Human-wildlife conflict in Asia:                      implications for orangutan                             conservation ...
Asia’s forests• Forests: 17.8% of land  area• Natural:   –   Tropical rainforests   –   Moist forests   –   Peat forests  ...
Asia’s forests• 500-600 million of people living in or  near forest reserves in Asia (Lynch &  Talbot 1995)• Home to high ...
Human-wildlife conflict in Asia• Increasing conflict• Involves protected and non-protected species• In protected and non-p...
Some examples1/22/2012                   5
Tigers• Area occupied by Asian  tigers: declining 41%  between mid 1990s-mid  2000s• Increasing attacks:  – In Sundarban, ...
TigersDeclining tiger population:• In India: 40,000 a century ago;  3,642 in 2002; 1,411 in 2008• Sumatran tiger: approx. ...
Asian elephants• Human elephant conflict in north-east  India: > 1,150 humans and 370 elephants  died between 1980 and 200...
Orangutans•   Out of the populations extant in 1900:     – 7% of the Bornean orangutan (Pongo        pygmaeus)     – 14% o...
Human-orangutan conflict •   Attack to human <<< tigers and elephants. Two local people injured (Sebulu -     March 2000, ...
Interconnected driving factors of HWC  • Competition over space and resources: human population growth + land-    use conv...
Programs to mitigate and               prevent HWC, e.g.:             • Policies             • National strategy and actio...
But:• HWC keeps increasing, protected species’ population and their  habitat keep declining• All the good things stopped w...
The gaps:            • Business as usual! Business-as-usual processes -              > business-as-usual solutions        ...
The gaps (continued….)                                              • Decision-makers’ priority: short-term               ...
The questions of orangutan                  conservation            • High rate of conflict, killings and trade           ...
Recommendations            • Prioritise conservation goals,              revival of traditional norms, pride              ...
Thank you1/22/2012               18
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Human-wildlife conflict in Asia: implications for orangutan conservation

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CIFOR scientist Linda Yuliani gives an overview of human-wildlife conflict in Asia, focusing on orangutan conservation to explore reasons for the continuing conflict and ways to avoid it in conservation. She gave this presentation at the ‘Linking Great Ape Conservation with Poverty Alleviation’ workshop hosted by CIFOR in January 2012.

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Human-wildlife conflict in Asia: implications for orangutan conservation

  1. 1. Human-wildlife conflict in Asia: implications for orangutan conservation Elizabeth Linda YulianiTHINKINGbeyond the canopy
  2. 2. Asia’s forests• Forests: 17.8% of land area• Natural: – Tropical rainforests – Moist forests – Peat forests – Temperate/boreal forests• Planted
  3. 3. Asia’s forests• 500-600 million of people living in or near forest reserves in Asia (Lynch & Talbot 1995)• Home to high biodiversity including charismatic megafauna
  4. 4. Human-wildlife conflict in Asia• Increasing conflict• Involves protected and non-protected species• In protected and non-protected areas, in various ecosystems1/22/2012 4
  5. 5. Some examples1/22/2012 5
  6. 6. Tigers• Area occupied by Asian tigers: declining 41% between mid 1990s-mid 2000s• Increasing attacks: – In Sundarban, West Bengal, India: 30% increase over the past decade – In Sumatra, Indonesia: 57 people were killed between 1998-2011 Source: Wild Tiger Conservation. Save The Tiger Fund. Retrieved 2009-03-07.
  7. 7. TigersDeclining tiger population:• In India: 40,000 a century ago; 3,642 in 2002; 1,411 in 2008• Sumatran tiger: approx. 400 (early 1990s); 250 (1998-2007); at least 51 tigers per year were killed from 1998-2002 — 76% for trade, 15% in human-tiger conflict (Shepherd & Magnus 2004)• Bali tiger P. t. balica and Javan tiger P. t. sondaica became extinct in the past 50 years • Dave Salmoni in http://abcnews.go.com/International/tigers-elephants-attacking-humans-india/story?id=12932647#.TwvvooH9YsY • Linkie, M, Wibisono, HT, Martyr, DJ & Sunarto, S 2008, ‘Panthera tigris ssp. Sumatrae’,in IUCN 2011, ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species’, Version 2011.2, <www.iucnredlist.org>, downloaded on 10 January 2012. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/15966/0 • Ministry of Forestry 2007, National strategy and action plan on tiger conservation
  8. 8. Asian elephants• Human elephant conflict in north-east India: > 1,150 humans and 370 elephants died between 1980 and 2003 (Choudhury 2003)• Reports of people injured and killed caused by elephant attacks in Sumatra (scattered data)• Declining elephant population: – Asian: at least 50% over the last three Source of map: Dr. Raman Sukumar in Murdoch (2008) generations (60–75 years) http://www.elephanttag.org/General/range_asia.html – Sumatran: at least 80% – Entire elephant population in Riau and Lampung have disappeared; nine populations in Lampung have been lost since mid 1980s
  9. 9. Orangutans• Out of the populations extant in 1900: – 7% of the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) – 14% of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii) population survived the 20th century (Rijksen & Meijaard 1999)• Wich et al. 2008: – Sumatran orangutan in the wild: 6,624 – Bornean orangutan: • P. pygmaeus subsp. pygmaeus 3,000– 4,500 • P. pygmaeus subsp. wurmbii at least 34,975 Map: Caldecott, J & Miles, L (eds.) 2005, World Atlas of Great Apes and Their Conservation, UNEP and • P. pygmaeus subsp. morio 15,800 WCMC (4,800 in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and 11,000 in Sabah, Malaysia)
  10. 10. Human-orangutan conflict • Attack to human <<< tigers and elephants. Two local people injured (Sebulu - March 2000, Central Kalimantan - Jan 2010) + local tour guides attacked after being too close + unreported cases. • Meijaard et al. 2011: – Between 750 and 1,790 orangutans were killed in 2010 and between 1,970 and 3,100 in 2004 – High rate of conflict and killings: • area with high deforestation rates and rapid plantation development • especially in the part once an area of very high orangutan densities but very little natural forest habitat remains – Reported reasons for orangutan killings: • food (54%) • self-defence (14%) • don’t know (11%) • pest of crops (10%) • other reasons (combined 11%)1/22/2012 10
  11. 11. Interconnected driving factors of HWC • Competition over space and resources: human population growth + land- use conversion -> habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation • Large-scale development projects inside and around protected areas (e.g. monoculture plantations, road, mining, settlement) • Market opportunity and demand -> illegal trade • Stochastic events (e.g. fire) • Considered pests — one palm oil company paying Rp. 150,000 (around $17) for every orangutan ‘pest’ killed (Buckland 2005) • Often involve human-human conflict • Abundance and distribution of wild prey (for carnivores) and dietary plants (for herbivores and omnivores) • Increasing livestock populations • Increasing wildlife population as a result of conservation program • Climate change (Madden 2004; Moeliono et al. forthcoming; Rijksen & Meijaard 1999)1/22/2012 11
  12. 12. Programs to mitigate and prevent HWC, e.g.: • Policies • National strategy and action plans • Natural and artificial barriers • Guarding • Patrolling • Compensation/incentives/ economic activities • Wildlife translocation1/22/2012 12
  13. 13. But:• HWC keeps increasing, protected species’ population and their habitat keep declining• All the good things stopped when project ended WHY?? WHAT ARE THE GAPS? 1/22/2012 13
  14. 14. The gaps: • Business as usual! Business-as-usual processes - > business-as-usual solutions • Repeating the same mistakes, e.g.: – Social science, methods and approaches not sufficiently understood or involved in community development and related studies – Imbalanced views and reports of local people’s roles, perceptions, values, culture and tradition (e.g. threat or supporter) -> misleading solutions – Compensation/incentive schemes leading to inequity and human-human conflict – Global – local linkages: one-size fits all – Failure to involve key actors beyond conservation – Learning processes rarely apply learning1/22/2012 theories and tools 14
  15. 15. The gaps (continued….) • Decision-makers’ priority: short-term economic return, not conservation • Protected species outside protected areas: government conservation agency do not have authority over land-use policies • Local stakeholders’ lack of capacity to deal with conflict, or to prevent conflictAerial photo taken by Greenpeace and WALHI,February 2009 • Training for forest rangers and government conservation staff: mostly command-control leading to conflict, rather than building collaboration and communication -> pro-conservation turned into opposition 1/22/2012 15
  16. 16. The questions of orangutan conservation • High rate of conflict, killings and trade found in deforested areas and plantations: is poverty the key driver? • Understanding the characteristics and the key drivers of human-orangutan conflict -> what’s next?1/22/2012 16
  17. 17. Recommendations • Prioritise conservation goals, revival of traditional norms, pride of natural heritage, education and awareness-raising programs. • Conservation activities should NOT be driven by economic motivation. Economic benefits will follow as part of ecosystem functions delivered from conservation. • Business as usual??? Come on…. go out from your comfort zone, and be creative, be innovative!!!1/22/2012 17
  18. 18. Thank you1/22/2012 18

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