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Towards development in Bio-
diverse regions..




                              Effort by:
                              Omkar Parishwad & Priti Jumde – SPA Bhopal
• Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a
  given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. It is a measure of
  the health of ecosystems. It is in part a function of climate
  (Natural Heritage).
• Species, Ecosystem and Genetic Diversity.
Western Ghats:
• They form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage
  systems that drain almost 40% of India.
• The area is one of the world’s ten "Hottest biodiversity
  hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139
  mammal species, 508 bird species and 179 amphibian
  species, many undiscovered species lives in the Western
  Ghats.
• At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western
  Ghats.
• HADP: Balanced social &
  economical development; National
  development Council; 1965- Fifth
  five year plan.
• WGDP: High Level Committee for
  Western Ghats in 1972, launched in
  1974-75.
• Forest Survey of India – landuse




                                       Mrs. Naayani Barve
                                       Ecosystem Profile, May 2007 & a Conservationalist
                                       Source: CEPF - Western Ghats & Sri Lanka
• NDVI (Normalized differential
  vegetation index)
• Birdlife International for Western
  Ghats and that by NRSA for Eastern
  Ghats- Conservation priority.
Rainfall in WG:




                           Godavari,
Receives high              Krishna,
   rainfall                Kaveri




                Mandovi,
                Zuari

                                   Receives low
                                     rainfall
• Areas: Maharshtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil
  Nadu; Satpura Range, Sahyadhri, Servarayan
  range, Tirumala range, Nilagiri malai range.
• The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain
  between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is
  known as the Konkan Coast or simply Konkan, the
  central portion is called Kanara and the southern
  portion is called Malabar region or the Malabar
  Coast. The foothill region east of the Ghats in
  Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern
  foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as
  Malenadu. The largest city within the mountains is
  the city of Pune (Poona), in the Desh region on the
  eastern edge of the range.
• The area is ecologically sensitive to development
  and was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988
  through the efforts of ecologist Norman Myers.
•   The GOI established many protected areas
    including 2 biosphere reserves, 13 National parks
    to restrict human access, several wildlife
    sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species
    and many Reserve Forests, which are all managed
    by the forest departments of their respective state
    to preserve some of the ecoregions still
    undeveloped. Many National Parks were initially
    Wildlife Sanctuaries.
•   The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprising 5500 km²
    of the evergreen forests of Nagarahole, deciduous
    forests of Bandipur National Park and Nugu in
    Karnataka and adjoining regions of Wayanad and
    Mudumalai National Park in the states of Kerala
    and Tamil Nadu forms the largest contiguous
    protected area in the Western Ghats.
•   The Western Ghats in Kerala is home to numerous
    serene hill stations like Munnar, Ponmudi and
    Waynad. The Silent Valley National Park in Kerala
    is among the last tracts of virgin tropical evergreen
    forest in India.
• The Fifth Plan - Beneficiary oriented. Activities such as horticulture,
  plantation, afforestation, minor irrigation, animal husbandry and tourism.
• The Sixth Plan - balance in emphasis between beneficiary oriented and
  infrastructural development schemes, keeping in view the vital importance
  of ecological restoration and conservation.
• The Seventh Plan - Maintenance of ecological balance essential for the life
  support system. Preservation of the genetic diversity. Restoration of the
  ecological damage caused by human interactions. Creation of awareness
  among the people and educating them on the far-reaching implications of
  ecological degradation and securing their active participation for the eco-
  development schemes.
• The Eighth Plan - taking up integrated development programmes on
  compact watershed basis keeping in view the overriding priorities of eco-
  development and eco-restoration as well as the basic needs of the hill
  people like food, fodder, fuel and safe drinking water. Efforts would be
  made to adopt a sub-plan approach in the WGDP.
• Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
  Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
• Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF)
• International Union for Conservation of Nature( IUCN)
• Intensification of Forest Management (IFM)
• Western Ghats Development Program (WGDP)
• Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP)
• Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF)
• Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology & Environment
  (ATREE)
• Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA)
• Special Central Assistance (SCA)
Forest Cover:
• Forest cover between 1973 and 1995 in
  the southern part of the Western Ghats
  using satellite data. The study
  area(Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) of
  approximately 40,000 sq.km showed a loss
  of 25.6% in forest cover over 22 years.
• The dense forest was reduced by 19.5%         Before : 2009
  and open forest decreased by 33.2%. As a
  consequence, degraded forest increased
  by 26.64%.
• There has been a great deal of spatial
  variability in the pattern of forest loss and
  land use change throughout the region.
  Our estimates of deforestation in the region
  for the contemporary period are the highest
  reported so far.
                                                After: 2010
INDUSTRY:
• Gujarat’s industries are now an emerging threat to both the sensitive coastal and hill
  ecosystems in the state. It has been estimated that 1,782 km2 of forest area in Gujarat
  (12% of the current total forest area of the state) was lost between 1960 and 2000 as a
  result of irrigation projects, agriculture, mining, road building, industry and the
  legalization of encroachments.
• Maharashtra’s MIDCs, adjacent to the Ghats. These centers are growing as a
  consequence of easy access to cheap unskilled rural labor, water that comes from the
  forested Ghats sector, energy, for example, the Pirangut Industrial Estate.
• In Goa, the mining and tourism industries have severely impacted the integrity of its
  ecologically diverse landscape elements.
• Mangrove ecosystems in Maharashtra are under heavy pressure as a result of increase
  in human activity.
ROADS
• The need to link these two economic development zones (coastal zone and the Deccan
  Plateau)
• has led to more roads traversing the Ghats section to move goods and business
  services.
• An example is the road that connects Pune from the Deccan Plateau to Mahad on the
• coast via the Western Ghats in Mulshi Taluka of Pune district, effectively fragmenting
  the forests of the Western Ghats in this region.
AGRICULTURE
• Traditional hill slope agriculture in forested areas from the Dangs southward into
  Maharashtra
• has long been considered an ecological problem.
• Recently irrigated sugarcane based agriculture has replaced traditional agriculture.
• Eco Sensitive Zone that has been converted to intensive agriculture.
• Factors such as effects of monocropping patterns and the use of fertilizers,
  herbicides
• and pesticides can have serious implications on the biodiversity of the adjacent PAs.
  This includes disruption of food chains where insects form major link species as
  well as deranging their function of pollinating both forest plants and crops.
TOURISM
• The tourist facilities on the boundaries of the PA have equally serious impacts
  which create high levels of water pollution, large amounts of non-degradable waste,
  noise, etc.
NEW TOWNSHIP
• Conversation of agriculture land
• No scientific development
• Neo-townships in the Western Ghats have the most deleterious consequences for the
  integrity of the eco-sensitive slopes of the Western Ghats.
Objective: Demarcate areas of the Western Ghats to be notified as Ecologically Sensitive.
This will require identifying of landscape elements with clearly defined norms of land use
management. Thus the proposed ESAs would have to be categorized into different types, as
their sensitivity levels and patterns vary across the Ghats. Two basic issues need to be
considered:
I. Existing ESAs: There are already notified ESAs supported by the MOEF and the
     judiciary.
1. Protected Areas
2. ESAs around Protected Areas
3. Hill-station ESAs

II. Proposed ESAs: There are equally and even more biologically valuable potential ESAs
that must be categorised into different types for area specific management.
1. Areas Proposed but not Notified as ESAs
2. Reserve Forests and Closed Canopy Forests
3. Water Bodies
4. Sacred Groves
5. Specialized Ecosystems
6. Species Based ESAs
The Protected Areas have already been prioritized
based on their legal status into National Parks,
Wildlife Sanctuaries and recently newly suggested
as Community Reserves.

There are two other useful data sources that are
used to plan effective ESAs:

•Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network
•Management of National Parks and Sanctuaries

ESAs around Protected Areas:
Currently the Ministry of Environment and Forest
(MOEF) has mandated that a 10 km buffer zone
around the Protected Areas should be notified as
an ecologically sensitive area. However, this
ruling has been repeatedly violated around the
PAs of the Northern sector of the Western Ghats.
There are 18 PAs within and at the periphery of
the northern part of the Ghats. The level of
protection has been varied and fluctuating due to
unclear management and differences in the prior
ownership of the land.
Examples:
tribal retaliations that occurred in and around Purna Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat a few
years ago. This led to the uncontrolled felling of a large number of trees in the Protected
Area, development of roads, industrial and urban development, tourist activity. This has
broken the continuity of forests.

Hill-station ESAs:
Among the hill stations of the Western Ghats, only Panchgani, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran in
the Sahyadris have been classified as Ecologically Sensitive Areas. This leaves out areas such
as the new townships, old forts such as Panhala, Sinhagad etc. that area growing into urban
centers with serious environmental problems due to garbage dumping, water pollution, etc. as
their tourist carrying capacity has been exceeded.

Mahableshwar-Panchgani Ecologically Sensitive Area: 237.28 sq km
The Department of Environment, Maharashtra Government carried out a study on the
environmental status of the Mahabaleshwar plateau in 1982 and stated if not checked now, the
entire plateau may be destroyed within a decade and rendered unfit for human habitation’.

(MoEF) had gazette a preliminary notification inviting public objections and suggestions for
the declaration of Pachmarhi as an Ecologically Sensitive Area. This was the first hill station to
be considered for declaration as ‘ecologically fragile’.
•Thus the Mahabaleshwar-Panchgani ESA Notification follows the same pattern as used
by the Pachmarhi draft ESA Notification. For the first time provisions were made for
heritage conservation, regulation of groundwater extraction and regulation of traffic.
These provisions were added keeping in mind the ecology of the hill station as an ESA.


•Sahyadri Ecologically Sensitive Areas (SESA) 4200 sq km. in Karnataka in
Maharashtra was suggested as an ESA in the Northern Western Ghats. This was
first proposed by the National Committee for the Protection of Natural Resources
on June 21, 1999.


•Matheran was constituted as an ESA in 2003. The Eco-Sensitive Area covers an
area of 214.73 sq km and a 200 m buffer zone and consists of the area of the
Matheran Municipal Council and its environs.

The ESAs in the northern sector of the Ghats is one strategy that could bring
about longterm sustainable land management in the Ghats.
Acts:                            Suggestions
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION         The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 can
ACT, 1986
                                 be suitably modified for Ecologically Sensitive Areas
WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT,         ‘Ecologically Sensitive Area’
AMENDED 1993
                                 be issued to provide a legal framework for Ecologically
                                 Sensitive Areas under the Western Ghats Authority
                                 whereby ESAs can be legally declared.

THE INDIAN FOREST ACT, 1927 ON   The limits of ESAs can
RESERVED
FORESTS                          be decided using Geoinformatics to study vegetation,
                                 slope, hydrology etc.

FOREST CONSERVATION ACT, 1980    This section of the Forest Conservation Act must
WITH 1988 AMENDMENTS
                                 be suitably modified and used for protecting ESAs
                                 from further degradation. It should not be possible
                                 for State Governments to remove the Ecologically
                                 Sensitive Area status once it has been created on
                                 good scientific grounds.

MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND         Areas
TOWN PLANNING ACT 1966
                                 that contain high biological values and are ecologically
                                 fragile are NOT suitable for township development.
                                 Thus most of the western ghats are not
                                 suitable for developing such townships.
Location and Relief:
                                                               Latitude & Altitiude
                                                               Distance from Sea
                         FOREST
                                                               Distribution of land and water
                                          FLOOD
                          FIRE
        SPREAD OF
         TROPICAL
         DISEASES
                                                   MELTING
                                                    OF ICE             SEA           SINKING
                                                                      LEVEL           COAST
                                                                       RISE
INCREASE IN
                              RISE
   GREEN                                               TSUNAMI &
                               IN
   HOUSE                                              EARTHQUAKE
                          TEMPERATURE
   GASES


                                                  EXCESSIVE
                                                     SUN
                                                   STROKE
                FOOD                                               Air pressure and wind:
              SCARCITY              LOSS OF
                                  BIODIVERSIT
                                                                   Surface pressure and wind
                                       Y                           Upper air circulation
                                                                   Western Cyclones
A) Ernakulam
B) Idduki
C) Nilgiri
• The objective of scheme is to conserve the forest area of the Western
  Ghats except Nilgiris district. It is being implemented in Coimbatore,
  Erode, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruppur and
  Virudhunagar districts.
• Fire prevention works, soil and moisture conservation works, anti-
  poaching measures and solar fencing are some of the major activities
  carried out under this scheme.
• During 2010-2011, an amount of Rs. 2.70 crore has been spent under
  this scheme. In Dindigul, Madurai and Theni districts, the scheme has
  been implemented at a cost of Rs.1.82 crore through the Tamil Nadu
  Watershed Development Agency fund. It is proposed to implement this
  scheme during 2011-2012 with an outlay of Rs.3.10 crore.
The erstwhile Integrated Forest Protection Scheme aimed at
protecting the forest resource by strengthening protection measures
to control forest fires, survey and demarcation of forest boundaries
to prevent encroachment by construction of cairns, carrying out fire
prevention works, improvement of roads for better protection,
provision of better communication facilities, preparation of working
plans for scientific management of forest divisions etc.
With a view to make the Integrated Forest Protection Scheme more
broad based, Government of India revised and renamed this scheme
as "Intensification of Forest Management". In addition to the above
components, four new components have been added in the existing
scheme, which are as follows:
• Protection and Conservation of Sacred Groves.
• Conservation and Restoration of Unique Vegetation and
  Ecosystems.
• Control and Eradication of Forest Invasive species.
• Preparedness for Meeting Challenges of Bamboo Flowering and
  Improving management of Bamboo forests.
• Under the Grants-in-aid recommended by the 12th Finance Commission
  Rs.27.35 crore was spent for maintenance of forests from 2005-2006 to
  2009-2010.
• The 13th Finance Commission has recommended an amount of
  Rs.142.48 crore for Tamil Nadu towards grants-in-aid for Forests for the
  period 2010-2011 to 2014-2015 for development of forests and
  preservation of forest wealth.
• During 2010-2011 the scheme was implemented at an outlay of Rs.6.88
  crore. During 2011-2012, the scheme is proposed to be implemented at
  an outlay of Rs. 28.74 crore.
Western ghats region

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Western ghats region

  • 1. Towards development in Bio- diverse regions.. Effort by: Omkar Parishwad & Priti Jumde – SPA Bhopal
  • 2. • Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. It is a measure of the health of ecosystems. It is in part a function of climate (Natural Heritage). • Species, Ecosystem and Genetic Diversity. Western Ghats: • They form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. • The area is one of the world’s ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species and 179 amphibian species, many undiscovered species lives in the Western Ghats. • At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
  • 3. • HADP: Balanced social & economical development; National development Council; 1965- Fifth five year plan. • WGDP: High Level Committee for Western Ghats in 1972, launched in 1974-75. • Forest Survey of India – landuse Mrs. Naayani Barve Ecosystem Profile, May 2007 & a Conservationalist Source: CEPF - Western Ghats & Sri Lanka • NDVI (Normalized differential vegetation index) • Birdlife International for Western Ghats and that by NRSA for Eastern Ghats- Conservation priority.
  • 4. Rainfall in WG: Godavari, Receives high Krishna, rainfall Kaveri Mandovi, Zuari Receives low rainfall
  • 5. • Areas: Maharshtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; Satpura Range, Sahyadhri, Servarayan range, Tirumala range, Nilagiri malai range. • The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan Coast or simply Konkan, the central portion is called Kanara and the southern portion is called Malabar region or the Malabar Coast. The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu. The largest city within the mountains is the city of Pune (Poona), in the Desh region on the eastern edge of the range. • The area is ecologically sensitive to development and was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988 through the efforts of ecologist Norman Myers.
  • 6. The GOI established many protected areas including 2 biosphere reserves, 13 National parks to restrict human access, several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species and many Reserve Forests, which are all managed by the forest departments of their respective state to preserve some of the ecoregions still undeveloped. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. • The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprising 5500 km² of the evergreen forests of Nagarahole, deciduous forests of Bandipur National Park and Nugu in Karnataka and adjoining regions of Wayanad and Mudumalai National Park in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu forms the largest contiguous protected area in the Western Ghats. • The Western Ghats in Kerala is home to numerous serene hill stations like Munnar, Ponmudi and Waynad. The Silent Valley National Park in Kerala is among the last tracts of virgin tropical evergreen forest in India.
  • 7. • The Fifth Plan - Beneficiary oriented. Activities such as horticulture, plantation, afforestation, minor irrigation, animal husbandry and tourism. • The Sixth Plan - balance in emphasis between beneficiary oriented and infrastructural development schemes, keeping in view the vital importance of ecological restoration and conservation. • The Seventh Plan - Maintenance of ecological balance essential for the life support system. Preservation of the genetic diversity. Restoration of the ecological damage caused by human interactions. Creation of awareness among the people and educating them on the far-reaching implications of ecological degradation and securing their active participation for the eco- development schemes. • The Eighth Plan - taking up integrated development programmes on compact watershed basis keeping in view the overriding priorities of eco- development and eco-restoration as well as the basic needs of the hill people like food, fodder, fuel and safe drinking water. Efforts would be made to adopt a sub-plan approach in the WGDP.
  • 8. • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF) • International Union for Conservation of Nature( IUCN) • Intensification of Forest Management (IFM) • Western Ghats Development Program (WGDP) • Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) • Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology & Environment (ATREE) • Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) • Special Central Assistance (SCA)
  • 9. Forest Cover: • Forest cover between 1973 and 1995 in the southern part of the Western Ghats using satellite data. The study area(Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) of approximately 40,000 sq.km showed a loss of 25.6% in forest cover over 22 years. • The dense forest was reduced by 19.5% Before : 2009 and open forest decreased by 33.2%. As a consequence, degraded forest increased by 26.64%. • There has been a great deal of spatial variability in the pattern of forest loss and land use change throughout the region. Our estimates of deforestation in the region for the contemporary period are the highest reported so far. After: 2010
  • 10.
  • 11. INDUSTRY: • Gujarat’s industries are now an emerging threat to both the sensitive coastal and hill ecosystems in the state. It has been estimated that 1,782 km2 of forest area in Gujarat (12% of the current total forest area of the state) was lost between 1960 and 2000 as a result of irrigation projects, agriculture, mining, road building, industry and the legalization of encroachments. • Maharashtra’s MIDCs, adjacent to the Ghats. These centers are growing as a consequence of easy access to cheap unskilled rural labor, water that comes from the forested Ghats sector, energy, for example, the Pirangut Industrial Estate. • In Goa, the mining and tourism industries have severely impacted the integrity of its ecologically diverse landscape elements. • Mangrove ecosystems in Maharashtra are under heavy pressure as a result of increase in human activity. ROADS • The need to link these two economic development zones (coastal zone and the Deccan Plateau) • has led to more roads traversing the Ghats section to move goods and business services. • An example is the road that connects Pune from the Deccan Plateau to Mahad on the • coast via the Western Ghats in Mulshi Taluka of Pune district, effectively fragmenting the forests of the Western Ghats in this region.
  • 12. AGRICULTURE • Traditional hill slope agriculture in forested areas from the Dangs southward into Maharashtra • has long been considered an ecological problem. • Recently irrigated sugarcane based agriculture has replaced traditional agriculture. • Eco Sensitive Zone that has been converted to intensive agriculture. • Factors such as effects of monocropping patterns and the use of fertilizers, herbicides • and pesticides can have serious implications on the biodiversity of the adjacent PAs. This includes disruption of food chains where insects form major link species as well as deranging their function of pollinating both forest plants and crops. TOURISM • The tourist facilities on the boundaries of the PA have equally serious impacts which create high levels of water pollution, large amounts of non-degradable waste, noise, etc. NEW TOWNSHIP • Conversation of agriculture land • No scientific development • Neo-townships in the Western Ghats have the most deleterious consequences for the integrity of the eco-sensitive slopes of the Western Ghats.
  • 13. Objective: Demarcate areas of the Western Ghats to be notified as Ecologically Sensitive. This will require identifying of landscape elements with clearly defined norms of land use management. Thus the proposed ESAs would have to be categorized into different types, as their sensitivity levels and patterns vary across the Ghats. Two basic issues need to be considered: I. Existing ESAs: There are already notified ESAs supported by the MOEF and the judiciary. 1. Protected Areas 2. ESAs around Protected Areas 3. Hill-station ESAs II. Proposed ESAs: There are equally and even more biologically valuable potential ESAs that must be categorised into different types for area specific management. 1. Areas Proposed but not Notified as ESAs 2. Reserve Forests and Closed Canopy Forests 3. Water Bodies 4. Sacred Groves 5. Specialized Ecosystems 6. Species Based ESAs
  • 14.
  • 15. The Protected Areas have already been prioritized based on their legal status into National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and recently newly suggested as Community Reserves. There are two other useful data sources that are used to plan effective ESAs: •Planning a Wildlife Protected Area Network •Management of National Parks and Sanctuaries ESAs around Protected Areas: Currently the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF) has mandated that a 10 km buffer zone around the Protected Areas should be notified as an ecologically sensitive area. However, this ruling has been repeatedly violated around the PAs of the Northern sector of the Western Ghats. There are 18 PAs within and at the periphery of the northern part of the Ghats. The level of protection has been varied and fluctuating due to unclear management and differences in the prior ownership of the land.
  • 16. Examples: tribal retaliations that occurred in and around Purna Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat a few years ago. This led to the uncontrolled felling of a large number of trees in the Protected Area, development of roads, industrial and urban development, tourist activity. This has broken the continuity of forests. Hill-station ESAs: Among the hill stations of the Western Ghats, only Panchgani, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran in the Sahyadris have been classified as Ecologically Sensitive Areas. This leaves out areas such as the new townships, old forts such as Panhala, Sinhagad etc. that area growing into urban centers with serious environmental problems due to garbage dumping, water pollution, etc. as their tourist carrying capacity has been exceeded. Mahableshwar-Panchgani Ecologically Sensitive Area: 237.28 sq km The Department of Environment, Maharashtra Government carried out a study on the environmental status of the Mahabaleshwar plateau in 1982 and stated if not checked now, the entire plateau may be destroyed within a decade and rendered unfit for human habitation’. (MoEF) had gazette a preliminary notification inviting public objections and suggestions for the declaration of Pachmarhi as an Ecologically Sensitive Area. This was the first hill station to be considered for declaration as ‘ecologically fragile’.
  • 17. •Thus the Mahabaleshwar-Panchgani ESA Notification follows the same pattern as used by the Pachmarhi draft ESA Notification. For the first time provisions were made for heritage conservation, regulation of groundwater extraction and regulation of traffic. These provisions were added keeping in mind the ecology of the hill station as an ESA. •Sahyadri Ecologically Sensitive Areas (SESA) 4200 sq km. in Karnataka in Maharashtra was suggested as an ESA in the Northern Western Ghats. This was first proposed by the National Committee for the Protection of Natural Resources on June 21, 1999. •Matheran was constituted as an ESA in 2003. The Eco-Sensitive Area covers an area of 214.73 sq km and a 200 m buffer zone and consists of the area of the Matheran Municipal Council and its environs. The ESAs in the northern sector of the Ghats is one strategy that could bring about longterm sustainable land management in the Ghats.
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  • 21. Acts: Suggestions ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 can ACT, 1986 be suitably modified for Ecologically Sensitive Areas WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT, ‘Ecologically Sensitive Area’ AMENDED 1993 be issued to provide a legal framework for Ecologically Sensitive Areas under the Western Ghats Authority whereby ESAs can be legally declared. THE INDIAN FOREST ACT, 1927 ON The limits of ESAs can RESERVED FORESTS be decided using Geoinformatics to study vegetation, slope, hydrology etc. FOREST CONSERVATION ACT, 1980 This section of the Forest Conservation Act must WITH 1988 AMENDMENTS be suitably modified and used for protecting ESAs from further degradation. It should not be possible for State Governments to remove the Ecologically Sensitive Area status once it has been created on good scientific grounds. MAHARASHTRA REGIONAL AND Areas TOWN PLANNING ACT 1966 that contain high biological values and are ecologically fragile are NOT suitable for township development. Thus most of the western ghats are not suitable for developing such townships.
  • 22. Location and Relief: Latitude & Altitiude Distance from Sea FOREST Distribution of land and water FLOOD FIRE SPREAD OF TROPICAL DISEASES MELTING OF ICE SEA SINKING LEVEL COAST RISE INCREASE IN RISE GREEN TSUNAMI & IN HOUSE EARTHQUAKE TEMPERATURE GASES EXCESSIVE SUN STROKE FOOD Air pressure and wind: SCARCITY LOSS OF BIODIVERSIT Surface pressure and wind Y Upper air circulation Western Cyclones
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  • 27. • The objective of scheme is to conserve the forest area of the Western Ghats except Nilgiris district. It is being implemented in Coimbatore, Erode, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Theni, Tirunelveli, Tiruppur and Virudhunagar districts. • Fire prevention works, soil and moisture conservation works, anti- poaching measures and solar fencing are some of the major activities carried out under this scheme. • During 2010-2011, an amount of Rs. 2.70 crore has been spent under this scheme. In Dindigul, Madurai and Theni districts, the scheme has been implemented at a cost of Rs.1.82 crore through the Tamil Nadu Watershed Development Agency fund. It is proposed to implement this scheme during 2011-2012 with an outlay of Rs.3.10 crore.
  • 28. The erstwhile Integrated Forest Protection Scheme aimed at protecting the forest resource by strengthening protection measures to control forest fires, survey and demarcation of forest boundaries to prevent encroachment by construction of cairns, carrying out fire prevention works, improvement of roads for better protection, provision of better communication facilities, preparation of working plans for scientific management of forest divisions etc. With a view to make the Integrated Forest Protection Scheme more broad based, Government of India revised and renamed this scheme as "Intensification of Forest Management". In addition to the above components, four new components have been added in the existing scheme, which are as follows: • Protection and Conservation of Sacred Groves. • Conservation and Restoration of Unique Vegetation and Ecosystems. • Control and Eradication of Forest Invasive species. • Preparedness for Meeting Challenges of Bamboo Flowering and Improving management of Bamboo forests.
  • 29. • Under the Grants-in-aid recommended by the 12th Finance Commission Rs.27.35 crore was spent for maintenance of forests from 2005-2006 to 2009-2010. • The 13th Finance Commission has recommended an amount of Rs.142.48 crore for Tamil Nadu towards grants-in-aid for Forests for the period 2010-2011 to 2014-2015 for development of forests and preservation of forest wealth. • During 2010-2011 the scheme was implemented at an outlay of Rs.6.88 crore. During 2011-2012, the scheme is proposed to be implemented at an outlay of Rs. 28.74 crore.