. • Nutritional excess is a problem of societies results from obesity, in atherosclerosis, heart diseases and hypertension.
  • 12. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS: • There are number of specific biochemical or morphological changes in common acquired mental diseases due to mental stress, strain, anxiety, overwork and frustration. • Problems of drug addiction, alcoholism and smoking results in various diseases such as liver damage, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, peptic ulcer, hypertension, ischemic heart diseases etc. THANK YOU