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Dipesh Gamare
Radiopharmaceutical
Radioactive substances-They are unstable and
undergo spontaneous decomopsition by emission of
radiation
Isotopes-Nuclides having same number of protons but
different numbers of neutrons are termed as isotopes.
When radioisotopes undergo disintegration or
radioactive decay,they produce alpha,beta,gamma
radiation
Types of Radioactive nuclide
1.natural radionuclide 2.Artificial radionuclide.
E.g uranium 238,radium 226 undergo disintigration to
produce alpha,beta,gamma radical
Unit of radioactivity-Curie(c)
Curie-It may defined as the quantity of any
radioactive substances undergoes same number of
disintegration in unite time as 1gm of radium is equal
to 3.7×1010 disintegration per second
Half life-Time reqiured to Disintegration of active
compounds at half concentration is known as half life
t1/2=0.693/lambda
Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2
neutrons.
We can write them as
they're the same as a helium
, or , because
nucleus.
This means that when a nucleus emits an alpha
particle, its atomic number decreases by 2 and its
atomic mass decreases by 4.
Alpha particles are relatively slow and heavy.
They have a low penetrating power - you can
stop them with just a sheet of paper.
Because they have a large charge, alpha particles
ionise other atoms strongly.
Alpha-decay occurs in very heavy elements, for
example, Uranium and Radium.
Since alpha particles cannot penetrate the dead layer of the skin, they do not
present a hazard from exposure external to thebody.
However, due to the very large number of ionizations they produce in a very short
distance, alpha emitters can present a serious hazard when they are in close
proximity to cells and tissues such as the lung. Special precautions are taken to
ensure that alpha emitters are not inhaled, i7ngested or injected.
have a medium
are stopped by
penetrating
a sheet of
Beta particles
power - they
aluminium.
Example of radiopharmaceutical emits phosphorus-32
Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles
do.
Beta particles are much less massive and less charged than alpha
particles and interact less intensely with atoms in the materials they
pass through, which gives them a longer range than alpha particles.
Gamma rays are waves, not particles. This
means that they have no mass and no
charge.
in Gamma decay:
- atomic number unchanged
- atomic mass unchanged.
Gamma rays have a high penetrating power
- it takes a thick sheet of metal such as lead to
reduce them.
Gamma rays do not directly ionise other
atoms, although they may cause atoms to emit
other particles which will then cause ionisation.
We don't find pure gamma sources - gamma
rays are emitted along side alpha or beta
particles.
Useful gamma sources inculde Technetium-99m, which is
used as a "tracer" in medicine.
This is a combined beta and gamma source, and is chosen
because betas are less harmful to the patient than alphas
(less ionisation) and because Technetium has a short half-
life (just over 6 hours), so it decays away quickly and
reduces the dose to the patient.
Type of Radiation Alpha particle Beta particle Gamma ray
Symbol or
Charge +2 -1 0
Speed slow fast Very fast
Ionising ability high medium 0
Penetrating power low medium high
Stopped by: paper aluminium lead
Ionization of Chamber-Ionization chamber filled with
gases and fitted with two electrodes.When radiation passes
over it,causes ionization of gas molecules and forms
ions.that ions moves to cathode and anode and produce
electricity.According electricity ampilcity determines
radioactivity
Proportional counters-in this application of potential
electones causes bursting of gases and forms more
electron.This electron moves to anode.Generates electric
current.Showes radioactivity in terms of curie.
Geiger-Muller counter-These are most popular Radiation
detectors.They can detect alpha,beta,gamma
radiation.Geiger Muller contains chamber filled with gas
under low atmospheric pressure.Ionization of gas molecule
by radiation forms electric current.electric current showes
activity in terms of curie
 Precaution during handling and storage of
radioactive substances
1. One should not touch radioactive emitter with hand but it
should be handeled by means of foreceps
2. Smoking,eating and drinking activity should not be done in
laboratory where the radioactive materials handeled
3. Sufficient protective clothing have to be used while handling
the materials
4. Radiactive materials have to be stored in suitable labelled
containers,shielded by lead bricks
5. Area where radioactive materials have to been stored or
used should be monitored.
6. Disposal of radioactive materials should be carried out with
great care
1. Radiation source in therapy-it produces destructive role because
radiation has ability to cause radiation.they destruct cancerous
cell by ionization.e.g Sodium phosphate is(32p) used in therapy
of blood cancer
2. Diagnostic purposes-Labeled cyanocobalamine finds use for
measuring glomerular filteration rate and sodium rose bengal
used in liver function test
3. Research-In research isotopes are used as tracers
4. Sterilization-Radiation are use in sterilization of instrument in
hospital and final packed container.Radiation cause ionization of
bacteria,viruses,fungi,pathogenic bacteria.Hence it is used in
sterilization.e.g Cesium used for sterlization of surgical
instrument.
5. Determination of hypothyroidism and
hyperthyroidism
1. It should have high solubility
2. It should have high stability
3. It should not have any pharmacological effects
4. It should excrete rapidly with no toxic
effects
5. It should stay in the body for sufficient x- ray
visualisation
6. It should concentrate in selectively in the
concerned organs
7. It should have adequate radio-opacity
Ionization and excitation of molecules in the body cause
abnormal chemical reaction. The effect of abnormal
chemical reactions depends on number of factors such as
1. The energy of the radiation.
2. Dose rate of the radiation.
3. The particular tissue and surface area exposed.
4. The ability of the radiation to penetrate tissue.
5. Time of the exposure.
Skin Damages: Erythema, Brittleness, Dryness, Burns.
Somatic Effects: Anemia, Leukemia, Cancer, Cataract.
Genetic Effects: Chromosomes damage and increase
the chance of gene manipulation.
Biological effects of radiations:
THANK YOU

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RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.pptx

  • 2. Radioactive substances-They are unstable and undergo spontaneous decomopsition by emission of radiation Isotopes-Nuclides having same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are termed as isotopes. When radioisotopes undergo disintegration or radioactive decay,they produce alpha,beta,gamma radiation Types of Radioactive nuclide 1.natural radionuclide 2.Artificial radionuclide. E.g uranium 238,radium 226 undergo disintigration to produce alpha,beta,gamma radical Unit of radioactivity-Curie(c)
  • 3. Curie-It may defined as the quantity of any radioactive substances undergoes same number of disintegration in unite time as 1gm of radium is equal to 3.7×1010 disintegration per second Half life-Time reqiured to Disintegration of active compounds at half concentration is known as half life t1/2=0.693/lambda
  • 4.
  • 5. Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. We can write them as they're the same as a helium , or , because nucleus. This means that when a nucleus emits an alpha particle, its atomic number decreases by 2 and its atomic mass decreases by 4. Alpha particles are relatively slow and heavy. They have a low penetrating power - you can stop them with just a sheet of paper. Because they have a large charge, alpha particles ionise other atoms strongly. Alpha-decay occurs in very heavy elements, for example, Uranium and Radium.
  • 6.
  • 7. Since alpha particles cannot penetrate the dead layer of the skin, they do not present a hazard from exposure external to thebody. However, due to the very large number of ionizations they produce in a very short distance, alpha emitters can present a serious hazard when they are in close proximity to cells and tissues such as the lung. Special precautions are taken to ensure that alpha emitters are not inhaled, i7ngested or injected.
  • 8. have a medium are stopped by penetrating a sheet of Beta particles power - they aluminium. Example of radiopharmaceutical emits phosphorus-32 Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles do.
  • 9.
  • 10. Beta particles are much less massive and less charged than alpha particles and interact less intensely with atoms in the materials they pass through, which gives them a longer range than alpha particles.
  • 11. Gamma rays are waves, not particles. This means that they have no mass and no charge. in Gamma decay: - atomic number unchanged - atomic mass unchanged. Gamma rays have a high penetrating power - it takes a thick sheet of metal such as lead to reduce them. Gamma rays do not directly ionise other atoms, although they may cause atoms to emit other particles which will then cause ionisation. We don't find pure gamma sources - gamma rays are emitted along side alpha or beta particles.
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  • 14. Useful gamma sources inculde Technetium-99m, which is used as a "tracer" in medicine. This is a combined beta and gamma source, and is chosen because betas are less harmful to the patient than alphas (less ionisation) and because Technetium has a short half- life (just over 6 hours), so it decays away quickly and reduces the dose to the patient.
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  • 16. Type of Radiation Alpha particle Beta particle Gamma ray Symbol or Charge +2 -1 0 Speed slow fast Very fast Ionising ability high medium 0 Penetrating power low medium high Stopped by: paper aluminium lead
  • 17. Ionization of Chamber-Ionization chamber filled with gases and fitted with two electrodes.When radiation passes over it,causes ionization of gas molecules and forms ions.that ions moves to cathode and anode and produce electricity.According electricity ampilcity determines radioactivity Proportional counters-in this application of potential electones causes bursting of gases and forms more electron.This electron moves to anode.Generates electric current.Showes radioactivity in terms of curie. Geiger-Muller counter-These are most popular Radiation detectors.They can detect alpha,beta,gamma radiation.Geiger Muller contains chamber filled with gas under low atmospheric pressure.Ionization of gas molecule by radiation forms electric current.electric current showes activity in terms of curie
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  • 20.  Precaution during handling and storage of radioactive substances 1. One should not touch radioactive emitter with hand but it should be handeled by means of foreceps 2. Smoking,eating and drinking activity should not be done in laboratory where the radioactive materials handeled 3. Sufficient protective clothing have to be used while handling the materials 4. Radiactive materials have to be stored in suitable labelled containers,shielded by lead bricks 5. Area where radioactive materials have to been stored or used should be monitored. 6. Disposal of radioactive materials should be carried out with great care
  • 21. 1. Radiation source in therapy-it produces destructive role because radiation has ability to cause radiation.they destruct cancerous cell by ionization.e.g Sodium phosphate is(32p) used in therapy of blood cancer 2. Diagnostic purposes-Labeled cyanocobalamine finds use for measuring glomerular filteration rate and sodium rose bengal used in liver function test 3. Research-In research isotopes are used as tracers 4. Sterilization-Radiation are use in sterilization of instrument in hospital and final packed container.Radiation cause ionization of bacteria,viruses,fungi,pathogenic bacteria.Hence it is used in sterilization.e.g Cesium used for sterlization of surgical instrument. 5. Determination of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
  • 22. 1. It should have high solubility 2. It should have high stability 3. It should not have any pharmacological effects 4. It should excrete rapidly with no toxic effects 5. It should stay in the body for sufficient x- ray visualisation 6. It should concentrate in selectively in the concerned organs 7. It should have adequate radio-opacity
  • 23. Ionization and excitation of molecules in the body cause abnormal chemical reaction. The effect of abnormal chemical reactions depends on number of factors such as 1. The energy of the radiation. 2. Dose rate of the radiation. 3. The particular tissue and surface area exposed. 4. The ability of the radiation to penetrate tissue. 5. Time of the exposure. Skin Damages: Erythema, Brittleness, Dryness, Burns. Somatic Effects: Anemia, Leukemia, Cancer, Cataract. Genetic Effects: Chromosomes damage and increase the chance of gene manipulation. Biological effects of radiations:
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